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Complex investigations of the dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere and geomagnetic activity using space-borne and ground-based measurements (EoI 946)

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Presentation on theme: "Complex investigations of the dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere and geomagnetic activity using space-borne and ground-based measurements (EoI 946)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Complex investigations of the dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere and geomagnetic activity using space-borne and ground-based measurements (EoI 946) by G.A. Zherebtsov, A.S. Potapov, and O.M. Pirog ― all ISTP SB RAS,Irkutsk, Russia, “Heliospheric Impact on Geospace” kick-off meeting. Helsinki, Finland, 5-9 February 2007

2 Contents Introduction Introduction Participating institutions and persons Participating institutions and persons Outline of Russian IPY/IHY Programme in magnetospheric studies Outline of Russian IPY/IHY Programme in magnetospheric studies Magnetic measurements in Russia Magnetic measurements in Russia Conclusion Conclusion

3 Introduction Russian Academy of Sciences Council on Solar-Terrestrial Connections (The “Sun-Earth Council” - SEC) Committee for organization of scientific research in the framework of programmes of “International Polar Year” and “International Heliophysical Year” “International Heliophysical Year”

4 Introduction Chairman: Geliy ZHEREBTSOV, chairman of the SEC Geliy ZHEREBTSOV, chairman of the SECCo-chairmen: Alexander STEPANOV, responsible for IHY national programme Alexander STEPANOV, responsible for IHY national programme Evgeny TERESCHENKO, responsible for IPY national geophysical programme Evgeny TERESCHENKO, responsible for IPY national geophysical programme

5 Institutions participating in the EoI 946 Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) SB RAS, Irkutsk / Director: Geliy ZHEREBTSOV Contact person: Alex Potapov Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) SB RAS, Irkutsk / Director: Geliy ZHEREBTSOV Contact person: Alex Potapov Institute of Space Research (IKI) RAS, Moscow / Director: Lev ZELENY Contact person: Anatoli Petrukovich Institute of Space Research (IKI) RAS, Moscow / Director: Lev ZELENY Contact person: Anatoli Petrukovich Director: Vladimir KUZNETSOV Contact person: Alexander Zaitsev Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) RAS, Moscow / Director: Vladimir KUZNETSOV Contact person: Alexander Zaitsev

6 Institutions participating in the EoI 946 Institute of Dynamics of Geospheres (IDG) RAS, Moscow / Director: Julius ZETZER Contact person: Julius Zetzer Institute of Dynamics of Geospheres (IDG) RAS, Moscow / Director: Julius ZETZER Contact person: Julius Zetzer Director: Evgeny TERESCHENKO Polar Geophysical Institute RAS (PGI), Apatity/Murmansk / pgi.kolasc.net.ru Director: Evgeny TERESCHENKO Contact person: Contact person: Vladimir Safargaleev

7 Institutions participating in the EoI 946 Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy (IKFIA) SB RAS, Yakutsk / ikfia.ysn.ru/ Director: Evgeny BEREZHKO Contact person: Stepan Director: Evgeny BEREZHKO Contact person: Stepan Solovyev Director: Boris SHEVTSOV Contact person: Valentina Bulgakova Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Radio Wave Propagation (IKIR) FEB RAS, Paratunka, Kamchatka / Director: Boris SHEVTSOV Contact person: Valentina Bulgakova

8 Outline of Russian IPY/IHY Programme Space missions SPECTR-R/Plasma-F: the solar wind particles and interplanetary magnetic field SPECTR-R/Plasma-F: the solar wind particles and interplanetary magnetic field CORONAS-Photon: gamma radiation, X- rays, UV emission, cosmic rays CORONAS-Photon: gamma radiation, X- rays, UV emission, cosmic rays TATYANA microsatellite: electrons, ions, and UV emission above the ionosphere TATYANA microsatellite: electrons, ions, and UV emission above the ionosphere

9 Outline of Russian I*Y Programme Space missions METEOR-M (apogee 1000 km): magnetospheric plasma and cosmic rays METEOR-M (apogee 1000 km): magnetospheric plasma and cosmic rays ELECTRON-L (geosynchronous orbit): magnetospheric plasma and cosmic rays ELECTRON-L (geosynchronous orbit): magnetospheric plasma and cosmic rays KOMPASS-2: ionospheric plasma-wave complex, cosmic rays and particles KOMPASS-2: ionospheric plasma-wave complex, cosmic rays and particles CANOPUS-VOLCANO: ionospheric plasma- wave complex CANOPUS-VOLCANO: ionospheric plasma- wave complex ISS-based experiments: plasma-wave complex, gamma-radiation, earthquake forecast, hydroxyl emission ISS-based experiments: plasma-wave complex, gamma-radiation, earthquake forecast, hydroxyl emission

10 Outline of Russian I*Y Programme Ground based facilities Solar-Heliospheric observations optical observations of the Sun solar observations in the radio wave range cosmic ray observations

11 Optical and radio observations of the Sun In the Asian part of Russia all solar observatories are located within Irkutsk neighborhood. The only exclusion is one small observatory in Ussurijsk (Far East). In the Asian part of Russia all solar observatories are located within Irkutsk neighborhood. The only exclusion is one small observatory in Ussurijsk (Far East). SAYAN SOLAR OBSERVATORY (2000 m alt.) BAIKAL ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS Outline of Russian I*Y Programme

12 Optical and radio observations of the Sun RADIOASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT) The main characteristics 256-element cross-shaped interferometer antenna element – 2.5-meter parabolic, step – 4.9 meter baseline – meter central frequency – 5731 MHz receiving bandwidth – 112 MHz top angular resolution: 1-D mode (additive mode) – 15” 2-D mode (correlation mode) – 21” stokes parameters recorded – I, V time resolution: 1-D mode – up to 14 msec 2-D mode – up to 1 min sensitivity – s.f.u. observing interval — UT Outline of Russian I*Y Programme

13 Optical and radio observations of the Sun Example of main research results of the SSRT – monthly movie of the Sun and CME in Sept 2000 Monthly images of the Sun - October, 2000CME – September 04, 2000 Outline of Russian I*Y Programme

14 Data from new geophysical stations and documents and results of experiments and field campaigns will be displayed at a special web site (International cluster project 409 “Data and Information Service for Distributed Data Management – IPY DIS”)

15 The Five IHY Science Themes: Theme 1: Evolution and Generation of Magnetic Structures and Transients Theme 2: Energy Transfer and Coupling Processes Theme 3: Flows and Circulations Theme 4: Boundaries and Interfaces Theme 5: Synoptic Studies of the 3-D Coupled Solar- Planetary-Heliospheric System The most powerful for the last half a century solar maximum during IGY, and the solar minimum at present.

16 Outline of proposal 946 To develop adequate models of the most important processes occurred in the magnetosphere and ionosphere, we need complex analysis of data; the simultaneous measurements are to be done in all crucial parts of the Sun- Earth system such as the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere. An appropriate program of observations made by using both space-borne equipment and ground-based geophysical complexes distributed within the different time sectors is being developed. This program will provide measurements coordinated with orbital motion and operating regimes of space-borne and ground-based equipment. The following space-borne facilities are planned:

17 Outline of proposal The satellite Spectr-R equipped with the magnetometer and the solar wind analyzer. The Spectr-R will be launched to elliptic orbit with high apogee, and during the 90 % of operating time it will be in subsolar direction; so it can be used as a near-Earth monitor of the solar wind flux and interplanetary magnetic field Plasma wave diagnostic complex on board of ISS (International Space Station) Coronas-Photon space mission equipped with devices for remote monitoring of the Sun. By the beginning of the IPY-2007 a network of magnetic and ionospheric stations and other facilities situated in polar and mid-latitude regions will be at the disposal of investigators.

18 Problems of the magnetospheric physics to solve during IHY and IPY What mechanisms provide energy and impulse transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere? What mechanisms provide energy and impulse transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere? The problem of the storms and substorms: what is the true chain of physical processes in the generation and development of magnetospheric disturbances? The problem of the storms and substorms: what is the true chain of physical processes in the generation and development of magnetospheric disturbances? The problem of energy redistribution inside the magnetosphere: what are sources and sinks of energy flows there? The problem of energy redistribution inside the magnetosphere: what are sources and sinks of energy flows there?

19 Scientific tasks of the magnetospheric investigations within EoI Quantitative modelling of geomagnetic disturbances in the whole power range: from weak isolated substorms to the most powerful superstorms. 2. Phenomenological modelling of physical processes at the magnetosphere boundary including plasma transfer events and penetration of particles through the cusps. 3. Investigation of wave channel of energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. 4. Theoretical and experimental search for wave-particle mechanisms of plasma redistribution inside the magnetosphere resulting in energy transfer to the ionosphere and upper atmosphere.

20 Magnetic measurements in Russia The widest network of magnetic stations has been achieved in the Soviet Union during the previous, 2nd International Polar Year ( ), when 38 stations were established, see Table. Unfortunately, economical difficulties in the end of last century forced to stop operation of most FSU observatories: in 1998 only 5 stations of 38 were sending their data to the World Data Centers.

21 Magnetic measurements To improve the situation, we applied to INTERMAGNET community for help. We proposed a project CRENEGON to use financial support of European Commission for renewing FSU magnetic observatories and joining them to INTERMAGNET. To improve the situation, we applied to INTERMAGNET community for help. We proposed a project CRENEGON to use financial support of European Commission for renewing FSU magnetic observatories and joining them to INTERMAGNET. In 2000 Irkutsk (IRT) became a full member of INTERMAGNET, which turned it into locomotive in recovering other Russian and FSU observatories. In 2000 Irkutsk (IRT) became a full member of INTERMAGNET, which turned it into locomotive in recovering other Russian and FSU observatories. Budapest, March 1999

22 Magnetic measurements Magnetologists of Belgium, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine participated in the project. As a result, instrumentation base of the participating observatories has been totally renewed, magnetic observations have been transferred into digital format, and these Magnetologists of Belgium, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine participated in the project. As a result, instrumentation base of the participating observatories has been totally renewed, magnetic observations have been transferred into digital format, and these observatories have been integrated into the worldwide network. Project CRENEGON, supported by international European foundation INTAS in

23 Current map of INTERMAGNET observatories network. One can see that owing to CRENEGON project a large gap in the northern part of Asia has been bridged Current map of INTERMAGNET observatories network. One can see that owing to CRENEGON project a large gap in the northern part of Asia has been bridged Magnetic measurements

24 Magnetic measurements  Simultaneously with the above activity of our Institute, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) in cooperation with Kyoto University began activity on recovery of Arctic magnetic stations planning to re-establish 9 stations. Norilsk (NOK) (under supervision of our Institute), Tixie (TIX), and Pebek (PBK) are already operating.  Data are available via internet: and u.ac.jp/imagdir/imag1/quick.html u.ac.jp/imagdir/imag1/quick.html u.ac.jp/imagdir/imag1/quick.html

25 Magnetic measurements Eight magnetic stations with 1- second time resolution belonging to IKFIA and IKIR institutes participate in the International Project CPMN (Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network) under the leadership of Prof. Yumoto. The main scientific goal of the project is to investigate the processes of energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere.

26 Ground based facilities Magnetic and ionospheric observations ionosphere sounding observations of the atmospheric emissions magnetic observations Magnetic measurements

27 SuperDARN plans Green sectors show planned positions of two new HF radars to be deployed in Siberia. Constructions of these radars will allow Russian geophysicists to join SuperDARN community.

28 Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) electromagnetic observations Geomagnetic pulsations: frequency range – 1 mHz to 5 Hz amplitude range – 1 pT to 500 nT wavelength range – 100 to km Geomagnetic pulsations: frequency range – 1 mHz to 5 Hz amplitude range – 1 pT to 500 nT wavelength range – 100 to km Examples of the most powerful and long-period pulsations of Pc5 type (left) and the Pc1 pulsations with the shortest perioid (right, simultaneous observations at three stations)

29 In a network of digital inductional (search-coil) magnetometers was established in cooperation with colleagues from Japan and Finland, which allowed to plan and carry out joint experiments. All stations are operating continuously. In a network of digital inductional (search-coil) magnetometers was established in cooperation with colleagues from Japan and Finland, which allowed to plan and carry out joint experiments. All stations are operating continuously. ULF electromagnetic observations Data are available at: geobrk.adm.yar.ru:1352/geopuls /index.html geobrk.adm.yar.ru:1352/geopuls /index.html tokyo.ac.jp/~hayashi tokyo.ac.jp/~hayashi

30 Some examples of the results achieved in the magnetosphere studies Global Pc5 oscillations as indicator of a new regime of energy transfer from the solar wind Global Pc5 oscillations as indicator of a new regime of energy transfer from the solar wind During the strongest geomagnetic disturbances when the Earth in its orbit hits upon superfast flow of the solar plasma the whole magnetosphere is used to be subjected to very large oscillations in the frequency range of units of milliherz. At that, the energy input to the magnetosphere grows, though Bz component of the interplanetary magnetic field is positive. We suppose that global Pc5 pulsations evidence that a new regime of energy transfer from the solar wind switches on; and this regime is not related to magnetic reconnection, but is provided by some powerful instability on the magnetosphere boundary. A. Potapov, A. Guglielmi, B. Tsegmed, J. Kultima. Global Pc5 event during 29–31 October 2003 magnetic storm. Adv. Space Res., In Press, Available online 30 June 2006.

31 Some examples of the results achieved in the magnetosphere studies (Plasma Transfer Events - PTE) The solar plasma penetration into the magnetosphere (Plasma Transfer Events - PTE) As defined by Yamamuchi, PTE is reflection of “transiently weakening the magnetic barrier of magnetopause”. We proposed that inverse Faraday effect due to Pc1 ion cyclotron waves is a possible cause of such weakening. Magnetization of plasma by a circularly polarized wave is The ion cyclotron wave (upper sign) leads to weakening of the external magnetic field since B = H + 4  M. The effect is quadratic in respect to the electric field amplitude E The ion cyclotron wave (upper sign) leads to weakening of the external magnetic field since B = H + 4  M. The effect is quadratic in respect to the electric field amplitude E .

32 Some examples of the results achieved in the magnetosphere studies We checked connection between PTE and Pc1 for 22 CLUSTER CIS Cusp crossings and found that Probability of Pc1 without PTE is 0.09 Probability of Pc1 with PTE is 0.36 Moreover, number of hours with Pc1 during 12-hour intervals after Cluster cusp crossing when: PTE was not detected 5 h PTE was detected 30 h (Plasma Transfer Events - PTE) The solar plasma penetration into the magnetosphere (Plasma Transfer Events - PTE) Examples of unusual Pc1 emissions when PTEs were observed: A. Guglielmi, A. Potapov et al. Action of the solar wind on the magnetosphere wave activity in the Pc1 frequency range. In: Solar-Terrestrial Physics. Vol.8, , 2005.

33 Conclusions Expression of Intent 946 is a part of activities planned by the Council on Solar-Terrestrial Connections of RAS for IPY and IHY period in magnetospheric studies. Expression of Intent 946 is a part of activities planned by the Council on Solar-Terrestrial Connections of RAS for IPY and IHY period in magnetospheric studies.

34 Thanks for attention!


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