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Dr. Steven P. Frysinger James Madison University Industrial Ecology.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Steven P. Frysinger James Madison University Industrial Ecology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Steven P. Frysinger James Madison University Industrial Ecology

2 Housekeeping My email: Text book: “Industrial Ecology” (2 nd edition), by Graedel and Allenby, Prentice Hall 2003

3 Introduction to Environmental Science Essential Background for Industrial Ecology

4 Environment: A Definition Circumstances and conditions that surround an organism or group of organisms

5 Human actions influence the environment We depend on natural resources for our continued survival Human population growth has shaped our relationship with natural resources Understanding our interaction with the environment may help to prevent or fix environmental problems

6 What’s the worry? Risk –To human health –To human welfare –To other species –To peace How? –To sustainability What is sustainability?

7 Risk Risks themselves can be quantified Some risk examples (The Hague, 1991): –Smoking cigarettes: 1 in 3 lifetime mortality –Riding motorcycle: 1 in 13 –Riding moped: 1 in 67 –Driving a car: 1 in 76 –Bicycling: 1 in 350 –Walking: 1 in 720 –Flying: 1 in 11,000 –Being struck by lightning: 1 in 27,000 –EPA standard for waste site: 1 in 1,000,000 But risk perception is subjective We’ll talk more about risk assessment later

8 Health Risk Health risk is a product of two factors: TOXICITY x EXPOSURE Where toxicity is a measure of adverse health effect per unit mass of pollutant And exposure is a measure of the mass of pollutant taken in over a period of time

9 What’s in a word? Environmentalism: a social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world from undesirable changes brought about by human choices. Environmental Science: the study of human interaction with the environment. Environmental Management: the use of our knowledge to protect and/or repair the environment

10 Environmental Science is Integrated and Holistic Integrates all natural sciences in understanding complex natural phenomena Integrates all social sciences in understanding complex social phenomena Studies the interaction between natural and social systems to understand and conceive of solutions to problems

11 Environmental Problems need Interdisciplinary solutions

12 Environmental Problems are not “one size fits all” An environmental problem is perceived differently by different people. Age, race, class, nationality, education level, and employment may affect how a problem is perceived and which solutions are acceptable –Nuclear power? –Wind? A good reason to engage in international study!

13 What is YOUR perception? Using DDT to control mosquitoes Prohibiting ivory sale to preserve elephant populations Restricting developing world use of fossil fuel to slow global climate change

14 Scientific Thinking Reduces tendency to rely on emotional reaction and unexamined assumptions Skeptical (without loss of curiosity) Rooted in antiquity Based on cooperation and insight, shared results Reproducible Experimental – through controlled experimentation Uses the “scientific method”

15 The Scientific Method Make observations Form a hypothesis Design an experiment Collect data Interpret the data Draw conclusions Repeat!

16 A Survey of Environmental Concerns Major Issues (we’ll cover in some depth) –Population –Air pollution –Water Pollution –Ozone Depletion –Global Climate Change –Energy Issues

17 A Survey of Environmental Concerns (cont’d) Other Issues (we’ll just touch upon) –Loss of Habitat/Biodiversity –Acid Deposition –Soil Degradation –Visibility –Herbicides and Pesticides –Radionuclides –Toxics in Sludge –Oil Spills –Toxics in Sediments –Hazardous Waste Sites

18 Human Population 2011

19 Growth to a Stable Population Logistic Growth - Growth slows as the population approaches carrying capacity. What is the carrying capacity of the Earth for humans?

20 Human carrying capacity But is this sustainable?

21 Demographic Transition A generalized model of demographic transition (four stages):

22 Human Impact Model I = PAT I: impact of humans on the environment –Doesn’t need to be zero to be sustainable - it just needs to be below the “healing capacity” of the Earth P: population of humans in the environment –Definitely increasing for the foreseeable future A: affluence of the human population –We want this to increase (why?) T: technology that controls impact per unit wealth –Must decrease if I is to decrease (examples?) In IE, this is what we’re working on

23 Ecological Footprints These “footprint” models are pretty sloppy, but for example…

24 Pollution in the Atmosphere

25 Sources and Types of Air Pollutants

26 “Criteria” Air Pollutants CO(Health) NO x (Health, Acid Rain, Smog, Tropospheric O 3 ) O 3 (Health, Smog) SO x (Health, Acid Rain) PM(Health, Visibility) [PM 10, PM 2.5 ] Pb(Health) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) have been developed for these pollutants in the US, with similar standards in other nations

27 Photochemical Smog Ozone (O 3 ) produced in the troposphere NMHC + NO + hv  NO 2 + other products –Where NMHC = non-methane hydrocarbons and –hv is a quantum of solar radiation less than about 410 nm in wavelength NO 2 + hv  NO + O O + O 2  O 3 Rate of formation controlled by controlling NO, NO 2, and NMHC

28 Some Other Air Pollutants Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) [re: global warming] Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s) Heavy metals (e.g., Lead, Mercury) Dioxins Formaldehyde Pesticides Microbials Radon The US EPA has listed 188 Hazardous Air Pollutants, 31 of which are “urban air toxics”

29 Water Pollution

30 Surface Water Pollution Eutrophication –Natural evolution of lakes –Anthropogenic acceleration Contamination with toxics –Chemical –Biological Acidification

31 Stream Water Quality in the US



34 Groundwater Pollution Groundwater is an important source of drinking water for humans Seepage through the soil can remove pollutants Saltwater intrusion becomes a risk in coastal regions

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