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November 19, 2009Theory of Computation Lecture 19: Calculations on Strings IV 1 Numerical Representation of Strings Correspondingly, we define the following: For x N, let w be the string in Ã* which represents x in base l. Let w’ be obtained from w by crossing out all of the symbols that belong to Ã – A, so w’ A*. We write DOWNCHANGE n,l (x) for the number which w’ represents in base n. Example: DOWNCHANGE 2,6 (109) = 5 The representation of 109 in base 6 is s 2 s 6 s 1. We cross out the s 6 and get s 2 s 1. In base 2, s 2 s 1 represents the number 5.

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November 19, 2009Theory of Computation Lecture 19: Calculations on Strings IV 2 Numerical Representation of Strings UPCHANGE n,l and DOWNCHANGE n,l are actually primitive recursive functions, but now we will just show that they are computable. This program computes UPCHANGE n,l : [A]IF X = 0 GOTO E Z ← LTEND n (X) // Z receives leftmost symbol X ← LTRUNC n (X) // removes this symbol from x Y ← l Y + Z // add to output GOTO A

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November 19, 2009Theory of Computation Lecture 19: Calculations on Strings IV 3 Numerical Representation of Strings Let us look at the computation of UPCHANGE 2,10 (12) iteration by iteration (string s 2 s 1 s 2 ): [A]IF X = 0 GOTO E Z ← LTEND n (X) X ← LTRUNC n (X) Y ← l Y + Z GOTO A 0. Z = 0, Y = 0, X = 12 1.Z = 2, Y = 2, X = 4 2.Z = 1, Y = 21, X = 2 3.Z = 2, Y = 212, X = 0 Result: 212

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November 19, 2009Theory of Computation Lecture 19: Calculations on Strings IV 4 Numerical Representation of Strings This program computes DOWNCHANGE n,l : [A]IF X = 0 GOTO E Z ← LTEND l (X) // Z receives leftmost symbol X ← LTRUNC l (X) // removes this symbol from x IF Z > n GOTO A // check if we must cross out Z Y ← n Y + Z // if not, add digit Z to output GOTO A

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November 19, 2009Theory of Computation Lecture 19: Calculations on Strings IV 5 A Progr. Language for String Computations The instructions in our programming language L do not seem well-designed for string computations. Let us consider the instruction type V V + 1. For example, if we use the alphabet {a, b, c, d}, and the variable V contains the number corresponding to the string cadd, what will this instruction do? It will turn cadd into cbaa. Why would we want to have this as one of our fundamental operations in the programming language?

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November 19, 2009Theory of Computation Lecture 19: Calculations on Strings IV 6 A Progr. Language for String Computations To improve this situation, we will now introduce specific programming languages L n for computations on alphabets of size n for all n > 0. All variables will be the same as in L, except that we now consider their values to be from A* with | A | = n. The use of labels, formal rules of syntax, and macro expansions will also be identical to L. An m-ary partial function on A* which is computed by a program in L n is said to be partially computable in L n. If the function is total and partially computable in L n, it is called computable in L n.

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November 19, 2009Theory of Computation Lecture 19: Calculations on Strings IV 7 A Progr. Language for String Computations Instruction Interpretation V V (with A) Place the symbol to the left of the string which is the value of V. V V - Delete the final symbol of the string which is the value of V. If the value of V is 0, leave it unchanged. IF V ENDS GOTO LIf the value of V ends in the symbol , continue with the first instruction labeled L; otherwise proceed to the next instruction.

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November 19, 2009Theory of Computation Lecture 19: Calculations on Strings IV 8 A Progr. Language for String Computations Although the instructions of L n refer to strings, we can still think of them as referring to the numbers associated with the strings. For example, given an alphabet with n symbols, the instruction V s i V has the effect of replacing the current value of the variable V with the value i n |V| + V. So you see that the “natural” string operations in L n have complex numerical counterparts.

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November 19, 2009Theory of Computation Lecture 19: Calculations on Strings IV 9 A Progr. Language for String Computations Now let us look at some useful macros for use in L n and their expansions: 1. The macro IF V 0 GOTO L has the expansion IF V ENDS s 1 GOTO L IF V ENDS s 2 GOTO L : IF V ENDS s n GOTO L

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November 19, 2009Theory of Computation Lecture 19: Calculations on Strings IV 10 A Progr. Language for String Computations 2. The macro V 0 has the expansion [A]V V - IF V 0 GOTO A 3. The macro GOTO L has the expansion Z 0 Z s 1 Z IF Z ENDS s 1 GOTO L

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November 19, 2009Theory of Computation Lecture 19: Calculations on Strings IV 11 A Progr. Language for String Computations 4. The macro V’ V has a complicated expansion. So let us first introduce the description IF V ENDS s i GOTO B i (1 i n) to stand for IF V ENDS s 1 GOTO B 1 IF V ENDS s 2 GOTO B 2 : IF V ENDS s n GOTO B n This is also called a filter.

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November 19, 2009Theory of Computation Lecture 19: Calculations on Strings IV 12 A Progr. Language for String Computations Z 0 V’ 0 [A]IF V ENDS s i GOTO B i (1 i n) GOTO C [B i ]V V - (1 i n) V’ s i V’: Z s i Z: GOTO A: [C]IF Z ENDS s i GOTO D i (1 i n) GOTO E [D i ]Z Z - (1 i n) V s i V: GOTO C:

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November 19, 2009Theory of Computation Lecture 19: Calculations on Strings IV 13 A Progr. Language for String Computations Finally, let us look at two useful functions, namely f(x) = x + 1 and g(x) = x - 1. We want to show that these functions are computable in L n by writing programs that compute them.

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November 19, 2009Theory of Computation Lecture 19: Calculations on Strings IV 14 A Progr. Language for String Computations Example 1: An L n program that computes f(x) = x + 1 [B]IF X ENDS s i GOTO A i (1 i n) Y s 1 Y GOTO E [A i ]X X - (1 i < n) Y s i+1 Y: GOTO C: [A n ]X X - Y s 1 Y GOTO B [C]IF X ENDS s i GOTO D i (1 i n) GOTO E [D i ]X X - (1 i n) Y s i Y: GOTO C:

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November 19, 2009Theory of Computation Lecture 19: Calculations on Strings IV 15 A Progr. Language for String Computations Example 2: An L n program that computes g(x) = x - 1 [B]IF X ENDS s i GOTO A i (1 i n) GOTO E [A i ]X X - (1 < i n) Y s i-1 Y: GOTO C: [A 1 ]X X - IF X 0 GOTO C 2 GOTO E [C 2 ]Y s n Y GOTO B [C]IF X ENDS s i GOTO D i (1 i n) GOTO E [D i ]X X - (1 i n) Y s i Y: GOTO C:

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