Presentation on theme: "Objectives: 1. To gain an understanding of Ohm’s Law 2. To compare and contrast the movement of current through a series and parallel circuit based on."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives: 1. To gain an understanding of Ohm’s Law 2. To compare and contrast the movement of current through a series and parallel circuit based on the circuits power supply and resistance Circuits and Ohm’s Law
Current (I) – The amount of charge that flows by an area in a unit of time Current flows from the positive (+) terminal to the negative (-) terminal of a battery. Electrons flow from – to +. Measured in Amperes or Amps with an Amp meter A
Voltage (V) - The difference in energy per unit of charge. It is caused by an unbalance of charge, and it is the push that drives electrical current. Without it, electrons will not flow. Measured in Volts (V) with a Voltmeter Symbol Voltage V
Resistance (R) - Resistance is the value assigned to a specific conductor that indicates its degree of resistance to the passage of a current. Measured in Ohms (Ω) = 1 volt/1 amp Different objects resist the flow of current more or less. The less resistance, the faster the current will flow. The more the e - want to flow (voltage), the faster the current is. Resistance
The amount of current (speed of charge flow) depends on how badly the e - want to get to the other terminal (voltage) and what is in their way to slow them down (resistance). This concept is better known as Ohm’s law. I = V/R or V = IR Ohm’s Law
When circuit elements are arranged in such a way that there is no branching, as in the next slide, the various devices are said to be connected in series. The basic property of this type of circuit is that the current is the same in all parts of the circuit. I T = I 1 = I 2 = I 3 = …. S-e-r-i-e-s C-i-r-c-u-i-t-s
All electricity must go thru all three resistors. If one resistor is turned off, all electricity is off. The more resistors, the higher the total resistance. Each resistor uses some of the total voltage of the power source. Each resistor affects the others.
150 Volts R= 50Ω Each resistor slows down the electricity (current). Thus, the resistance total equals the sum of all resistors. R T = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 …. = 50Ω + 50Ω + 50Ω = 150Ω I T = I 1 =I 2 =I 3 …. I = V T /R T = 150V/150Ω = 1 Amp through out the circuit V T = V 1 + V 2 + V 3 … V 1 = I 1 R 1 = 1 Amp x 50Ω = 50V Therefore, V T = 50V + 50V + 50V = 150V, which is the voltage the battery can provide.
A circuit of this type, where the current divides into two or more branches, is called a parallel circuit. The total current is the sum of the currents through the individual components. V T = V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = …… Parallel Circuits
Electricity may go thru any of the three resistors. If one resistor is turned off, the others still work. The more resistors (branches) that are on, the lower the total resistance. Each resistor has the total voltage of the power source. Each resistor has its own circuit.
R= 50Ω V=150V Current is given three different routes to take (Thus, R T is less than the individual resistances.). 1/R T = 1/R 1 + 1/R 2 + 1/R 3 + ….. 1/50Ω + 1/50Ω + 1/50Ω = 3/50Ω ; R T = 16.7Ω V T = V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = ….. 150V I T = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 + ……. I 1 = V 1 /R 1 = 150V/50Ω = 3 Amps ; 3Amps + 3Amps + 3 Amps = 9 Amps = I T
1.Complete the Ohm’s Law Practice handout. 2.Use your notes. 3.Show your work. Ohm’s Law Practice