2The BluesThe blues began in the 1800’s in the Mississippi delta regionThe blues came from the African American tradition in the form of work songs and field cries.The blues was a free form style that helped express the feelings of frustration and sadness felt by slaves.
3Lyric FormAs the blues became more popular, people began to play together so they needed a form to followThe form is a simple AAB: the first two lines are the same and the second one is differentLet’s listen to “The Thrill is Gone” by the legendary B.B. King and check for the AAB form.You can hear the African use of buzzy tone. It expresses passion and emotion.
4The Chord Progression Most rock songs follow a “chord progression” A chord progression is a series of chords that the guitar and piano play to guide the music and the melody. As a guitarist you must know many different chords in order to play the chord progressions of your favorite songMany of the early rock songs (like “Hound Dog”) follow the blues progression
5Blues ProgressionThe blues uses three chords: I, IV, and V (musicians use roman numerals to name the chords)In the key of C:I = CIV =FV = G
6The 12 –Bar BluesThe Blues has 12 bars (or measures) and they are arranged in this way:C F C G C(I) (IV) (I) (V) (I)Let’s play the 12 Bar Blues progression together
7Rhythm and BluesIn 1940s, a style of music that blended blues and jazz was being played on the African American radio stations.It’s popularity was tied with the rise of the electric guitar which was an instrument often used in the rhythm and blues styleIt was organized around the 12 bar blues and AAB lyric form but had a straight feel and faster tempo
8Famous Rhythm and Blues Musicians Fats Domino had wide appeal because of his smooth vocals and R&B sound. Most of the early Rock bands looked more like a small jazz band than the modern rock band.Little Richard began playing a more uptempo style such as his hit “Tutti Frutti”. His fiery style and aggressive vocals changed the sound of R&B (v.s. the smooth Fats Domino.)
9Ray Charles blended R&B, Gospel, and Blues in his signature style. Chuck Berry was very influential with his style of guitar playing and exciting sound. His best known song is “Johnny B. Goode”.Notice that Chuck Berry is the first Rhythm and blues musician we’ve heard to use guitar. The popularity of the guitar was a big step in the creation of Rock music.
10Compare and ContrastLet’s compare and contrast two important Rhythm and Blues songsUse instruments, style, tempo, and mood to fill a venn diagram. Don’t forget the lyric form and 12 bar blues!
11Rock ‘n RollRhythm and Blues began to change into an entirely new style: rock ‘n rollRock n’ Roll was named for blues lyrics about dancing (dancing was called rocking and rolling)Some of the greatest early rock heroes listened to R&B and copied the style and then made it their ownBesides not always using the 12 bar blues, rock musicians began to straighten out the eighth notes of the shuffle rhythm into the common rock beat we know today.Rock music also has a heavy back beat (snare drum)
12Early Rock HeroesBill Haley and His Comets added a bit of country style and had, arguably, the first huge rock hit: “Rock Around the Clock”Most R&B bands at the time looked like small jazz bands with piano and horns, but Bill Haley’s band looked more like a country groupThis earl rock style (also played by Elvis) is called Rockabilliy (Rock + Hillbilly)Jerry Lee Lewis, with his exciting piano style, added to the new sound of Rock ‘n Roll with “Great Balls of Fire” and other classics
13R&B v.s early RockCompare and contrast these two versions of “Shake, Rattle and Roll”Joe Turner – Rhythm and BluesBill Haley – Rock ‘n’ RollIs there a difference in instruments, rhythm, mood, or tempo?
14Buddy Holly Buddy Holly popularized the Fender Stratocaster guitar. He was one of the few people in the mid-50’s that wrote his own musicMost rock bands in the 50’s looked like a small jazz band, but Buddy Holly’s band looked like today’s modern rock band (2 guitars, bass, drums)Buddy’s band also played in a straighter style instead of using the shuffle rhythm.
15The Day the Music DiedBuddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and the Big Bopper died in a plane crash on February 3rd, 1959The loss of these three musicians dealt a blow to the rock & roll music scene at the time.Don McLean wrote the song “American Pie” in tribute to the “Day the Music Died”This is what people heard on the radio the morning after the crash.
16Rock history up to now Blues R&B (Little Richard, Joe Turner) Bill Haley (First Rock Hit) Chuck Berry (Popularized the guitar) Buddy Holly (used the Stratocaster and created the modern rock band set-up)Rock music brought a heavy beat, direct lyrics aimed at teenagers, and simple chord progressions to the music world.
17Elvis Elvis Presley’s first big hit was in 1956 “Heartbreak Hotel” Elvis appeared on the Ed Sullivan show on September 9th, 1956 and began his rise to fame.His other hits include “Hound Dog”, “Jailhouse Rock”,The country blend with Rock &Roll was first called Rockabilly (due to the “hillbilly singers)Elvis didn’t write his own songs. Instead, he played “covers” like “Blue Suede Shoes” first recorded by Carl Perkins in 1955.
18Elvis contd.Elvis was enormously popular with American teens. Their parents didn’t approve of his “bad boy” look and dance moves with simply fueled the fire of support for the King of Rock ‘n RollIn 1956, Elvis began a career as an actor.In 1958, he was went into the military and, when he returned, he continued to make movies.The King returned to the music scene in 1968 with a new look.Elvis continued to tour with his classic hits and added a few new songs as well.Due to his rock lifestyle, the King died on August 16, 1977 of a heart attack at the age of 42
19Covers in Rock MusicNot all songs are original, many musicians played covers (songs written by other groups or musicians)A cover is like an arrangement of a song played by a different band.Elvis played many coversCovers have been performed by many groups over the years. In the early days of rock and roll, many songs originally recorded by R&B and Country musicians were still being re-recorded
20The Decline of RockAfter the death of Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and the Big Bopper in 1959, rock ‘n’ roll music began to decline.Elvis went into the army, Little Richard retired to become a preacher, and Jerry Lee Lewis and Chuck Berry were facing lawsuits.Popular music was mostly slow love songs and girl groups like the “Shirelles”, The “Marvelettes”, and “The “Chordettes”.But… new innovations were being made that would change music and revive rock ’n’ roll
21The 1960’sThe 60’s saw a departure from the blues influence. Songs began to follow different chord progressions and have a different beat.Some of the most important rock legends saw their start in the 60s: Bob Dylan, The Beatles, Rolling Stones, The Who, Beach Boys, Stevie Wonder, Jimi Hendrix and many more.
22The TwistIn 1960, Chubby Checker had a hit sensation that had all the young people doing a new dance.“The Twist” still used the familiar 12 bar blues pattern but the drum beat was the now familiar “rock beat” with straight eighth notes and snare beats on two and four.Checker appeared on American Bandstand which helped it top the charts only a week after it’s release.
23British InvasionIn the late 1950s, American R&B and Rock songs traveled across the Atlantic to the U.K.The music was hugely popular and young, British musicians were eager to perform the music.The Invasion started with the Beatles in 1963.The best know British bands include: “The Beatles”, “Rolling Stones”, “The Kinks”, “Dave Clark Five”, and later “The Who”Most British bands started by covering R&B and rock songs.
24Rolling StonesThe Rolling Stones became popular in the mid 60’s (a little after the Beatles.)In their early career, they mostly covered American R&B songs and blues numbers.Their first International No.1 hit was “(I can’t Get No) Satisfaction”In 1969 they Released another classic “You Can’t Always Get What You Want”Their popularity continued into the 70s and they are still an active band today.
25BeatlemaniaThe Beatles are considered by many to be the most important rock band of all time. They are the bridge between the 50’s Rock and the many different styles we have today. Their sound continued to change throughout their 10 year career.The way fans acted was called BeatlemaniaThe Beatles were: John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr
26Beatles PerformancesThe Beatles have many great and recognizable hits.Here are some of their great performancesEd SullivanWashington Coliseum Documentary pt.1Pt.2
27Early BeatlesIn 1960, John and Paul (the band’s main composers) wrote “Love Me Do” their first original hit.Like Elvis before them, they were hated by the older generation. One reason was their “Mop Top” haircuts. Though their songs sounded harmless, adults were worried about their influence.In 1964, the Beatles played on the Ed Sullivan show, a performance that began Beatlemania
28More BeatlesThe early part of their career was marked by touring and a ton of album releases.They even made two movies, “A Hard Day’s Night” and “Help!”In 1965, they released “Rubber Soul” (Followed by “Revolver”) which is thought to be their creative peak.Songs from this era include: “Drive My Car”, “Norwegian Wood”, “Eleanor Rigby”, “Day Tripper”, and “Yellow Submarine”
29Changing SoundThe Beatles became more sophisticated. They started using strings and horns, eastern influences like George Harrison’s sitar playing, and the lyrics became more personal.In ‘67 and ‘68 they made two more ground breaking albums “Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band” and the so-called “White Album”They also released the single “All You Need Is Love” in ’67.
30Over time, the band member began to have personal and artistic differences. They produced two more albums “Abbey Road” and “Let It Be” and continued to take music in new directions.January 30th 1969, The Beatles released a film “Let It Be” that included their famous rooftop concertThe band split in 1970In 1980, John Lennon was killed by a crazed fan, George Harrison died of lung cancer in 2001, Ringo and Paul are still alive and making music.
31How the Beatles changed music Brought back Rock music and established the 2 guitar, 1 bass, drums, lead vocal, and backup vocal band set-upStarted the British InvasionMade string and brass instruments popular for rock music (and introduced sitar and synthesizer)They were the first to make albums without touringTheir changing sound gave inspiration to many style of music
32MotownMotown Records, named after the “Motortown”- Detroit, was started by Berry Gordy Jr.Motown was the birthplace of artists like Smokey Robinson, the Temptations, the Supremes, Jackson Five (including Michael Jackson), Marvin Gaye, Stevie Wonder and othersMotown Records produced records from the early 1960s to 1988 and between 1961 and 1971 had 110 top 10 hitsMotown was part of the style called “soul” music
33Types of Motown GroupsMale singing groups like Temptations - “Aint to Proud to Beg”Female singing groups like Diana Ross and the Supremes - “Stop in the Name of Love”Don’t forget the family act – Jackson 5 that included a young Michael Jackson - “ABC”Single performers like Smokey Robinson - “Tears of a Clown”Motown groups often included a large band with horns (Saxophone, Trumpet, Trombone)
34Soul Music The Motown sound is an example of “soul” music. Soul music combines rhythm and blues with a gospel sound.The vocals often have a buzzy or raspy toneJames Brown is considered the “Godfather of Soul” and is a good example of the soul soundAretha Franklin is known as the “Queen of Soul”. She sang at the 2008 Presidential Inaguration
35Rock becomes diverseJimi Hendrix – Started using distortion and changed the way guitar solos were playedRock began splintering into different sounds and stylesJimmy Page and Led Zeppelin – Pioneers of Hard Rock and Heavy MetalThe Ramones – early punk rock bandSome of the types of rock include: Alt Rock, Metal, Punk, Emo, Folk Rock, Grunge, Indie, Fusion, Noise Rock, Prog, Pop Rock, Rockabilly,