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Physics 218 Chapter 18 Prof. Rupak Mahapatra Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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**Chapter 18: Periodic Motion**

This time: Oscillations and vibrations Why do we care? Equations of motion Simplest example: Springs Simple Harmonic Motion Next time: Energy } Concepts } The math Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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What is an Oscillation? The good news is that this is just a fancy term for stuff you already know. It’s an extension of rotational motion Stuff that just goes back and forth over and over again “Stuff that goes around and around” Anything which is Periodic Same as vibration No new physics… Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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**Examples Lots of stuff Vibrates or Oscillates: Radio Waves**

Guitar Strings Atoms Clocks, etc… In some sense, the Moon oscillates around the Earth Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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**Why do we care? Lots of engineering problems are oscillation problems**

Buildings vibrating in the wind Motors vibrating when running Solids vibrating when struck Earthquakes Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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**What’s Next You’ll see why we do this later**

First we’ll “model” oscillations with a mass on a spring You’ll see why we do this later Then we’ll talk about what happens as a function of time Then we’ll calculate the equation of motion using the math Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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**Simplest Example: Springs**

What happens if we attach a mass to a spring sitting on a table at it’s equilibrium point (I.e., x = 0) and let go? What happens if we attach a mass, then stretch the spring, and then let go? k Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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**Questions What are the forces? Hooke’s Law: F= -kx**

Does this equation describe our motion? x = x0 + v0t + ½at2 Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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**The forces No force Force in –x direction Force in +x direction**

Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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More Detail Time Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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**Some Terms Amplitude: Max distance Period: Time it takes to get**

back to here Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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Overview of the Motion It will move back and forth on the table as the spring stretches and contracts At the end points its velocity is zero At the center its speed is a maximum Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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**Simple Harmonic Motion**

Call this type of motion Simple Harmonic Motion (Kinda looks like a sine wave) Next: The equations of motion: Use SF = ma = -kx (Here comes the math. It’s important that you know how to reproduce what I’m going to do next) Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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Equation of Motion A block of mass m is attached to a spring of constant k on a flat, frictionless surface What is the equation of motion? k Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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**Summary: Equation of Motion**

Mass m on a spring with spring constant k: x = A sin(wt + f) Where w2 = k/m A is the Amplitude is the “phase” (phase just allows us to set t=0 when we want) Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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**Simple Harmonic Motion**

At some level sinusoidal motion is the definition of Simple Harmonic Motion A system that undergoes simple harmonic motion is called a simple harmonic oscillator Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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**Understanding Phase: Initial Conditions**

A block with mass m is attached to the end of a spring, with spring constant k. The spring is stretched a distance D and let go at t=0 What is the position of the mass at all times? Where does the maximum speed occur? What is the maximum speed? Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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**Paper which tells us what happens as a function of time**

Check: This looks like a cosine. Makes sense… Spring and Mass Paper which tells us what happens as a function of time Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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**Example: Spring with a Push**

We have a spring system Spring constant: K Mass: M Initial position: X0 Initial Velocity: V0 Find the position at all times Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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**Simple Harmonic Motion**

What is MOST IMPORTANT? Simple Harmonic Motion X= A sin(wt + f) What is the amplitude? What is the phase? What is the angular frequency? What is the velocity at the end points? What is the velocity at the middle? Physics 218, Lecture XXIV

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Chapter 15 Oscillations 15.1. What is Physics? 15.2. Simple Harmonic Motion 15.3. The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion 15.4. Energy in Simple Harmonic.

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