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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. PowerPoint ® Lectures for University Physics, Thirteenth Edition – Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by Wayne Anderson Chapter 5 Applying Newton’s Laws
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Goals for Chapter 5 To use Newton’s first law for bodies in equilibrium To use Newton’s second law for accelerating bodies To study the types of friction and fluid resistance To solve problems involving circular motion
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Introduction We’ll extend the problem-solving skills we began to develop in Chapter 4. We’ll start with equilibrium, in which a body is at rest or moving with constant velocity. Next, we’ll study objects that are not in equilibrium and deal with the relationship between forces and motion. We’ll analyze the friction force that acts when a body slides over a surface. We’ll analyze the forces on a body in circular motion at constant speed.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Using Newton’s First Law when forces are in equilibrium A body is in equilibrium when it is at rest or moving with constant velocity in an inertial frame of reference. Follow Problem-Solving Strategy 5.1.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. One-dimensional equilibrium: Tension in a massless rope A gymnast hangs from the end of a massless rope. Follow Example 5.1.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. One-dimensional equilibrium: Tension in a rope with mass What is the tension in the previous example if the rope has mass? Follow Example 5.2.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Two-dimensional equilibrium A car engine hangs from several chains. Follow Example 5.3.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. A car on an inclined plane An car rests on a slanted ramp. Follow Example 5.4.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Bodies connected by a cable and pulley A cart is connected to a bucket by a cable passing over a pulley. Draw separate free-body diagrams for the bucket and the cart. Follow Example 5.5.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Using Newton’s Second Law: Dynamics of Particles Apply Newton’s second law in component form. F x = ma x F y = ma y Follow Problem-Solving Strategy 5.2.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. A note on free-body diagrams Refer to Figure 5.6. Only the force of gravity acts on the falling apple. ma does not belong in a free-body diagram.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Straight-line motion with constant force The wind exerts a constant horizontal force on the boat. Follow Example 5.6.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Straight-line motion with friction For the ice boat in the previous example, a constant horizontal friction force now opposes its motion. Follow Example 5.7.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Tension in an elevator cable The elevator is moving downward but slowing to a stop. What is the tension in the supporting cable? Follow Example 5.8.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Apparent weight in an accelerating elevator A woman inside the elevator of the previous example is standing on a scale. How will the acceleration of the elevator affect the scale reading? Follow Example 5.9.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Acceleration down a hill What is the acceleration of a toboggan sliding down a friction-free slope? Follow Example 5.10.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Two common free-body diagram errors The normal force must be perpendicular to the surface. There is no “ma force.” See Figure
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Two bodies with the same acceleration We can treat the milk carton and tray as separate bodies, or we can treat them as a single composite body. Follow Example 5.11.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Two bodies with the same magnitude of acceleration The glider on the air track and the falling weight move in different directions, but their accelerations have the same magnitude. Follow Example 5.12 using Figure 5.15.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Frictional forces When a body rests or slides on a surface, the friction force is parallel to the surface. Friction between two surfaces arises from interactions between molecules on the surfaces.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Kinetic and static friction Kinetic friction acts when a body slides over a surface. The kinetic friction force is f k = µ k n. Static friction acts when there is no relative motion between bodies. The static friction force can vary between zero and its maximum value: f s ≤ µ s n.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Static friction followed by kinetic friction Before the box slides, static friction acts. But once it starts to slide, kinetic friction acts.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Some approximate coefficients of friction
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Friction in horizontal motion Before the crate moves, static friction acts on it. After it starts to move, kinetic friction acts. Follow Example 5.13.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Static friction can be less than the maximum Static friction only has its maximum value just before the box “breaks loose” and starts to slide. Follow Example 5.14.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Pulling a crate at an angle The angle of the pull affects the normal force, which in turn affects the friction force. Follow Example 5.15.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Motion on a slope having friction Consider the toboggan from Example 5.10, but with friction. Follow Example 5.16 and Figure Consider the toboggan on a steeper hill, so it is now accelerating. Follow Example 5.17 and Figure 5.23.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Fluid resistance and terminal speed The fluid resistance on a body depends on the speed of the body. A falling body reaches its terminal speed when the resisting force equals the weight of the body. The figures at the right illustrate the effects of air drag. Follow Example 5.18.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Dynamics of circular motion If a particle is in uniform circular motion, both its acceleration and the net force on it are directed toward the center of the circle. The net force on the particle is F net = mv 2 /R.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. What if the string breaks? If the string breaks, no net force acts on the ball, so it obeys Newton’s first law and moves in a straight line.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Avoid using “centrifugal force” Figure (a) shows the correct free-body diagram for a body in uniform circular motion. Figure (b) shows a common error. In an inertial frame of reference, there is no such thing as “centrifugal force.”
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Force in uniform circular motion A sled on frictionless ice is kept in uniform circular motion by a rope. Follow Example 5.19.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. A conical pendulum A bob at the end of a wire moves in a horizontal circle with constant speed. Follow Example 5.20.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. A car rounds a flat curve A car rounds a flat unbanked curve. What is its maximum speed? Follow Example 5.21.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. A car rounds a banked curve At what angle should a curve be banked so a car can make the turn even with no friction? Follow Example 5.22.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. Uniform motion in a vertical circle A person on a Ferris wheel moves in a vertical circle. Follow Example 5.23.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc. The fundamental forces of nature According to current understanding, all forces are expressions of four distinct fundamental forces: gravitational interactions electromagnetic interactions the strong interaction the weak interaction Physicists have taken steps to unify all interactions into a theory of everything.
Chapter 4 Forces and Newtons Laws of Motion. 4.1 The Concepts of Force and Mass A force is a push or a pull. Contact forces arise from physical contact.
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