5 Approaches to Differentiation Informal reading inventoriesTraditional basal instructionGroups move at same paceGroups are all but permanentDifferentiation is in all areasParallel skill “strands” usedBy instructional level By fluency level By assessed needsConventional basal approach, scope and sequence, mud ducksGuided reading, not so concerned with comprehensionOur take, we assume whole-class & small-group mixSmall-group is determined by dataGroupings should be flexible and temp.
6 Approaches to Differentiation Differentiation by leveled booksDecoding skills not a targetFountas & PinnellBy instructional level By fluency level By assessed needsConventional basal approach, scope and sequence, mud ducksGuided reading, not so concerned with comprehensionOur take, we assume whole-class & small-group mixSmall-group is determined by dataGroupings should be flexible and temp.
7 Approaches to Differentiation Assess for differentiationScreening + diagnosticGroups are temporaryGroups are flexibleTarget areas of greatest needGoal is “upward mobility”By instructional level By fluency level By assessed needsConventional basal approach, scope and sequence, mud ducksGuided reading, not so concerned with comprehensionOur take, we assume whole-class & small-group mixSmall-group is determined by dataGroupings should be flexible and temp.
8 Differentiation is“instruction that helps [children] accomplish challenging tasks that are just out of their reach”“instruction that targets a particular group of children’s needs directly and temporarily”“instruction that applies a developmental model”Walpole, S., & McKenna, M. C. (2007). Differentiated reading instruction: Strategies for the primary grades. New York: Guilford Press.Achievement pressTemporarily!Developmental we mean predictable stages -- we know where they are headedRevisit slide
10 Determining Group Membership Overall leveled placement assessment, such the DRAThis process ignores the specific skill deficits in the areas of phonological awareness and word recognitionScreening and diagnostic assessments in phonological awareness, phonics, sight words, and/or oral reading fluency.
11 Diagnostic Assessment Running records are used to analyze oral reading errors (miscues), a practice that has been called into question in light of current views of the reading process.The cognitive model of reading assessment is used to systematically determine skill needs on the basis of developmental stage theories of reading acquisition.
12 Stage models of reading When children are acquiring literacy – developing the skills necessary for reading comprehension – they tend to move through stages in which their focus is very different. All along, during each stage, they are developing oral language skills.Oral LanguageFluencyAlphabetic PrinciplePhonemic Awareness
13 Three Cuing SystemsDecodingSyntacticContextSemanticContext
14 We want to move children to the point where they decode first and then use context to select the intended meaning of a word.We do not want to encourage them to predict the word from context and only “sample” its letters to the extent needed to confirm this prediction.
15 Three Cuing SystemsDecodingSyntacticContextSemanticContext
16 Instructional Focus Fluency is always the primary focus. In guided reading, the teacher coordinates reading components (comprehension, word recognition, fluency)Fluency is the focusonly for grade 1 and aboveonly if decoding skills are strong.In differentiated instruction, the teacher isolates reading components to address deficits
17 FluencyInstructionFluency techniques do not proceed from most to least supportive.Fluency techniques progress from most to least supportive:Echo readingChoral readingPartner readingWhisper reading
18 Text TypesPredictable books are preferred for beginning readers in order to promote fluency. Such books provide little basis for decoding instruction.Decodable books are preferred for beginning readers in order to promote decoding in context. Such books provide little basis for comprehension instruction–so there is none.
19 Comprehension Instruction Comprehension instruction is based on texts at fluency level.This means that the easiest texts provide very little basis for asking reasonable questions or modeling strategies, but this practice is still encouraged.In the primary grades, comprehension instruction is based on small-group read-alouds for children who are at benchmark in word recognition.Comprehension instruction is linked with fluency or vocabulary but not with word recognition instruction.
20 Word Recognition Instruction Word recognition needs are not systematically addressed during guided reading.Rather, they are addressed on an as-needed basis.Word recognition needs are identified through the cognitive model of assessment and are addressed on this basis.
21 MeasuringProgressRunning records are used to determine readiness for the next text level.Three-week post-assessment focuses on areas targeted by instruction.The assessment question is whether a child should move to a more advanced focus, remain at current focus, or move to a more basic focus.
23 Our focus, then, is different from the focus of Guided Reading Consider whether this difference is justified for your school, given your current resources and your current level of student achievement
24 Whole-Group Instruction A Basic TemplateWhole-Group InstructionLowest GroupCenter or InterventionCenterMiddle GroupHighest Group1st row push in if you have personnel then 1st row = lowif not, 1st row should be middleCan’t have low with 2 stations in a rowIn VA, time may be different due to not necessarily contiguous
25 The concept of three tiers of instruction The 3-tier model (University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency, 2005) is a general framework — and just a framework — for explaining how any research-based program can be executed in a school.( aterials/3tier_letter.asp)
26 Tier I: Core Classroom Reading Instruction 1. A core reading program grounded in scientifically based reading research 2. Benchmark testing of all kindergarten through third-grade students to determine instructional needs at least three times per year (fall, winter, and spring) 3. Ongoing professional development to provide teachers with the necessary tools to ensure every student receives quality reading instruction
27 Tier II: Supplemental Instruction For some students, core classroom reading instruction is not enough. Tier II is designed to meet the needs of these students by providing them with additional small-group reading instruction daily.
28 Tier III: Instruction for Intensive Intervention A small percentage of students require more support in acquiring vital reading skills than Tier II instruction can provide. For these students, Tier III provides instruction that is more explicit, more intensive, and specifically designed to meet their individual needs.
29 Setting the stage for differentiation requires careful analysis of the curriculum.
30 Decide what to teach when. We are more likely to achieve improvements in vocabulary and comprehension for K and 1st grade during whole-group read alouds, both from the core selection and from children’s literature. We can introduce and practice phonemic awareness and phonics concepts during whole group, but we’re more likely to achieve mastery during small-group time.
31 Decide what to teach when. We are more likely to achieve improvements in fluency and comprehension in 2nd and 3rd grade if we introduce them in whole-group and practice in small- group time. We can introduce word recognition concepts during whole-group time, but we will likely achieve mastery only during small-group time.
32 Make more time for small groups. Literacy coaches and grade-level teams must determine exactly how to use the core programSort core instructional components from extension and enrichment activitiesModerate and control instructional pacing so that early introductions and reviews are fast
33 Make a very simple centers rotation Look for materials already in the core.Consider daily paired readings and readings.Consider a daily activity linked directly to your read aloud. Your children can write in response to that text every day.Consider a daily activity linked directly to your small group instruction. Your children can practice the things you’ve introduced.
34 Now you have set the stage for differentiated reading instruction It’s time to plan.Gather your resourcesConsider your children’s needsTry it out.
35 Gather your instructional resources Review the state standards and the scope and sequence in your instructional materialsReview the state assessments, the district assessments, and any assessments that come with your core; fill in gaps with informal assessments
36 Consider your children’s needs Given your screening data, you will know that some portion of children are likely at benchmark, some are just below grade level, and some are well below grade levelFor children at benchmark, you can decide to focus small-group time on fluency and comprehension or on vocabulary and comprehensionOnly the below-grade-level children need additional assessments
37 Consider your children’s needs Using the Cognitive Model of Reading Instruction (McKenna and Stahl, 2003) choose your focus for each group:Phonemic awareness and phonicsPhonics and fluencyFluency and comprehensionVocabulary and comprehension
38 A Stairway to Proficiency Vocabulary & ComprehensionFluency and ComprehensionWord Recognition and FluencyPA and Word Recognition
39 These Assignments are Temporary! ChallengingInstruction, not practiceExplicitEvery item modeled;Clear instructional talkEngagedEvery pupil response strategiesSystematicRepetitive instructional strategies each day;New content each day;Cumulative review each day
40 Phonemic awareness and phonics These children still need to work on learning letter names and sounds, and they are not yet able to segment phonemes automaticallyThey will work on coordinated activities to manipulate phonemes, learn new letters and sounds and review letters previously taughtThey will work with letters and words during small-group time
41 Every Day for 3 Weeks Phonemic Awareness and Word Rec Group Alphabet Review3 MinutesInitial Sound Sorting2 New Letter Sounds; Review Old Letter Sounds2 New HF Words;Review Old High Frequency WordsConcept of WordPhonemic Awareness andWord Rec Group
42 Every Day for 3 Weeks Phonemic Awareness and Word Rec Group 2 Oral Segmenting and Blending3 MinutesShort Vowel Patterns6 Minutes4 New HF Words;Review Old High Frequency WordsPhonemic Awareness andWord Rec Group 2
43 Phonics and fluencyThese children still need to work on decoding, but they can segment and blend phonemes to read some wordsThey will work on coordinated activities to learn new letters patterns and review patterns previously taughtThey will work with words and with phonic-focused texts during small- group time
44 Every Day for 3 Weeks Word Recognition and Fluency Group 1 Decodable text Whisper Reading3 MinutesSounding and Blending4 MinutesNew HF Words;Review Old High Frequency WordsWord Recognition and Fluency Group 1
45 Every Day for 3 Weeks Word Recognition and Fluency Group 2 Teaching Letter Patterns6 MinutesNew HF Words;Review Old High Frequency Words3 MinutesDecodable text Whisper ReadingWord Recognition and Fluency Group 2
46 Fluency and comprehension These children have relatively few decoding problems, but they lack automaticityThey will work in a guided reading format; they may review particularly challenging words (for their pronunciation or their meaning) but they will use most of their time reading and rereading challenging leveled texts and discussing text meaning
47 Every Day for 3 Weeks Comprehension Group Fluency and Preteach Difficult Words2 MinutesChoral or Echo Read New Text Portion5 MinutesPartner or Whisper Read Same Text PortionSummary or Inference Questions3 MinutesComprehension GroupFluency and
55 Vocabulary and comprehension These children are at grade level in the areas of decoding and fluencyThey will extend what they know into new texts and new text types; they will write in response to reading
56 Every Day Vocabulary and Comprehension Group Preteach Vocabulary 3 MinutesReview Comprehension Strategy1 MinuteTeacher Read-Aloud or Children Whisper Read7 MinutesComprehension Discussion4 MinutesVocabulary and Comprehension Group
57 In this example, you will role-play K or first-grade students, and I will use a read-aloud format.