Presentation on theme: "Complex investigations of the dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere and geomagnetic activity using space-borne and ground-based measurements (EoI 946)"— Presentation transcript:
1Complex investigations of the dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere and geomagnetic activity using space-borne and ground-based measurements (EoI 946)by G.A. Zherebtsov, A.S. Potapov, and O.M. Pirog ― all ISTP SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia,“Heliospheric Impact on Geospace” kick-off meeting. Helsinki, Finland, 5-9 February 2007
2Contents Introduction Participating institutions and persons Outline of Russian IPY/IHY Programme in magnetospheric studiesMagnetic measurements in RussiaConclusion
3Introduction Russian Academy of Sciences Council on Solar-Terrestrial Connections (The “Sun-Earth Council” - SEC)Committee for organization of scientific research in the framework of programmes of “International Polar Year”and“International Heliophysical Year”
4Introduction Chairman: Geliy ZHEREBTSOV, chairman of the SEC Co-chairmen:Alexander STEPANOV, responsible for IHY national programmeEvgeny TERESCHENKO, responsible for IPY national geophysical programme
5Institutions participating in the EoI 946 Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) SB RAS, Irkutsk / Director: Geliy ZHEREBTSOV Contact person: Alex PotapovInstitute of Space Research (IKI) RAS, Moscow / Director: Lev ZELENY Contact person: Anatoli PetrukovichInstitute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) RAS, Moscow / Director: Vladimir KUZNETSOV Contact person: Alexander Zaitsev
6Institutions participating in the EoI 946 Institute of Dynamics of Geospheres (IDG) RAS, Moscow / Director: Julius ZETZER Contact person: Julius ZetzerPolar Geophysical Institute RAS (PGI), Apatity/Murmansk / pgi.kolasc.net.ru Director: Evgeny TERESCHENKOContact person: Vladimir Safargaleev
7Institutions participating in the EoI 946 Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy (IKFIA) SB RAS, Yakutsk / ikfia.ysn.ru/Director: Evgeny BEREZHKO Contact person: Stepan SolovyevInstitute of Cosmophysical Research and Radio Wave Propagation (IKIR) FEB RAS, Paratunka, Kamchatka / Director: Boris SHEVTSOV Contact person: Valentina Bulgakova
8Outline of Russian IPY/IHY Programme Space missionsSPECTR-R/Plasma-F: the solar wind particles and interplanetary magnetic fieldCORONAS-Photon: gamma radiation, X-rays, UV emission, cosmic raysTATYANA microsatellite: electrons, ions, and UV emission above the ionosphere
9Outline of Russian I*Y Programme Space missionsMETEOR-M (apogee 1000 km): magnetospheric plasma and cosmic raysELECTRON-L (geosynchronous orbit): magnetospheric plasma and cosmic raysKOMPASS-2: ionospheric plasma-wave complex, cosmic rays and particlesCANOPUS-VOLCANO: ionospheric plasma-wave complexISS-based experiments: plasma-wave complex, gamma-radiation, earthquake forecast, hydroxyl emission
10Outline of Russian I*Y Programme Ground based facilitiesSolar-Heliospheric observationsoptical observations of the Sunsolar observations in the radio wave rangecosmic ray observations
11Optical and radio observations of the Sun Outline of Russian I*Y ProgrammeOptical and radio observations of the SunIn the Asian part of Russia all solar observatories are located within Irkutsk neighborhood. The only exclusion is one small observatory in Ussurijsk (Far East).OPTICAL INSTRUMENTSBAIKAL ASTROPHYSICALOBSERVATORYSAYAN SOLAR OBSERVATORY(2000 m alt.)
12Optical and radio observations of the Sun Outline of Russian I*Y ProgrammeOptical and radio observations of the SunRADIOASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT)The main characteristics256-element cross-shaped interferometerantenna element – 2.5-meter parabolic,step – 4.9 meterbaseline – metercentral frequency – 5731 MHzreceiving bandwidth – 112 MHztop angular resolution:1-D mode (additive mode) – 15”2-D mode (correlation mode) – 21”stokes parameters recorded – I, Vtime resolution:1-D mode – up to 14 msec2-D mode – up to 1 minsensitivity – s.f.u.observing interval — 10.00 UT
13Optical and radio observations of the Sun Outline of Russian I*Y ProgrammeOptical and radio observations of the SunExample of main research results of the SSRT –monthly movie of the Sun and CME in Sept 2000Monthly images of the Sun - October, 2000CME – September 04, 2000
14Outline of Russian I*Y Programme Data from new geophysical stations and documents and results of experiments and field campaigns will be displayed at a special web site(International cluster project 409 “Data and Information Service for Distributed Data Management –IPY DIS”)
15The Five IHY Science Themes: Theme 1: Evolution and Generation of Magnetic Structures and TransientsTheme 2: Energy Transfer and Coupling ProcessesTheme 3: Flows and CirculationsTheme 4: Boundaries and InterfacesTheme 5: Synoptic Studies of the 3-D Coupled Solar-Planetary-Heliospheric SystemThe most powerful for the last half a century solar maximum during IGY, and the solar minimum at present.Siberian scientists will try to contribute to studies within all of the Five IHY Themes. However, specific particularities will be inhered for their researches taking into account time and place of the studies. First of all, we see here that expected solar activity during the IHY period will differ radically from that occurred during the IGY of 1957–1958: the most powerful for the last half a century solar maximum at that time, and the solar minimum at present.
16Outline of proposal 946To develop adequate models of the most important processes occurred in the magnetosphere and ionosphere, we need complex analysis of data; the simultaneous measurements are to be done in all crucial parts of the Sun-Earth system such as the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere. An appropriate program of observations made by using both space-borne equipment and ground-based geophysical complexes distributed within the different time sectors is being developed. This program will provide measurements coordinated with orbital motion and operating regimes of space-borne and ground-based equipment. The following space-borne facilities are planned:
17Outline of proposal 946The satellite Spectr-R equipped with the magnetometer and the solar wind analyzer. The Spectr-R will be launched to elliptic orbit with high apogee, and during the 90 % of operating time it will be in subsolar direction; so it can be used as a near-Earth monitor of the solar wind flux and interplanetary magnetic field.Plasma wave diagnostic complex on board of ISS (International Space Station).Coronas-Photon space mission equipped with devices for remote monitoring of the Sun.By the beginning of the IPY-2007 a network of magnetic and ionospheric stations and other facilities situated in polar and mid-latitude regions will be at the disposal of investigators.
18Problems of the magnetospheric physics to solve during IHY and IPY What mechanisms provide energy and impulse transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere?The problem of the storms and substorms: what is the true chain of physical processes in the generation and development of magnetospheric disturbances?The problem of energy redistribution inside the magnetosphere: what are sources and sinks of energy flows there?
19Scientific tasks of the magnetospheric investigations within EoI 946 Quantitative modelling of geomagnetic disturbances in the whole power range: from weak isolated substorms to the most powerful superstorms.Phenomenological modelling of physical processes at the magnetosphere boundary including plasma transfer events and penetration of particles through the cusps.Investigation of wave channel of energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere.Theoretical and experimental search for wave-particle mechanisms of plasma redistribution inside the magnetosphere resulting in energy transfer to the ionosphere and upper atmosphere.
20Magnetic measurements in Russia The widest network of magnetic stations has been achieved in the Soviet Union during the previous, 2nd International Polar Year ( ), when 38 stations were established, see Table. Unfortunately, economical difficulties in the end of last century forced to stop operation of most FSU observatories: in 1998 only 5 stations of 38 were sending their data to the World Data Centers.
21Magnetic measurements Budapest, March 1999To improve the situation, we applied to INTERMAGNET community for help. We proposed a project CRENEGON to use financial support of European Commission for renewing FSU magnetic observatories and joining them to INTERMAGNET.In 2000 Irkutsk (IRT) became a full member of INTERMAGNET, which turned it into locomotive in recovering other Russian and FSU observatories.
22Magnetic measurements Project CRENEGON, supported by international European foundation INTAS inMagnetologists of Belgium, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine participated in the project. As a result, instrumentation base of the participating observatories has been totally renewed, magnetic observations have been transferred into digital format, and these observatories have been integrated into the worldwide network.
23Magnetic measurements Current map of INTERMAGNET observatories network. One can see that owing to CRENEGON project a large gap in the northern part of Asia has been bridged
24Magnetic measurements Simultaneously with the above activity of our Institute, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) in cooperation with Kyoto University began activity on recovery of Arctic magnetic stations planning to re-establish 9 stations. Norilsk (NOK) (under supervision of our Institute), Tixie (TIX), and Pebek (PBK) are already operating.Data are available via internet: and
25Magnetic measurements Eight magnetic stations with 1-second time resolution belonging to IKFIA and IKIR institutes participate in the International Project CPMN (Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network) under the leadership of Prof. Yumoto. The main scientific goal of the project is to investigate the processes of energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere.
26Magnetic measurements Ground based facilitiesMagnetic and ionospheric observationsionosphere soundingobservations of the atmospheric emissionsmagnetic observations
27SuperDARN plansGreen sectors show planned positions of two new HF radars to be deployed in Siberia. Constructions of these radars will allow Russian geophysicists to join SuperDARN community.
28Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) electromagnetic observations Geomagnetic pulsations: frequency range – 1 mHz to 5 Hz amplitude range – 1 pT to 500 nT wavelength range – 100 to kmExamples of the most powerful and long-period pulsations of Pc5 type (left) and the Pc1 pulsations with the shortest perioid (right, simultaneous observations at three stations)
29ULF electromagnetic observations In a network of digital inductional (search-coil) magnetometers was established in cooperation with colleagues from Japan and Finland, which allowed to plan and carry out joint experiments. All stations are operating continuously.Data are available at:geobrk.adm.yar.ru:1352/geopuls/index.html
30Some examples of the results achieved in the magnetosphere studies Global Pc5 oscillations as indicator of a new regime of energy transfer from the solar windDuring the strongest geomagnetic disturbances when the Earth in its orbit hits upon superfast flow of the solar plasma the whole magnetosphere is used to be subjected to very large oscillations in the frequency range of units of milliherz. At that, the energy input to the magnetosphere grows, though Bz component of the interplanetary magnetic field is positive. We suppose that global Pc5 pulsations evidence that a new regime of energy transfer from the solar wind switches on; and this regime is not related to magnetic reconnection, but is provided by some powerful instability on the magnetosphere boundary.A. Potapov, A. Guglielmi, B. Tsegmed, J. Kultima. Global Pc5 event during 29–31 October 2003 magnetic storm. Adv. Space Res., In Press, Available online 30 June 2006.
31Some examples of the results achieved in the magnetosphere studies The solar plasma penetration into the magnetosphere (Plasma Transfer Events - PTE)As defined by Yamamuchi, PTE is reflection of “transiently weakening the magnetic barrier of magnetopause”. We proposed that inverse Faraday effect due to Pc1 ion cyclotron waves is a possible cause of such weakening.Magnetization of plasma by a circularly polarized wave isThe ion cyclotron wave (upper sign) leads to weakening of the external magnetic field since B = H + 4 M. The effect is quadratic in respect to the electric field amplitude E.
32Some examples of the results achieved in the magnetosphere studies The solar plasma penetration into the magnetosphere (Plasma Transfer Events - PTE)Examples of unusual Pc1 emissions when PTEs were observed:We checked connection between PTE and Pc1 for22 CLUSTER CIS Cusp crossings and found thatProbability of Pc1 without PTE isProbability of Pc1 with PTE isMoreover, number of hours with Pc1 during 12-hour intervals after Cluster cusp crossing when:PTE was not detected 5 hPTE was detected hA. Guglielmi, A. Potapov et al. Action of the solar wind on the magnetosphere wave activity in the Pc1 frequency range. In: Solar-Terrestrial Physics. Vol.8, , 2005.
33ConclusionsExpression of Intent 946 is a part of activities planned by the Council on Solar-Terrestrial Connections of RAS for IPY and IHY period in magnetospheric studies.