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**Ch2. Elements of Ensemble Theory**

Ensemble: An ensemble is a large collection of systems in different microstates for the same macrostate (N,V,E) of the given system. An ensemble element has the same macrostate as the original system (N,V,E), but is in one of all possible microstates. A statistical system is in a given macrostate (N,V,E), at any time t, is equally likely to be in any one of a distinct microstate. Ensemble theory: the ensemble-averaged behavior of a given system is identical with the time-averaged behavior.

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**2.1 Phase space of a classical system**

Consider a classical system consisting of N-particles, each described by (xi,vi) at time t. A microstate at time t is (x1,x2,…,xN; v1,v2,…,vN), or (q1,q2,…,q3N; p1,p2,…,p3N), or (qi, pi) - position and momentum, i=1,2,…..,3N Phase space: 6N-dimension space of (qi, pi). pi qi

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Representative point Representative point: a microstate (qi,pi) of the given system is represented as a point in phase space. An ensemble is a very large collection of points in phase space W. The probability that the microstate is found in region A is the ratio of the number of ensemble points in A to the total number of points in the ensemble W. pi qi A W P(A)= Number of points in A Number of points in W

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Hamilton’s equations The system undergoes a continuous change in phase space as time passes by i=1,2,…..,3N Trajectory evolution and velocity vector v Hamiltonian

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**Hypersurfce H(qi,pi) = E H(qi,pi) = (½)kq2 + (1/2m)p2 =E**

Hypersurface is the trajectory region of phase space if the total energy of the system is E, or (E-D/2, E+D/2). qi pi H(qi,pi) = E E+D/2 E-D/2 H(qi,pi) = E Hypershell (E-D/2, E+D/2). e.g. One dimensional harmonic oscillator H(qi,pi) = (½)kq2 + (1/2m)p2 =E

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Ensemble average For a given physical quantity f(q, p), which may be different for systems in different microstates, where d3Nq d3Np – volume element in phase space r(q,p;t) – density function of microstates

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**Microstate probability density**

The number of representative points in the volume element (d3Nq d3Np) around point (q,p) is given by r(q,p;t) d3Nqd3Np Microstate probability density: (1/C)r(q,p;t) Stationary ensemble system: r(q,p) does not explicitly depend on time t. <f> will be independent of time.

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**2.2 Liouville’s theorem and its consequences**

The equation of continuity At any point in phase space, the density function r(qi,pi;t) satisfies So,

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Liouville’s theorem From above Use Hamilton’s equations where

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**Consequences For thermal equilibrium**

One solution of stationary ensemble (Uniform distribution over all possible microstates) where Volume element on phase space

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**Consequences-cont. Another solution of stationary ensemble satisfying**

A natural choice in Canonical ensemble is

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**2.3 The microcanonical ensemble**

Microcanonical ensemble is a collection of systems for which the density function r is, at all time, given by If E-D/2 £ H(q,p) £ E+D/2 otherwise qi pi H(qi,pi) = E E+D/2 E-D/2 In phase space, the representative points of the microcanonical ensemble have a choice to lie anywhere within a “hypershell” defined by the condition E-D/2 £ H(q,p) £ E+D/2

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**Microcanonical ensemble and thermodynamics**

G – the number of microstates accessible; w – allowed region in phase space; w0 – fundamental volume equivalent to one microstate qi pi H(qi,pi) = E E+D/2 E-D/2 Microcanonical ensemble describes isolated sysstems of known energy. The system does not exchange energy with any external system so that (N,V,E) are fixed.

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**Example – one particle in 3-D motion**

Hamilton: H(q,p) = (px2+py2+pz2)/(2m) Microcanonical ensemble If E-D/2 £ H(q,p) £ E+D/2 py pz H(qi,pi) = E E+D/2 E-D/2 px otherwise Fundamental volume, w0~h3 Accessible volume

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**2.4 Examples 1. Classical ideal gas of N particles 2. Single particle**

a) particles are confined in physical volume V; b) total energy of the system lies between E-D/2 and E+D/2. 2. Single particle a) particles are confined in physical volume V; b) total energy of the system lies between E-D/2 and E+D/2. 3. One-dimensional harmonic oscillator

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**2.4 Examples 1. Classical ideal gas of N particles Hamiltonian V**

Particles are confined in physical volume V The total energy of system lies between (E-D/2, E+D/2) Hamiltonian V Volume w of phase space accessible to representative points of microstates

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Examples-ideal gas where

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**Examples-ideal gas The fundamental volume:**

* A representative point (q,p) in phase space has a volume of uncertainty , for N particle, we have 3N (qi,pi) so, The multiplicity G (microstate number) and

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**Example-single free particle**

2. Classical ideal gas of 1 particles Particle confined in physical volume V The total energy lies between (E-D/2, E+D/2) V Hamiltonian Volume of phase space with p< P=sqrt(2mE) for a given energy E

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**Examples-single particle**

The number of microstates with momentum lying btw p and p+dp, The number of microstates of a free particle with energy lying btw e and e+de, where

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**Example-One-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator**

Hamiltonian Where k – spring constant m – mass of oscillating particle Solution for space coordinate and momentum coordinate

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**Example-One-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator**

The phase space trajectory of representative point (q,p) is determined by p q With restriction of E to E-D/2 £ H(q,p) £ E+D/2 The “volume” of accessible in phase space

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**Example-One-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator**

If the area of one microstate is w0~h The number of microstates (eigenstates) for a harmonic oscillator with energy btw E-D/2 and E+D/2 is given by So, entropy

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Problem 3.5 For a collection of N 3-D quantum harmonic oscillators of frequency w and total energy E, compute the entropy S and temperature T.

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