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Cliques and Independent Sets prepared and Instructed by Shmuel Wimer Eng. Faculty, Bar-Ilan University March 2014Cliques and Independent Sets1

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Shannon Capacity March 2014Cliques and Independent Sets2 A message consisting of signals belonging to a certain finite alphabet A is transmitted over a noisy channel. The message is a sequence of words of k signals each. Some pairs of signals are so similar that they can be confounded by the receiver due to noise. What is the largest number of distinct words that can be used in messages without a confusion at the receiver? Example. A={0,1,2,3,4}. k=2. If the noise results errors of i+1 and i-1 (mod 5), the message 00, 12, 24, 31, 43, can safely be transmitted.

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March 2014Cliques and Independent Sets3 Definition. The strong product of two graphs G and H is defined by the vertex set V(G) x V(H). Two vertices ux and vy are adjacent iff and x=y, or and u=v, or and. 0 1 23 4 0 1 23 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 01234 0 The strong product is embedded on a torus.

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March 2014Cliques and Independent Sets4 Let G be the graph with vertex set A. An edge uv is defined if u and v represent signals that might be confused with each other. G k is a strong product of k copies of G, representing words of length k over A. Q: What are the edges of G k ? A: Two distinct words (u 1,u 2,…,u k ) and (v 1,v 2,…,v k ) are connected with an edge if either u i =v i or for 1≤i≤k. Edges of G k correspond to words that might be confused with each other. The largest number of distinct words equals the size of maximum independent set α(G k ).

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March 2014Cliques and Independent Sets5 0 1 2 3 4 0 01234 0 In this example k=2 and α(C 5 2 )=5.

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Digraphs and Kernels March 2014Cliques and Independent Sets6 A stable vertex set S in a digraph D is a stable set in its underlying graph G. If S is maximal then every vertex of G - S is adjacent to S. For digraph it is natural to replace the adjacency by dominance. A kernel in.

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