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THE TEMPERATURE REMAINING CONSTANT THE CURRENT FLOWING IN THE CIRCUIT IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE APPLIED VOLTAGE AND INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO ITS RESISTANCE. V = I X R I = V/R R = V/I OHM’S LAW FOR DC

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IF V = 9 VOLT AND R = 10 OHMS I = V/R = 9/10 = 0.9 AMPERE IF I = 10 AMPERE V = 10 VOLT R = I/V= 10 / 10 = 1 OHM IF I = 10 AMPERE R = 5 OHMS V = I * R= 10 * 5 = 50 VOLT NUMERICALS BASED ON OHM’S LAW

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KIRCHHOFF’S FIRST LAW THE TOTAL CURRENT ENTERING THE CUIRCUIT (FLOWING TOWARDS) IS EQUAL TO THE TOTAL CURRENT LEAVING THE CUIRCUIT. KIRCHHOFF’S SECOND LAW THE TOTAL VOLTAGE DROP ACROSS THE RESISTANCE OF A CLOSED CIRCUIT IS EQUAL TO THE TOTAL VOLTAGE APPLIED TO THE CIRCUIT.

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DIAGRAM KIRCHHOFF’S FIRST LAW DIAGRAM KIRCHHOFF’S SECOND LAW

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IT IS THE AMOUNT OF THE WORK DONE IN BRINGING ONE UNIT OF POSITIVE CHARGE FROM ONE POINT TO ANOTHER IN THE ELECTRIC FIELD. THE VOLTAGE RATING IS MEASURE OF PRESSURE. THE AMOUNT OF PUSH BEHIND ELECTRIC CURRENT (EMF). UNIT IS VOLT POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE

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THE RATE OF FLOW OF ELECTRON EQUAL TO ONE COULOMB PER SECOND. AMPERE IS UNIT OF CURRENT. AMPERE

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ELECTRIC POWER (WATT) WHENEVER ELECTRIC CURRENT FLOWS WORK IS DONE IN MOVING THE ELECTRONS THROUGH THE CONDUCTOR. THE RATE AT WHICH THE WORK IS DONE IS CALLED POWER. THE BASIC UNIT OF POWER IS WATT. P = V X I OR P = I X I X R 1000 WATT = 1 KILO WATT ( ONE UNIT OF ELECTRICITY IS 1 KW HR ) ONE HORSE POWER = 746 WATTS. ( ENERGY REQUIRED TO LIFT 33000 POUNDS OF WEIGHT TO 1 FEET OF HEIGHT AND KEEP IT THERE FOR 1 MIN.

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WATT and DECIBEL 1dB =10 Log WATT CONVERTING 100 WATT INTO DECIBELS 100 WATT= (10 log 100) dB = 10 *2 = 20 dB 100 WATT = 20 dB, 1000 WATT = 30 dB

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JOULE:UNIT OF WORK. ENERGY SPENT IN ONE SECOND BY AN AMPERE FLOWING THROUGH ONE OHM. ENERGY: THE STRENGTH OR CAPACITY REQUIRED TO DO WORK. POWER MEASURED OVER A TIME (KW HR)

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RESISTANCE IS THE OPPOSITION OFFERED BY A MATERIAL TO THE FLOW OF ELECTRON. IN A CIRCUIT RESISTANCE IS USED TO REGULATE FLOW OF CURRENT AND ALSO TO GENERATE HEAT AND LIGHT AT CERTAIN OCCASION THE UNIT OF RESISTANCE IS OHMS. 1000 OHMS = 1 KILO OHMS 1 AMPERE = 1000 MILI AMPERE 1 MICRO VOLT = 1/1 000 000 VOLT RESISTANCE

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RESISTANCE COLOUR CODE AND CIRCUIT SYMBOL

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RESISTANCE COLOUR CODE BBLACK =0 BBROWN =1 RRED=2 OORANGE=3 YYELLOW=4 GGREEN=5 BBLUE=6 VVOILET=7 GGREY=8 WWHITE=9 B B ROY GREAT BRITAIN VERY GOOD WIFE FIRST AND SECOND COLOUR ARE DIGITS. THIRD COLOUR IS NO OF ZEROS FOURTH COLOUR IS TOLERANCE

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RESISTANCE COLOUR CODE BBLACK=0 BBROWN =1 RRED=2OORANGE=3 YYELLOW=4GGREEN=5 BBLUE=6VVOILET=7 GGREY=8WWHITE=9 FOURTH COLOUR IS TOLERANCE GOLD = 5% SILVER = 10%NO COLOUR = 20% 31 OHMS= FIRST COLOUR WILL BE ORANGE SECOND COLOUR WILL BE BROWN THIRD COLOUR WILL BE BLACK

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RESISTANCDE IN SERIES R = R1 + R2 + R3 RESISTANCDE IN PARALLEL 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3

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IF R1 = 20 OHMS R2 = 30 OHMS R1 = 40 OHMS IN SERIES R = R1 + R2 + R3 R = 20 + 30 + 40 = 90 OHMS IN PARALLEL 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 1/R = 1/20 + 1/30 + 1/40 = 6/120 + 4/120 + 3/120 = 13/120 R = 120/13 = 9 OHMS APPROX NUMERICALS : RESISTANCE

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An RLC circuit (also known as a resonant circuit, tuned circuit, or LCR circuit) is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor (R), an inductor (L), and a capacitor (C), connected in series or in parallel. This configuration forms a harmonic oscillator.resonanttunedelectrical circuitresistorinductorcapacitorharmonic oscillator Tuned circuits have many applications particularly for oscillating circuits and in radio and communication engineering. They can be used to select a certain narrow range of frequencies from the total spectrum of ambient radio waves. For example, AM/FM radios typically use an RLC circuit to tune a radio frequency. Most commonly a variable capacitor allows you to change the value of C in the circuit and tune to stations on different frequencies. Other practical designs vary the inductance L to adjust tuning.spectrumvariable capacitor An RLC circuit is called a second-order circuit as any voltage or current in the circuit can be described by a second-order differential equation for circuit analysis.differential equation

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Series RLC with Thévenin power source In this circuit, the three components are all in series with the voltage source.voltage source Series RLC Circuit notations: V - the voltage of the power source (measured in volts V)volts I - the current in the circuit (measured in amperes A)amperes R - the resistance of the resistor (measured in ohms = V/A);resistanceohms L - the inductance of the inductor (measured in henrys = H = V·s/A)inductancehenryss C - the capacitance of the capacitor (measured in farads = F = C/V = A·s/V)capacitancefaradsC q - the charge across the capacitor (measured in coulombs C)coulombs Given the parameters v, R, L, and C, the solution for the charge, q, can be found using Kirchhoff's voltage law. (KVL) givesKirchhoff's voltage law For a time-changing voltage v(t), this becomes

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Parallel RLC circuit Parallel RLC Circuit notations: V - the voltage of the power source (measured in volts V)volts I - the current in the circuit (measured in amperes A)amperes R - the resistance of the resistor (measured in ohms = V/A);resistanceohms L - the inductance of the inductor (measured in henrys = H = V·s/A)inductancehenryss C - the capacitance of the capacitor (measured in farads = F = C/V = A·s/V)capacitancefaradsC The complex admittance of this circuit is given by adding up the admittances of the components:

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IMPEDENANCE DESCRIBES A MEASURE OF OPPOSITION TO ALTERNATING CURRENT. IT IS COMBINATION OF RESISTANCE, CAPACITIVE REACTANCE AND INDUCTIVE REACTANCE IT CAN BE CALCULATED BY OHM’S LAW I = E/Z OHM’S LAW FOR AC

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RESONANCE IS A SPECIAL FREQUENCY IN AC CIRCUIT DETERMINED BY VALUE OF RESISTANCE, CAPACITANCE AND INDUCTANCE. IN SERIES RESONANCE IS GIVEN BY MINIMUM IMPEDENCE AND ZERO PHASE. IN PARALLEL ROSONANCE IN MAXIMUM, WHEN INDUCTANCE AND CAPCITANCE ARE EQUAL AND 180 OUT OF PHASE. IT CAN BE CALCULATED BY F = ½ PI UNDERROOT LC OHM’S LAW FOR AC

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IMPEDENANCE DESCRIBES A MEASURE OF OPPOSITION TO ALTERNATING CURRENT IT IS COMBINATION OF RESISTANCE, CAPACITIVE REACTANCE AND INDUCTIVE REACTANCE IT CAN BE CALCULATED BY OHM’S LAW I = E/Z

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FUSE IT IS CURRENT RATED. IT IS INSERTED BETWEEN ELECTRICAL SUPPLY AND EQUIPMENT TO PROTECT IT FROM GETTING DAMAGED. IF CURRENT FLOW IN THE CIRCUITS EXCEEDS THE RATING. IF EQUIPMENT NEEDS 500 M A FUSE ( ½ A) IS INSERTED. CIRCUITS BREAKER ARE ALSO USED AS PROTECTION FROM OVER LOADS. IF CURRENT INCREASES, IT JUMPS AND BREAKS THE CIRCUIT.

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CELL IS A DEVICE WHICH CONVERTS CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO DIRECT CURRENT COMBINATION OF CELLS IS KNOWN AS BATTERY CELLS CAN BE CONNECTED IN SERIES OR PARELLEL SERIES : VOLTAGE ADDS UP CURRENT REMAINS THE SAME PARALLEL : CURRENT ADDS UP VOLTAGE REMAINS THE SAME CELL

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BATTERIES ARE RATED IN AMPERE HOUR (AH) 5 AH BATTERY CAN GIVE CURRENT OF 1 AMPERE FOR 5 HOURS OR 5 AMPERE FOR 1 HOUR. BUT IT CAN NOT GIVE 10 AMPERE FOR HALF HOUR DUE TO BATTERY INTERNAL RESISTANCE RATING OF A BATTERY

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM CELL

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DRY CELLS ARE KNOWN AS PRIMARY CELLS VOLTAGE IS 1.5 VOLT (ONE TIME USE TYPE) CARBON ROD IS +VE CONTAINER IS ZINC –VE AMMONIUM CHLORIDE IS ELECTROLYTE ADVANTAGE : CHEAP TO MASS PRODUCE DISADVANTAGE : CAN NOT BE RECHARGED AND IF LEFT UNUSED FOR SOME TIME, IT DETORIATES TYPES OF CELLS : PRIMARY

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SECONDARY CELLS CAN BE RE CAHRGED TWO TYPES OF SECONDARY CELLS ARE LEAD ACID NICKEL CADMIUM CELLS : SECONDARY CELL

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VOLTAGE IS 2 VOLT LEAD PEROXIDE IS +VE LEAD OXIDE IS –VE DILUTED SULPHURIC ACID IS ELECTROLYTE SPECIFIC GRAVITY WHEN CHARGED 1.25 TO 1.35 SPECIFIC GRAVITY WHEN DISCHARGED FALLS TO 1.17. SPECIFIC GRAVITY IS MEASURED BY HYDROMETER TOPPING UP IS DONE BY DISTILLED WATER SECONDARY CELLS : LEAD ACID

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ADVANTAGE CAN BE RECAHRGED DISADVATAGE BATTERIES DISCHARGES IF KEPT UNUSED FOR A LONG TIME CHARGING HAS TO BE CAREFULLY MONITORED BY CHECKING VOLTAGE AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY OVERCHARGING IS A PROBLEM BOTH VOLTAGE AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY IS CHECKED FOR DETERMINING IF A BATTERY IS DISCHARGED. LEAD ACID : ADVANTAGE / DISADVANTAGE

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VOLTAGE IS 1.2 VOLT UNDER VARYING LOAD NICKEL HYDROXIDE IS +VE CADMIUM IS –VE POTTASIUM HYDROXIDE (KOH) IS ELECTROLYTE SECONDARY CELLS : NICKEL CADMIUM

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ADVANTAGE RUGGED, NON SPILLABLE NOT DAMAGED IF UNUSED FOR A LONG TIME OVER CHARGING AND DISCHARGING DOES NOT AFFECT MUCH USED IN AIRCRAFT NICKEL CADMIUM : ADVANTAGE / DISADVANTAGE

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INVERTOR AN INVERTOR IS AN ELECTRONIC DIVICE TO CONVERT DC TO AC BATTERY POWER IS USED FOR EMERGENCY SUPPLY BATTERY OUTPUT WHICH IS DC IS CONNECTED TO INVERTOR. THE OUTPUT IS FED TO EQUIPMENTS

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INDUCTOR A COIL OF WIRE USED TO SUPPLY INDUCTANCE IN THE CIRCUIT. VOLTAGE WHICH IS GENERATED IS CALLED INDUCED EMF INDUCED EMF OPPOSES ANY CHANGE IN THE CURRENT WHICH INDUCED IT. UNIT IS HENRIES AND SYMBOL IS L SERIES : L = L1 + L2 + L3 PARALLEL : L = 1/L1 + 1/L2 + 1/L3

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INDUCTOR IN SERIES L = L1 + L2 + L3 RESISTANCDE IN PARALLEL 1/L = 1/L1 + 1/L2 + 1/L3 INDUCTOR

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IF L1 = 20 HENERIES L2 = 30 HENERIES L1 = 40 HENERIES IN SERIES L = L1 + L2 + L3 L = 20 + 30 + 40 = 90 HENERIES IN PARALLEL 1/L = 1/L1 + 1/L2 + 1/L3 1/L = 1/20 + 1/30 + 1/40 = 6/120 + 4/120 + 3/120 = 13/120 L = 120/13 = 9 HENERIES APPROX NUMERICALS : INDUCTOR

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CAPACITOR TWO CONDUCTING PLATE SEPERATED BY INSULATING MATERIAL (DIEELECTRIC) CONSTITUTES A CAPACITOR AC WILL FLOW NOT DC UNIT IS FARAD SERIES : 1/ C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 PARALLEL : C = C1 + C2 + C3 IN VARIABLE AIR CAPACITOR AIR IS DIELECTRIC F = 1 / 2R UNDER ROOT LC

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IF C1 = 20 FARAD C2 = 30 FARAD C1 = 40 FARAD IN SERIES 1/C = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 1/L = 1/20 + 1/30 + 1/40 = 6/120 + 4/120 + 3/120= 13/120 L = 120/13 = 9 FARAD APPROX IN PARALLEL C = C1 + C2 + C3 L = 20 + 30 + 40 = 90 FARAD NUMERICALS : CAPACITOR

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DIODE

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TRIODE A triode is an electronic amplification device having three active electrodes. The term most commonly applies to a vacuum tube (or valve in British English) with three elements: the filament or cathode, the grid, and the plate or anode. The triode vacuum tube is the first electronic amplification device.

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TRANSISTOR : PNP & NPN A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. It is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be much more than the controlling (input) power, the transistor provides amplification of a signal. Some transistors are packaged individually but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and its presence is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems.

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PNPNPN

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CATHODE RAY TUBE

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TRANSFORMER TRANSFORMER IS A DEVICE USED IN AN AC CIRCUIT EITHER IN TO STEP UP OR STEP DOWN THE VOLTAGE FOR CHANGING VOLTAGE IN DC CIRCUIT CELLS HAVE TO BE CONNECTED IN SERIES AND IN PARALLEL DUE TO THE EASE WITH WHICH AC VOLTAGE CAN BE CHANGED, AC IS BEING ALL OVER THE WORLD 50 HZ IS USED IN DOMESTIC SUPPLY TO PREVENT LINE LOSSES AND 400 HZ IS USED IN AIRCRAFT TO REDUCE THE SIZE OF TRANSFORMER /CHOKES

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GENERATORS / MOTORS GENERATOR IS A MACHINE WHICH CONVERTS MECHANICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY IS CALLED GENERATOR A GENERATOR DESIGNED TO PRODUCE AC IS CALLED AC GENERATOR OR ALTERNATOR A GENERATOR DESIGNED TO PRODUCE DC IS CALLED AC GENERATOR COMMUTATOR IS USED TO CONVERT AC TO DC MOTOR IS A MACHINE WHICH CONVERTS ELECTRICAL ENERGY INTO MECHANICAL ENERGY IS CALLED GENERATOR

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