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John Calvin Gonzalez, Vol. 2, Chapter 7.

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1 John Calvin Gonzalez, Vol. 2, Chapter 7

2 Contrast between two Reformers
Martin Luther & John Calvin

3 Contrast between two Reformers
Martin Luther John Calvin “Trailblazer” of the Reformation Tortured quest for salvation; joyous discovery of justification by faith Luther’s experience would always dominate his theology and approach to reform Second generation of the Reformation Careful thinker who bound Protestant ideas into a cohesive whole Did not let justification eclipse the rest of Christian theology Developed areas that Luther had neglected (e.g. Sanctification)

4 Calvin’s Resume Born July 10, 1509 in Noyon, France
Calvin’s father was part of the rising middle class; secretary to the bishop and procurator of the cathedral chapter Calvin’s father had procured the incomes of two minor ecclesiastical posts for his son, to defray his expenses as a student Pursued an ecclesiastical career, Calvin studied in Paris where he became acquainted with both humanism and the conservative reaction to it He also became familiar wit the doctrines of Wycliffe, Huss and Luther Nevertheless he insisted that while in Paris he remained “stubbornly tied to the superstitions of the papacy”

5 Calvin’s Resume Awarded Master of Arts in 1528
His father had since lost his influence in Noyon and decided that John should pursue a career in law Calvin went on to study in Orleans and Bourges under two of the most famous jurists, Pierre de l’Estoile (traditionalist) and Andrea Alciati (humanist); Calvin favored l’Estoile How Calvin came to his break with Rome is not known; he left no record and wrote little about the inner state of his soul

6 Probable influences Humanist circles that he was a part of
His study of Scripture and the early fathers of the church The writings of Luther? Zwingli? Others?

7 Calvin’s break with Rome
In 1534, Calvin returned to Noyon and gave up the livings of the ecclesiastical posts that his father had secured for him In October 1534, Francis I of France shifted his policy towards Protestantism As a result of this change in royal policy, in January 1535 Calvin was compelled to go into exile in Switzerland, in the Protestant city of Basel Calvin had hoped to find a relatively peaceful and quiet setting to study Scripture and to write theological treatises to help clarify the faith of the church in confusing times

8 Institutes of the Christian Religion
First edition appeared in Basel in 1536 (516 pages) Intended to be a short summary of the Christian faith from a Protestant viewpoint Most Protestant writings of the period were polemical and reactionary in nature, in keeping with the urgency of the times Calvin wrote on basic doctrines such as the Trinity and the incarnation First edition was “pocket-sized,” containing six chapters: four dealing with the Law, the Creed, the Lord’s Prayer and the Sacraments; the last two were more polemical in tone, distinguishing Protestantism from Romanism

9 Success of the Institutes
Instant “best-seller”; sold-out in nine months First edition was in Latin, so could be read throughout Europe Successive editions of the Institutes grew in volume and addressed various controversies of the time, opinions of various groups the Calvin believed were in error, and the practical needs of the church 1539 edition was published in Strasbourg; 1541 edition was the first French edition; 1543, 1545, 1550, 1551, 1559, 1560 (the last two being the definitive texts)

10 Definitive Edition (1559-60)
Four books with a total of eighty chapters Book One: God and Revelation Book Two: God as Redeemer (OT & Christ) Book Three: Sanctification (Life in the Spirit; Fruits of the Spirit) Book Four: Church & Sacraments

11 Reformer of Geneva

12 Calvin the Reluctant Reformer
Calvin had no intention of following the active lifestyle of many Protestants who had become leaders of Reformation throughout Europe Believed that his gifts were more suited to scholarship; not being a pastor or leader Decided to relocate to Strasbourg where the environment seems conducive to theological reflection and literary activity The direct route to Strasbourg was closed off by military operations; he had to make a detour through Geneva

13 “Protestant” Geneva Geneva had come under the influence of missionaries from the Protestant city of Bern The initial Protestant converts were a small group of educated laity who ardently desired the reform of the church However, a powerful sector of bourgeoisie were only interested in the economic and political benefits that would result from a break with Rome; not really interested in “inward Protestantism” The local clergy simply acquiesced to the orders of the city government to abolish the Mass in 1536

14 William Farel ( )

15 Calvin’s detour The Bern missionaries, led by William Farel, suddenly found themselves responsible for the religious life of the city; sorely lacking in personnel to do it Calvin arrived in 1536 planning to spend no more than a day in the city Upon hearing that the young author of the Institutes was in town, Farel sought him out to compel him to stay He presented Calvin with several reasons why his presence was needed in Geneva Calvin initially refused, but changed his mind when Feral declared that the judgment of God would fall upon him if he did not agree to remain in Geneva

16 William Farel to John Calvin
“May God condemn your repose, and the calm you seek for study, if before such a great need you withdraw, and refuse your succor and help.”

17 First attempt at Reformation
Initially, Calvin had agreed only to lend his aid to the Protestant leaders of the city However, Calvin soon became Farel’s main collaborator The reforming zeal of Calvin and Farel was not well received by the bourgeoisie, who began to circulate rumors of their errors in the other Protestant cities of Switzerland and southern Germany The conflict came to a head on the matter of the right to excommunicate unrepentant sinners The government of Geneva refused to allow this, claiming that it was an unwarranted rigorism Calvin was banned from the city; Farel allowed to remain, but preferred to join Calvin in exile

18 Calvin in Strasbourg Finally making it to Strasbourg (1538), Calvin thought to resume his plans for quiet scholarship However, a large community of French exiles insisted that Calvin become their pastor; at the insistence of Martin Bucer, Calvin agreed He became a prolific liturgist – producing a French liturgy, French metrical translations of several psalms He also produced the second edition of the Institutes The three years he spent in Strasbourg were probably the happiest of his career ( ) However, he always regretted not being able to finish the work in Geneva

19 Marriage to Idelette de Bure (1540)

20 Calvin returns to Geneva
In 1540, Calvin had won the admiration of Geneva in a propaganda war that he had waged against Bishop Jacopo Sadoleto on behalf of the Protestant cause in Geneva In 1541, the new government invited Calvin to return to Geneva Calvin went right to work on a series of Ecclesiastical Ordinances that the city government approved with some modifications The reforms placed the church in Geneva under the authority of a “Consistory” of pastors and lay elders Despite the plurality of elders/pastors, Calvin’s personal authority was such that the Consistory usually followed his advice

21 Clashes of authority The Consistory and the City Government were frequently at odds with each other Calvin sought to regulate the customs and behavior of the citizens of the city, who also happened to be members of the church The government was not always amenable to the rigor that Calvin and the Consistory imposed upon their citizens When the opposition party came in power again in 1553, Calvin’s political position was precarious

22 Michael Servetus ( )

23 The “Servetus matter” (1553)
Servetus was a famous Spanish physician who had made significant contributions to medical science He was also the author of a number of theological treatises, where he rejected (in Anabaptist fashion) the union of church and state, infant baptism, and (in Socinian fashion) the doctrine of the Trinity He had escaped imprisonment and trial for heresy in France, and was making his way through Geneva when he was recognized Upon his arrest, Calvin had drawn up thirty-eight accusations against him; the other Protestant cantons supported Calvin over against Calvin’s more lenient opponents in government The city of Geneva had no choice but to condemn him to burning; Calvin had argued for the less severe punishment of beheading

24 The Aftermath of Servetus’ Martyrdom
Servetus’ execution secured Calvin’s authority in Geneva for the rest of his life The theologians of all the other Protestant cantons had supported Calvin; leaving Calvin’s opponents on the Genevan government open to the charge of defending a heretic who had been condemned by both Catholics and Protestants In 1559, Calvin saw the fulfillment of one of his fondest dreams – the opening of the Geneva Academy under the direction of Theodore Beza Calvin died on May 27, 1564

25 The Geneva Academy

26 Theodore Beza ( )

27 Calvin and Calvinism

28 Emerging consensus During Calvin’s lifetime the main issue dividing Protestants was the manner in which Christ was present in the Supper The issue famously divided Luther and Zwingli at the Marburg Colloquy (1529) Calvin’s own view was closer to Martin Bucer of Strasbourg, who took an intermediate position between Luther and Zwingli Calvin’s view: “Virtualism” (true spiritual presence, not physical)

29 Consensus Denied Wittenberg Concord of made room for both Luther’s and Bucer’s views of the supper Zurich Consensus of 1549 Later in life, Luther had expressed his pleasure with Calvin’s Institutes Then in 1552, Joachim Westphal published a treatise that declared Calvinist views on the Supper in error Melanchthon refused to condemn Calvin after Luther died Growing distance between those who followed Luther’s views and those who accepted the Zurich Consensus “Reformed” and “Lutheran”

30 The Geneva Academy Not only through the Institutes, but also through the Geneva Academy, Calvin’s influence was felt throughout Europe Many exiles came to Geneva, and many more came voluntarily to learn Eventually “Calvinism” spread to the Netherlands, Scotland, Hungary, France and beyond Predestination would not become the “hallmark” of Calvinism until the 17th century

31 The Reformed Tradition

32 The Reformation in Great Britain

33 Great Britain in the Sixteenth Century
House of Tudor (England) House of Stuart (Scotland)

34 Henry VII ( )

35 Henry VII (Tudor) Defeated Richard III (York) at Bosworth Field in 1485, ending the Wars of the Roses Married Elizabeth of York, thus uniting Lancaster and York Children: Arthur, Margaret, Henry, Mary In order to strengthen ties with Spain, Henry secured the marriage of Catherine of Aragon, one of the daughters of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, to his son and heir, Arthur Arthur died 4 months after the marriage Arranged a special dispensation from Rome to allow Henry to marry Catherine; this cast doubt on the legitimacy of Henry’s marriage

36 Henry VIII (1491-1547) First wife – Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536)
Daughter of Isabella & Ferdinand of Spain

37 Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536)

38 The King’s “Great Matter”
Henry & Catherine’s only surviving child was Mary ( ) Henry believed his marriage was cursed because it was against canon law of the church The kingdom had just recently gone through a series of bloody wars of succession; Henry needed a male heir Proposed that his illegitimate son, Henry “FitzRoy,” be declared legitimate and made his heir; the pope would not agree Henry’s solution was to try to seek to have his marriage to Catherine annulled; he begins his campaign in 1525

39 Charles I (V) of Spain Nephew to Catherine of Aragon

40 The Politics of Papal Annulments
Papal annulments were not uncommon, so Henry’s request was neither unusual or unreasonable (in 16th century terms However, the pope, Clement VII, was practically under the thumb of Charles V Clement stalled as long as he could, and even had his representatives suggest that Henry marry another in secret Meanwhile, Thomas Cranmer, had advised Henry to secure the opinions of the major universities of Europe: Paris, Toulouse, Orleans, Oxford, Cambridge, and even the ones in Italy – all declared in favor of Henry

41 Thomas Cranmer ( )

42 Henry’s course of action
From this point on Henry’s policies were designed to force the pope into concession Ancient laws forbidding appeals to Rome were reenacted; threatening to stop revenues going to Rome; the clergy were forced to swear allegiance to the King as “Head of the Church in England, as far as the law of Christ will allow” Henry was able to secure the pope’s confirmation of the appointment of Thomas Cranmer as Archbishop of Canterbury, the leading bishop of the English Church Soon after, Henry found himself falling in love with Ann Boleyn, the sister of one of his mistresses

43 Ann Boleyn ( ) Queen (from 1533); beheaded (1536)

44 The Inevitable Reformation
Henry was in no way sympathetic to Protestantism; what he sought was the restoration of the rights of the crown against undue papal intervention and encroachment Lutheranism was gaining a following in England, and the ideas of Wycliffe were still around Before he became Archbishop, Thomas Cranmer himself had spent time in Germany as an imperial ambassador, and saw the Lutheran Reformation firsthand in Nuremburg; secretly married the niece of Andreas Osiander Cranmer held out hope that the Church of England could follow a similar course of reform

45 Henry’s “eventful year” (1533-34)
Henry secretly marries Anne Boleyn. (She happens to be pregnant at the time.) Parliament forbids all appeals to Rome in temporal cases. Both Convocations (Canterbury and York) declare marriage to a brother’s widow unlawful. Archbishop Cranmer annuls Henry’s marriage to Catherine. (1533)

46 The “eventful year” continued… (1533-34)
Anne’s coronation (June 1533). Anne gives birth to Elizabeth on September 7. The Pope excommunicates Henry. Succession Act (1534) imposes a national oath recognizing Henry’s marriage to Anne and her children as rightful heirs. Supremacy Act (1534) declares Henry “Supreme Head of the English Church.” Treasons Act (1534) forbids denial of the King’s Supremacy.

47 Thomas More & John Fisher
Executed for Treason under Henry VIII Martyrs of the Catholic Church

48 Henry’s Religious Policies
Henry was conservative on religious matters, but understood that many of his leading churchman, including Cranmer, were committed to reform Henry’s policies thus shifted from time to time due to changing political considerations

49 Henry’s continuing need for an heir
Anne produced no male heir; her only child was a daughter, Elizabeth (I) Eventually Anne would be accused of adultery and condemned to death; the charges were most certainly false Henry then married Jane Seymour, who would finally produce a male heir, Edward (VI) Jane died soon after childbirth, leaving Henry a widow Henry would go through three more wives

50 Anne of Cleves Married 1540, Annulled 540

51 Catherine Howard Married 1540, Executed 1542

52 Catherine Parr Married 1543, Widowed 1547

53 Mary Tudor (1516-1558) Daughter of Catherine of Aragon
Queen ( )

54 Elizabeth Tudor ( ) Daughter of Anne Boleyn Queen ( )

55 Edward Tudor ( ) Son of Jane Seymour King ( )

56 Archbishop Cranmer behind the scenes…
Secured the translation of the Bible into English Suppression of the monasteries Favored status for humanists in the universities Gradually, the Reformation would take root in England

57 Edward VI (r )

58 Reform under Edward Protectorate of Somerset (Edward’s uncle); later Northumberland Reformation-minded bishops appointed; catholic bishops deposed The “cup” restored to the laity, clerical marriage allowed, images removed from the church Steps towards liturgical reform ultimately resulted in the publication of the Book of Common Prayer 1549 – conservative (“Lutheran-like”) 1552 – reformed (“Zwinglian-like”)

59 Mary I (r )

60 Mary’s Reign Edward’s premature death brought a crisis to the cause of reform Edward’s council attempted to secure the throne for Edward’s cousin, Lady Jane Grey; forces loyal to Mary quickly secured the throne Mary was committed to the goal of restoring Roman Catholicism in England Married her cousin, Philip of Spain (later Philip II) Mary’s policies were repressive of Protestantism, and her reign produced over 300 martyrs of the Protestant cause

61 Martyrdom of Latimer & Ridley
October 16, 1555

62 Martyrdom of Cranmer (1556)
March 1556

63 Elizabeth I (r )

64 Reform during Elizabeth’s reign
Never really any doubt that Elizabeth would seek to restore the royal supremacy over the church Marian exiles from the continent were returning, many of them with Calvinistic ideas (eventually forming the Puritan party) Elizabeth was not a Protestant extremist; her ideal church would unite the people under a common form of worship, though allowing great latitude for varying opinions Produced the third Book of Common Prayer (1559) Declared “Supreme Governor of the Church of England” Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion (1562)

65 Elizabeth’s via Media Maintain episcopal polity in the Church of England (bishops) Conservative temperament towards reform (retaining many traditional vestments and ornaments) Liturgy that was comprehensive of varying opinions on the nature of Christ’s presence in the Supper At first, Catholics were tolerated; after her excommunication in 1570, Catholics were persecuted Catholics attempted many plots against Elizabeth; supported Mary, Queen of Scots

66 Mary, Queen of Scots ( )

67 Spanish Armada (1588) Battle of Gravelines

68 Reformation of Scotland

69 Scottish Politics Traditional ally: France
The marriage of Margaret Tudor to James IV brought hope that England and Scotland could live in peace The marriage of James V to Mary of Guise brought Scotland under the influence of France again Protestant ideas had found fertile ground in Scotland as the teachings of the Lollards and Hussites had in earlier times Protestant ideas also found favor with many of the nobles who grew weary with the growing power of the crown

70 Scottish Politics Henry VIII had suggested the marriage of the young Mary Stuart (Queen of Scots) to his son, Edward; but the French secured the marriage of Mary to the French Dauphin, Francis During Mary’s time in France, the Protestant factions grew stronger in Scotland, eventually taking St. Andrew’s castle and making it their home base

71 John Knox ( )

72 Knox’s resume Educated at the University of Glasgow or St. Andrews
Ordained a catholic priest in 1536 Came under the influence of George Wishart, and joined the effort to reform the Scottish Church Implicated in the murder of Cardinal Beaton in 1546; imprisoned by French forces, later exiled to England Licensed in the Church of England during Edward’s reign, eventually becoming a royal chaplain Went to Frankfort and Geneva during the reign of Mary Was not allowed to return to England when Elizabeth ascended to the throne Authored The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women

73 Politics in Scotland Knox returned to Scotland when the Protestant nobility (“The Lord’s of the Congregation”) were at their most vulnerable against the French forces under the regent, Mary of Guise Upon the regent’s death, the nobility invited Mary, Queen of Scots, back to Scotland, but under the provision that she would not suppress the Protestant cause Knox found himself at odds with Mary, preaching against her insistence on having the mass celebrated in her private chapel (the “new Jezebel”) Knox and his supporters established the Reformed Church of Scotland along presbyterian lines; drawing up a Confession of Faith and a Scottish liturgy The misfortunes of Mary’s marriages, the intrigues of her court, and Mary’s own dream of sitting on the throne of England would eventually lead to her own downfall Mary would eventually be forced to abdicate in favor of her one year old son, James (VI)

74 1558: First Marriage to Dauphin Francis II of France (2 years)

75 1565: Second marriage to her cousin, Henry Darnley (1545-67)

76 1567: Third marriage to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell (1536-78)

77 Mary and her son James (future James VI & I of Scotland and England)

78 1586: Babington Plot implicates Mary in a plan to assassinate Elizabeth.

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