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CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 1 AI Applications Computer Science cpsc322, Lecture 3 January, 8, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 1 AI Applications Computer Science cpsc322, Lecture 3 January, 8, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 1 AI Applications Computer Science cpsc322, Lecture 3 January, 8, 2010

2 Department of Computer Science Undergraduate Events (next week) Drop-In Resume Edition Session Date: Mon. Jan 11 Time: 11 am – 2 pm Location: Rm 255, ICICS/CS Bldg Industry Panel Speakers: Managers from Google, IBM, Microsoft, TELUS, etc. Date: Tues. Jan 12 Time: Panel: 5:15 – 6:15 pm; Networking: 6:15 – 7:15 pm Location: Panel: DMP 110; Networking: X-wing Undergrad Lounge Tech Career Fair Date: Wed. Jan 13 Time: 10 am – 4 pm Location: SUB Ballroom

3 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 3 If your studentID is below we need to talk at the end of lecture

4 CPSC 322, Lecture 2Slide 4 Lecture Overview Office Hours AI applications…

5 CPSC 322, Lecture 2Slide 5 Modules we'll cover in this course: R&Rsys Environment Problem Query Planning Deterministic Stochastic Search Arc Consistency Search Value Iteration Var. Elimination Constraint Satisfaction Logics STRIPS Belief Nets Vars + Constraints Decision Nets Markov Processes Var. Elimination Static Sequential Representation Reasoning Technique

6 CPSC 322, Lecture 2Slide 6 Modules we'll cover in this course: R&Rsys Environment Problem Query Planning Deterministic Stochastic Search Arc Consistency Search Value Iteration Var. Elimination Constraint Satisfaction Logics STRIPS Belief Nets Vars + Constraints Decision Nets Markov Processes Var. Elimination Static Sequential

7 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 7 (Adversarial) Search: Checkers Game playing was one of the first tasks undertaken in AI Arthur Samuel at IBM wrote programs to play checkers (1950s) initially, they played at a strong amateur level however, they used some (simple) machine learning techniques, and soon outperformed Samuel Source: IBM Research Chinook’s program was declared the Man- Machine World Champion in checkers in 1994! …and completely solved by a program in 2007!

8 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 8 (Adversarial) Search: Chess In 1996 and 1997, Gary Kasparov, the world chess grandmaster played two tournaments against Deep Blue, a program written by researchers at IBM Source: IBM Research

9 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 9 (Adversarial) Search: Chess Deep Blue’s Results in the first tournament: won 1 game, lost 3 and tied 1 first time a reigning world champion lost to a computer Source: CNN

10 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 10 (Adversarial) Search: Chess Deep Blue’s Results in the second tournament: second tournament: won 3 games, lost 2, tied 1 30 CPUs chess processors Searched nodes per sec Generated 30 billion positions per move reaching depth 14 routinely

11 CPSC 322, Lecture 2Slide 11 Modules we'll cover in this course: R&Rsys Environment Problem Query Planning Deterministic Stochastic Search Arc Consistency Search Value Iteration Var. Elimination Constraint Satisfaction Logics STRIPS Belief Nets Vars + Constraints Decision Nets Markov Processes Var. Elimination Static Sequential

12 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 12 CSPs: Crossword Puzzles Source: Michael Littman

13 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 13 CSPs: Radio link frequency assignment Source: INRIA Assigning frequencies to a set of radio links defined between pairs of sites in order to avoid interferences. Constraints on frequency depend on position of the links and on physical environment. Sample Constraint network

14 CPSC 322, Lecture 2Slide 14 Modules we'll cover in this course: R&Rsys Environment Problem Query Planning Deterministic Stochastic Search Arc Consistency Search Value Iteration Var. Elimination Constraint Satisfaction Logics STRIPS Belief Nets Vars + Constraints Decision Nets Markov Processes Var. Elimination Static Sequential

15 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 15 Logic: Ontologies Source: Cycorp

16 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 16 Logic: CycSecure “scans a computer network to build a formal representation of the network, based on Cyc’s pre-existing ontology of networking, security, and computing concepts: This formal representation also allows users to interact directly with the model of the network, allowing testing of proposed changes.” Excerpted from: Shepard et al., 2005 Knowledge Representation Semantic Web !

17 CPSC 322, Lecture 2Slide 17 Modules we'll cover in this course: R&Rsys Environment Problem Query Planning Deterministic Stochastic Search Arc Consistency Search Value Iteration Var. Elimination Constraint Satisfaction Logics STRIPS Belief Nets Vars + Constraints Decision Nets Markov Processes Var. Elimination Static Sequential

18 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 18 Planning & Scheduling: Logistics Dynamic Analysis and Replanning Tool (Cross & Walker) logistics planning and scheduling for military transport used in the 1991 Gulf War by the US problems had 50,000 entities (e.g., vehicles); different starting points and destinations Source: DARPA Same techniques can be used for non-military applications: e.g., Emergency Evacuation

19 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 19 Planning: Spacecraft Control NASA: Deep Space One spacecraft operated autonomously for two days in May, 1999: determined its precise position using stars and asteriods despite a malfunctioning ultraviolet detector planned the necessary course adjustment fired the ion propulsion system to make this adjustment Source: NASA For another space application see the Spike system for the Hubble telescope

20 CPSC 322, Lecture 2Slide 20 Modules we'll cover in this course: R&Rsys Environment Problem Query Planning Deterministic Stochastic Search Arc Consistency Search Value Iteration Var. Elimination Constraint Satisfaction Logics STRIPS Belief Nets Vars + Constraints Decision Nets Markov Processes Var. Elimination Static Sequential

21 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 21 Reasoning under Uncertainty: Diagnosis Source: Onisko et al., 99 Bayes Net: to diagnose liver diseases

22 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 22 Source: Mike Cora, UBC Reasoning Under Uncertainty Texture classification using Support Vector Machines foliage, building, sky, water

23 CPSC 322, Lecture 2Slide 23 Modules we'll cover in this course: R&Rsys Environment Problem Query Planning Deterministic Stochastic Search Arc Consistency Search Value Iteration Var. Elimination Constraint Satisfaction Logics STRIPS Belief Nets Vars + Constraints Decision Nets Markov Processes Var. Elimination Static Sequential

24 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 24 Decision Network in Finance for venture capital decision Source: R.E. Neapolitan, 2007

25 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 25 Planning Under Uncertainty Source: Jesse Hoey UofT 2007 Learning and Using PO MDP models of Patient-Caregiver Interactions During Activities of Daily Living Goal: Help Older adults living with cognitive disabilities (such as Alzheimer's) when they: forget the proper sequence of tasks that need to be completed they lose track of the steps that they have already completed.

26 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 26 Planning Under Uncertainty Helicopter control: MDP, reinforcement learning States: all possible positions, orientations, velocities and angular velocities Final solution involves Deterministic search! Source: Andrew Ng 2004

27 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 27 Dimensions of Representational Complexity in CPSC322 We've already discussed: Deterministic versus stochastic domains Static versus sequential domains Some other important dimensions of complexity: Explicit state or propositions or relations Flat or hierarchical Knowledge given versus knowledge learned from experience Goals versus complex preferences Single-agent vs. multi-agent

28 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 28 Multiagent Systems: Poker “In full 10-player games Poki is better than a typical low-limit casino player and wins consistently; however, not as good as most experts New programs being developed for the 2-player game are quite a bit better, and we believe they will very soon surpass all human players” Source: The University of Alberta GAMES Group Search Space: 1.2 quintillion nodes

29 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 29 Multiagent Systems: Robot Soccer Source: RoboCup web site Extremely complex Stochastic Sequence of actions Multiagent robotic soccer competition was proposed by LCI (UBC) in 1992 (which became Robocup in 1997).

30 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 30 Natural Language Processing Multimodal interface Portable Fujitsu tablet Input: Pen for deictic gestures and Speech input Output: Text, Speech and graphics Source: M. Walker (ex. AT&T) 2002 Multimodal Access to City Help (MATCH)

31 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 31 TO DO for Next class Search: Start reading (Chpt 3 – sec 3.1 – 3.3) If your studentID is below we need to talk…

32 CPSC 322, Lecture 3Slide 32 CSPs: Radio link frequency assignment Source: INRIA Assigning frequencies to a set of radio links defined between pairs of sites in order to avoid interferences. For each link two frequencies must be assigned


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