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Complex investigations of the dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere and geomagnetic activity using space-borne and ground-based measurements (EoI 946)

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Presentation on theme: "Complex investigations of the dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere and geomagnetic activity using space-borne and ground-based measurements (EoI 946)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Complex investigations of the dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere and geomagnetic activity using space-borne and ground-based measurements (EoI 946) by G.A. Zherebtsov, A.S. Potapov, and O.M. Pirog ― all ISTP SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia, “Heliospheric Impact on Geospace” kick-off meeting. Helsinki, Finland, 5-9 February 2007

2 Contents Introduction Participating institutions and persons
Outline of Russian IPY/IHY Programme in magnetospheric studies Magnetic measurements in Russia Conclusion

3 Introduction Russian Academy of Sciences
Council on Solar-Terrestrial Connections (The “Sun-Earth Council” - SEC) Committee for organization of scientific research in the framework of programmes of “International Polar Year” and “International Heliophysical Year”

4 Introduction Chairman: Geliy ZHEREBTSOV, chairman of the SEC
Co-chairmen: Alexander STEPANOV, responsible for IHY national programme Evgeny TERESCHENKO, responsible for IPY national geophysical programme

5 Institutions participating in the EoI 946
Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) SB RAS, Irkutsk / Director: Geliy ZHEREBTSOV Contact person: Alex Potapov Institute of Space Research (IKI) RAS, Moscow / Director: Lev ZELENY Contact person: Anatoli Petrukovich Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) RAS, Moscow / Director: Vladimir KUZNETSOV Contact person: Alexander Zaitsev

6 Institutions participating in the EoI 946
Institute of Dynamics of Geospheres (IDG) RAS, Moscow / Director: Julius ZETZER Contact person: Julius Zetzer Polar Geophysical Institute RAS (PGI), Apatity/Murmansk / pgi.kolasc.net.ru Director: Evgeny TERESCHENKO Contact person: Vladimir Safargaleev

7 Institutions participating in the EoI 946
Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy (IKFIA) SB RAS, Yakutsk / ikfia.ysn.ru/ Director: Evgeny BEREZHKO Contact person: Stepan Solovyev Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Radio Wave Propagation (IKIR) FEB RAS, Paratunka, Kamchatka / Director: Boris SHEVTSOV Contact person: Valentina Bulgakova

8 Outline of Russian IPY/IHY Programme
Space missions SPECTR-R/Plasma-F: the solar wind particles and interplanetary magnetic field CORONAS-Photon: gamma radiation, X-rays, UV emission, cosmic rays TATYANA microsatellite: electrons, ions, and UV emission above the ionosphere

9 Outline of Russian I*Y Programme
Space missions METEOR-M (apogee 1000 km): magnetospheric plasma and cosmic rays ELECTRON-L (geosynchronous orbit): magnetospheric plasma and cosmic rays KOMPASS-2: ionospheric plasma-wave complex, cosmic rays and particles CANOPUS-VOLCANO: ionospheric plasma-wave complex ISS-based experiments: plasma-wave complex, gamma-radiation, earthquake forecast, hydroxyl emission

10 Outline of Russian I*Y Programme
Ground based facilities Solar-Heliospheric observations optical observations of the Sun solar observations in the radio wave range cosmic ray observations

11 Optical and radio observations of the Sun
Outline of Russian I*Y Programme Optical and radio observations of the Sun In the Asian part of Russia all solar observatories are located within Irkutsk neighborhood. The only exclusion is one small observatory in Ussurijsk (Far East). OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS BAIKAL ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY SAYAN SOLAR OBSERVATORY (2000 m alt.)

12 Optical and radio observations of the Sun
Outline of Russian I*Y Programme Optical and radio observations of the Sun RADIOASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT) The main characteristics 256-element cross-shaped interferometer antenna element – 2.5-meter parabolic, step – 4.9 meter baseline – meter central frequency – 5731 MHz receiving bandwidth – 112 MHz top angular resolution: 1-D mode (additive mode) – 15” 2-D mode (correlation mode) – 21” stokes parameters recorded – I, V time resolution: 1-D mode – up to 14 msec 2-D mode – up to 1 min sensitivity – s.f.u. observing interval — 10.00 UT

13 Optical and radio observations of the Sun
Outline of Russian I*Y Programme Optical and radio observations of the Sun Example of main research results of the SSRT –monthly movie of the Sun and CME in Sept 2000 Monthly images of the Sun - October, 2000 CME – September 04, 2000

14 Outline of Russian I*Y Programme
Data from new geophysical stations and documents and results of experiments and field campaigns will be displayed at a special web site (International cluster project 409 “Data and Information Service for Distributed Data Management –IPY DIS”)

15 The Five IHY Science Themes:
Theme 1: Evolution and Generation of Magnetic Structures and Transients Theme 2: Energy Transfer and Coupling Processes Theme 3: Flows and Circulations Theme 4: Boundaries and Interfaces Theme 5: Synoptic Studies of the 3-D Coupled Solar-Planetary-Heliospheric System The most powerful for the last half a century solar maximum during IGY, and the solar minimum at present. Siberian scientists will try to contribute to studies within all of the Five IHY Themes. However, specific particularities will be inhered for their researches taking into account time and place of the studies. First of all, we see here that expected solar activity during the IHY period will differ radically from that occurred during the IGY of 1957–1958: the most powerful for the last half a century solar maximum at that time, and the solar minimum at present.

16 Outline of proposal 946 To develop adequate models of the most important processes occurred in the magnetosphere and ionosphere, we need complex analysis of data; the simultaneous measurements are to be done in all crucial parts of the Sun-Earth system such as the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere. An appropriate program of observations made by using both space-borne equipment and ground-based geophysical complexes distributed within the different time sectors is being developed. This program will provide measurements coordinated with orbital motion and operating regimes of space-borne and ground-based equipment. The following space-borne facilities are planned:

17 Outline of proposal 946 The satellite Spectr-R equipped with the magnetometer and the solar wind analyzer. The Spectr-R will be launched to elliptic orbit with high apogee, and during the 90 % of operating time it will be in subsolar direction; so it can be used as a near-Earth monitor of the solar wind flux and interplanetary magnetic field. Plasma wave diagnostic complex on board of ISS (International Space Station). Coronas-Photon space mission equipped with devices for remote monitoring of the Sun. By the beginning of the IPY-2007 a network of magnetic and ionospheric stations and other facilities situated in polar and mid-latitude regions will be at the disposal of investigators.

18 Problems of the magnetospheric physics to solve during IHY and IPY
What mechanisms provide energy and impulse transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere? The problem of the storms and substorms: what is the true chain of physical processes in the generation and development of magnetospheric disturbances? The problem of energy redistribution inside the magnetosphere: what are sources and sinks of energy flows there?

19 Scientific tasks of the magnetospheric investigations within EoI 946
Quantitative modelling of geomagnetic disturbances in the whole power range: from weak isolated substorms to the most powerful superstorms. Phenomenological modelling of physical processes at the magnetosphere boundary including plasma transfer events and penetration of particles through the cusps. Investigation of wave channel of energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. Theoretical and experimental search for wave-particle mechanisms of plasma redistribution inside the magnetosphere resulting in energy transfer to the ionosphere and upper atmosphere.

20 Magnetic measurements in Russia
The widest network of magnetic stations has been achieved in the Soviet Union during the previous, 2nd International Polar Year ( ), when 38 stations were established, see Table. Unfortunately, economical difficulties in the end of last century forced to stop operation of most FSU observatories: in 1998 only 5 stations of 38 were sending their data to the World Data Centers.

21 Magnetic measurements
Budapest, March 1999 To improve the situation, we applied to INTERMAGNET community for help. We proposed a project CRENEGON to use financial support of European Commission for renewing FSU magnetic observatories and joining them to INTERMAGNET. In 2000 Irkutsk (IRT) became a full member of INTERMAGNET, which turned it into locomotive in recovering other Russian and FSU observatories.

22 Magnetic measurements
Project CRENEGON, supported by international European foundation INTAS in Magnetologists of Belgium, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine participated in the project. As a result, instrumentation base of the participating observatories has been totally renewed, magnetic observations have been transferred into digital format, and these observatories have been integrated into the worldwide network.

23 Magnetic measurements
Current map of INTERMAGNET observatories network. One can see that owing to CRENEGON project a large gap in the northern part of Asia has been bridged

24 Magnetic measurements
Simultaneously with the above activity of our Institute, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) in cooperation with Kyoto University began activity on recovery of Arctic magnetic stations planning to re-establish 9 stations. Norilsk (NOK) (under supervision of our Institute), Tixie (TIX), and Pebek (PBK) are already operating. Data are available via internet: and

25 Magnetic measurements
Eight magnetic stations with 1-second time resolution belonging to IKFIA and IKIR institutes participate in the International Project CPMN (Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network) under the leadership of Prof. Yumoto. The main scientific goal of the project is to investigate the processes of energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere.

26 Magnetic measurements
Ground based facilities Magnetic and ionospheric observations ionosphere sounding observations of the atmospheric emissions magnetic observations

27 SuperDARN plans Green sectors show planned positions of two new HF radars to be deployed in Siberia. Constructions of these radars will allow Russian geophysicists to join SuperDARN community.

28 Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) electromagnetic observations
Geomagnetic pulsations: frequency range – 1 mHz to 5 Hz amplitude range – 1 pT to 500 nT wavelength range – 100 to km Examples of the most powerful and long-period pulsations of Pc5 type (left) and the Pc1 pulsations with the shortest perioid (right, simultaneous observations at three stations)

29 ULF electromagnetic observations
In a network of digital inductional (search-coil) magnetometers was established in cooperation with colleagues from Japan and Finland, which allowed to plan and carry out joint experiments. All stations are operating continuously. Data are available at: geobrk.adm.yar.ru:1352/geopuls/index.html

30 Some examples of the results achieved in the magnetosphere studies
Global Pc5 oscillations as indicator of a new regime of energy transfer from the solar wind During the strongest geomagnetic disturbances when the Earth in its orbit hits upon superfast flow of the solar plasma the whole magnetosphere is used to be subjected to very large oscillations in the frequency range of units of milliherz. At that, the energy input to the magnetosphere grows, though Bz component of the interplanetary magnetic field is positive. We suppose that global Pc5 pulsations evidence that a new regime of energy transfer from the solar wind switches on; and this regime is not related to magnetic reconnection, but is provided by some powerful instability on the magnetosphere boundary. A. Potapov, A. Guglielmi, B. Tsegmed, J. Kultima. Global Pc5 event during 29–31 October 2003 magnetic storm. Adv. Space Res., In Press, Available online 30 June 2006.

31 Some examples of the results achieved in the magnetosphere studies
The solar plasma penetration into the magnetosphere (Plasma Transfer Events - PTE) As defined by Yamamuchi, PTE is reflection of “transiently weakening the magnetic barrier of magnetopause”. We proposed that inverse Faraday effect due to Pc1 ion cyclotron waves is a possible cause of such weakening. Magnetization of plasma by a circularly polarized wave is The ion cyclotron wave (upper sign) leads to weakening of the external magnetic field since B = H + 4 M. The effect is quadratic in respect to the electric field amplitude E.

32 Some examples of the results achieved in the magnetosphere studies
The solar plasma penetration into the magnetosphere (Plasma Transfer Events - PTE) Examples of unusual Pc1 emissions when PTEs were observed: We checked connection between PTE and Pc1 for 22 CLUSTER CIS Cusp crossings and found that Probability of Pc1 without PTE is Probability of Pc1 with PTE is Moreover, number of hours with Pc1 during 12-hour intervals after Cluster cusp crossing when:    PTE was not detected 5 h PTE was detected h A. Guglielmi, A. Potapov et al. Action of the solar wind on the magnetosphere wave activity in the Pc1 frequency range. In: Solar-Terrestrial Physics. Vol.8, , 2005.

33 Conclusions Expression of Intent 946 is a part of activities planned by the Council on Solar-Terrestrial Connections of RAS for IPY and IHY period in magnetospheric studies.

34 Thanks for attention!


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