Presentation on theme: "By– Dharmendra Singh Group no. – 317. Phlegmon Phlegmon is a spreading diffuse inflammatory process with formation of suppurative/purulent exudates."— Presentation transcript:
Phlegmon Phlegmon is a spreading diffuse inflammatory process with formation of suppurative/purulent exudates or pus. This is the result of acute purulent inflammation which is due to bacterial infection. An example would be phlegmon of diverticulitis. In this case a patient would present to the emergency department with left lower quadrant abdominal tenderness, and the diagnosis of sigmoid diverticulitis would be high on the differential diagnosis, yet the best test to confirm it would be CT scan.
Another example, phlegmon affecting the spine, is known as spondyliktosis and is associated with loss of disc height and endplate destruction. In adults, the bone marrow is affected first, while in children, the disease starts in the disc itself and spreads rapidly to the adjacent vertebral bodies. Phlegmon in the spine can be a diffuse enhancement, or localized abscess, (peripheral enhancement) in the epidural, subligamentous or paraspinous spaces. Under MRI examination, phlegmon will show dark with T1, and high signal (bright) with T2
Etiology Commonly by bacteria - streptococci, spore and non-spore forming anaerobes, etc. Factors affecting the development of phlegmons are virulence of bacteria and immunity strength.
Classification By clinical course: acute subacute By severity of condition: mild average severe (with spreading to other location(s)) By location: Superficial cutaneous subcutaneous interstitial tissue intramuscular Deep mediastinal retroperitoneal
By etiology: single mix (eg:spore and non-spore forming anaerobes) By pathogenesis: per continuitatem (through neighbouring tissues) hematogenous (through non-valvular veins like venous plexus of face eg: v. pterygoideus plexus → inflammation of veins (phlebitis) → thrombus formation in veins → embolization of thrombus into sinus venousus systems) odontogenous
By exudative character: purulent phlegmon purulent-hemorrhagic phlegmon putrefactive phlegmon By presence of complications: with complications (disturbance of mastication, ingestion, speech, cardiovascular and respiratory system, peritonitis, lymphadenitis, loss of conscious if very severe, etc) without complication
Clinical Picture Systemic features of infection such as increased body temperature (up to 38-40 °C), general fatigue, chills, sweatings, headache, loss of appetite). Inflammatory signs - dolor(localized pain), calor(increase local tissue temperature), rubor (skin redness/hyperemia), tumor (either clear or non-clear bordered tissue swelling), functio laesa (diminish affected function).
NB: severity of patient condition with phlegmons is directly proportional to the degree of intoxication level i.e the severe the condition, the higher degree of intoxication level. A noninfectious occurrence of phlegmon be found in the acute pancreatitis of Systemic Lupus Erythamatosis. The immunosuppressive aspects of this disease and the immunosuppressive medications used to treat it blunt each of the signs of infection.
Diagnostics Complaints and clinical appearances Anamnesis Visual and Palpations Blood test - leukocytosis (up to 10-12×10 9 /L), decrease or absence eosinophils level, shift of white count differential to the left (neutrophilia), increase ESR (up to 35–40 mm/hr). Urine test - presence of bacteria in urine, increase urinary leucocyte counts. X-ray test Ultrasound test
Treatment The main goal of treatment is to remove the cause of the phlegmonous process in order to achieve effective treatment and prevention of residives. If the patient's condition is mild and signs of inflammatory process are present without signs of infiltrates, then conservative treatment with antibiotics is sufficient. If the patient's condition is severe, however, immediate operation is usually necessary with application of drainage system. All of these are done under general anaesthesia. During operation, the cavity or place of phlegmonous process are washed with antiseptic, antibiotic solutions and proteolyic ferments.
In post-operative period, patients are treated with intravenous antibiotics, haemosorbtion, vitaminotherapy. Additionally, the use of i/v or i/m antistaphylococci γ-globulin or anatoxin can be taken as immunotherapy. During operation of phlegmon dissection at any location, it is important: to avoid spreading of pus during operation; to take into account the cosmetic value of the operating site, especially when treating phlegmmonous process of the face; and to avoid damaging nerves.