Presentation on theme: "Electric Current Closed vs. Open Circuits No, the switch is open, so the path is not complete No, the circuit needs to go from + to - Yes, charge."— Presentation transcript:
Closed vs. Open Circuits No, the switch is open, so the path is not complete No, the circuit needs to go from + to - Yes, charge will flow, BUT the light will not light Maybe! If one battery has higher V than the other
Direction of Current Current is defined as the direction positive charges would flow From high potential to low potential From + side of battery to – side of battery Fun Fact Benjamin Franklin defined current in this manner long before we knew much about charges. Now, we know that positive charges stay put and negative charges flow. So, electrons actually flow opposite current.
Calculating Current An important note about current: Although potential decreases across a circuit, current is the same everywhere in a circuit!
Circuit Analogy – CFU
Circuit Analogy - CFU E F B C A
Electrical resistance (symbol R) Electrons flow due to potential difference. If the potential difference is removed, then As electrons move, they bump into other atoms, this slows them down and impedes their motion.. atoms free electron (actually positive ions) path Resistance (R) is a measure of the degree to which an object impedes the flow of current. Resistance is measured in Ohms ( )
OHM’S LAW - Current, Voltage and Resistance Current = the potential difference applied across a circuit divided by the total resistance of the circuit. R - resistance R - resistance I – current V – potential difference across R I – current V – potential difference across R
Examples If a 3 volt flashlight bulb has a resistance of 9 ohms, how much current will it draw?If a 3 volt flashlight bulb has a resistance of 9 ohms, how much current will it draw? I = V / R = 3 V / 9 = 1/3 Amps I = V / R = 3 V / 9 = 1/3 Amps If a light bulb draws 2 A of current when connected to a 120 volt circuit, what is the resistance of the light bulb?If a light bulb draws 2 A of current when connected to a 120 volt circuit, what is the resistance of the light bulb? R = V / I = 120 V / 2 A = 60 R = V / I = 120 V / 2 A = 60
Check for Understanding Which of the following would cause the current in a circuit to decrease the most? 1)Increased voltage and increased resistance 2)Increased voltage and decreased resistance 3)Decreased voltage and decreased resistance 4)Decreased voltage and increased resistance
Check for Understanding If the resistance of a circuit were tripled, then the current through the circuit would be ____. 1.one-third as much 2.three times as much 3. unchanged 4.... nonsense! There would be no way to make such a prediction.
Just for Fun … Effects of electric current on the BODY- electric shock Current (A) Effect 0.001 can be felt 0.005 painful 0.010 involuntary muscle contractions (spasms) 0.015 loss of muscle control 0.070 if through the heart, serious disruption; probably fatal if current lasts for more than 1 second
human body resistance varies: 100 ohms if soaked with salt water; moist skin - 1000 ohms; normal dry skin – 100 000 ohms, extra dry skin – 500 000 ohms. What would be the current in your body if you touch the terminals of a 12-V battery with dry hands? I = V/R = 12 V/100 000 = 0.000 12 A quite harmless I = V/R = 12 V/100 000 = 0.000 12 A quite harmless But if your hands are moist and you touch 12 V battery, how much current would you draw? I = V/R = 12 V/1000 = 0.012 A I = V/R = 12 V/1000 = 0.012 A a dangerous amount of current. a dangerous amount of current.