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**Dr. Charles Patterson 2.48 Lloyd Building**

JS 3010 Electromagnetism I Dr. Charles Patterson 2.48 Lloyd Building

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**Course Outline Course texts:**

Electromagnetism, 2nd Edn. Grant and Phillips (Wiley) Electromagnetic Fields and Waves, 2nd Edn. Lorrain and Corson (Freeman) Online at: Topics: 0). Overview 1). Vector Operators and Vector Analysis 2). Gauss’ Law and applications 3). Electrostatic and Dielectric Phenomena 4). Ampere’s Law and Applications 5). Magnetostatic and Magnetic Phenomena 6). Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Radiation

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**Force on charge due to electric and magnetic fields**

Lorentz force on single charge q FB = q v x B B magnetic induction (Tesla, T) FE = q E E electric field strength (Volts/m) i j k i x j = k v B F i j k E F Sense of F depends on sign of q

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Electric Fields Electric field strength E(r,t) Volts m-1 or NC-1 Vector field of position and time Field at field point r due to single point charge at source point r’ (electric monopole) Note r-r’ vector directed away from source point when q is positive. Electric field lines point away from (towards) a positive (negative) charge O r r’ r-r’

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Magnetic Fields Magnetic Induction (Magnetic flux density) B(r,t) Tesla (T) Vector field of position and time Field at field point r due to current element at source point r’ is given by Biot-Savart Law Note dB(r) is the contribution to the circulating magnetic field which surrounds this infinite wire from the current element dl’ O r r’ r-r’ dB(r) I dl’

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**Maxwell’s Equations Vacuum Matter**

Expressed in integral or differential forms Simplest to derive integral form from physical principle Equations easier to use in differential form Forms related by vector field identities (Stokes’ Theorem, Gauss’ Divergence Theorem) Time-independent problems electrostatics, magnetostatics Time-dependent problems electromagnetic waves

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**1). Vector Operators and Analysis**

Div, Grad, Curl (and all that) Del or nabla operator In Cartesian coordinates Combining vectors in 3 ways Scalar (inner) product a.b = c (scalar) Cross (vector) product axb = c (vector) Outer product (dyad) ab = c (tensor)

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**Scalar Product - Divergence**

r is a Cartesian position vector r=(x,y,z) A is vector function of position r Div A = Scalar product of del with A Scalar function of position

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**Cross Product - Curl Curl A = Cross product of del with A**

j k Curl A = Cross product of del with A Vector function of position

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**Gradient f f =const. f(x,y,z) is a scalar function of position**

Grad f = f = Operation of del on scalar function Vector function of position f f =const.

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**Div Grad – the Laplacian**

Inner product Del squared Operates on a scalar function to produce a scalar function Outer product

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**Green’s Theorem on plane**

Leads to Divergence Theorem and Stokes’ Theorem Fundamental theorem of calculus Green’s Theorem a b c d area A contour C x y P(x,y), Q(x,y) functions with continuous partial derivatives

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**Green’s Theorem on plane**

Integral of derivative over A Integral around contour C a b c d Area A contour C x y

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**Green’s Theorem on plane**

Similarly Green’s Theorem relates an integral along a closed contour C to an area integral over the enclosed area A QED for a rectangular area (previous slide) Consider two rectangles and then arbitrary planar surface Green’s Theorem applies to arbitrary, bounded surfaces cancellation = A C Contributions from boundaries cancel No cancellation on boundary

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**Divergence Theorem dr nds Tangent dr = i dx + j dy**

V = (Vx,Vy) Tangent dr = i dx + j dy Outward normal n ds = i dy – j dx n unit vector along outward normal ds = (dx2+dy2)1/2 P(x,y) = -Vy Q(x,y) = Vx Cartesian components of the same vector field V Pdx + Qdy = -Vydx + Vxdy (i Vx + j Vy).(i dy – j dx) = -Vy dx + Vx dy = V.n ds

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**Divergence Theorem 2-D 3-D**

Apply Green’s Theorem In words - Integral of V.n ds over surface contour equals integral of div V over surface area In 3-D Integral of V.n dS over bounding surface S equals integral of div V dv within volume enclosed by surface S V.n dS .V dv

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**Curl and Stokes’ Theorem**

For divergence theorem P(x,y) = -Vy Q(x,y) = Vx Instead choose P(x,y) = Vx Q(x,y) = Vy Pdx + Qdy = Vx dx + Vy dy V = i Vx + j Vy + 0 k dr dx dy V = (Vx,Vy) i k j local value of x V A C

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Stokes’ Theorem 3-D In words - Integral of ( x V) .n dS over surface S equals integral of V.dr over bounding contour C It doesn’t matter which surface (blue or hatched). Direction of dr determined by right hand rule. ( x V) .n dS n outward normal dS local value of x V local value of V dr V. dr S C

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**Summary Green’s Theorem Divergence theorem Stokes’ Theorem**

Continuity equation V.n dS surface S .A dv volume v ( x V) .n dS n outward normal dS local value of x V local value of V dr V. dr S C

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