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Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria Vincent Conitzer, Tuomas Sandholm International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence 2003 (IJCAI’03) Presented by XU, Jing For COMP670O, Spring 2006, HKUST

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2/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) Problems of interests Noncooperative games Good Equilibria Good Mechanisms Most existence questions are NP-hard for general normal form games. Designing Algorithms depends on problem structure.

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3/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) Agenda Literature A symmetric 2-player game and results on mixed-strategy NE in this game Complexity results on pure-strategy Bayes-Nash Equilibria Pure-strategy Nash Equilibria in stochastic (Markov) games

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4/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) Literature 2-player zero-sum games can be solved using LP in polynomial time (R.D.Luce, H.Raiffa '57) In 2-player general-sum normal form games, determining the existence of NE with certain properties is NP-hard (I.Gilboa, E.Zemel '89) In repeated and sequential games (E. Ben- Porath '90, D. Koller & N. Megiddo '92, Michael Littman & Peter Stone'03, etc.) Best-responding Guaranteeing payoffs Finding an equilibrium

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5/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) A Symmetric 2-player Game Given a Boolean formula in conjunctive normal form, e.g. (x 1 Vx 2 ) (-x 1 V-x 2 ) V={x i }, 's set of variables, let |V|=n L={x i, -x i }, corresponding literals C: 's clauses, e.g. x 1 Vx 2, -x 1 V-x 2 v: L V, i.e. v(x i )=v(-x i )= x i G( ): = 1 = 2 = L V C {f}

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6/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) A Symmetric 2-player Game Utility function

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7/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) A Symmetric 2-player Game u 1 (a,b) =u 2 (b,a) P2 P1 LVCf L 1, l i -l j -2, l i =-l j -2 V 2, v(l) x 2-n, v(l)=x -2 C 2, l c 2-n, l c -2 f1110 x1x1 -x 1 x2x2 -x 2 x1x1 1-211 -x 1 -2111 x2x2 111 -x 2 11-21

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8/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) Theorem 1 If (l 1,l 2,…,l n ) satisfies and v(l i ) = x i, then There is a NE of G( ) where both players play l i with probability 1/n, with E(u i )=1. The only other Nash equilibrium is the one where both players play f, with E(u i )=0. Proof: If player 2 plays l i with p 2 (l i )=1/n, then player 1 Plays any of l i, E(u 1 )=1 Plays –l i, E(u 1 )=1-3/n<1 Plays v, E(u 1 )=1 Plays c, E(u 1 )≤1, since every clause c is satisfied.

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9/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) Theorem 1 No other NE: If player 2 always plays f, then player 1 plays f. If player 1 and 2 play an element of V or C, then at least one player had better strictly choose f. If player 2 plays within L {f}, then player 1 plays f. If player 2 plays within L and either p 2 (l)+p 2 (-l) 2*(1-1/n)+(2-n)*(1/n)=1. Both players can only play l or -l simultaneously with probability 1/n, which corresponds to an assignment of the variables. If an assignment doesn’t satisfy , then no NE.

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10/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) A Symmetric 2-player Game u 1 (a,b) =u 2 (b,a) P2 P1 LVCf L 1, l i -l j -2, l i =-l j -2 V 2, v(l) x 2-n, v(l)=x -2 C 2, l c 2-n, l c -2 f1110 x1x1 -x 1 x2x2 -x 2 x1x1 1-211 -x 1 -2111 x2x2 111 -x 2 11-21

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11/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) Corollaries Theorem1: Good NE is satisfiable.

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12/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) Corollaries

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13/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) Corollaries Hard to obtain summary info about a game’s NE, or to get a NE with certain properties. Some results were first proven by I. Gilboa and E. Zemel ('89).

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14/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) Corollaries A NE always exists, but counting them is hard, while searching them remains open.

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15/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) Bayesian Game Set of types Θ i, for agent i (i A) Known prior dist. over Θ 1 Θ 2 … Θ |A| Utility func. u i : Θ i 1 2 … |A| R Bayes-NE: Mixed-strategy BNE always exists (D. Fudenberg, J. Tirole '91). Constructing one BNE remains open.

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16/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) Complexity results SET-COVER Problem S={s 1,s 2,…, s n } S 1, S 2, …, S m S, S i =S Whether exist S c1, S c2, …, S ck s.t. S ci =S ? Reduction to a symmetric 2-player game Θ= Θ 1 = Θ 2 ={ 1, 2,…, k,} (k types each) is uniform = 1 = 2 ={S 1, S 2, …, S m, s 1,s 2,…, s n } Omit type in utility functions

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17/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) Complexity results Theorem 2: Pure-Strategy-BNE is NP-hard, even in symmetric 2-player games where is uniform. Proof: If there exist S ci, then both player play S ci when their type is i. (NE) If there is a pure-BNE, No one plays s i {S i (for i )} covers S. P2 P1 SjSj sjsj SiSi 1 1, s j S i 2, s j S i sisi 3, s i S j -3k,s i S j -3k

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18/18Complexity Results about Nash Equilibria (IJCAI’03) Theorem 3 PURE-STRATEGY-INVISIBLE-MARKOV-NE is PSPACE-hard, even when the game is symmetric, 2-player, and the transition process is deterministic. (P NP PSPACE EXPSPACE)

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