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Status of cryospheric observations in South America Gino Casassa Geoestudios & University of Magallanes Chile GLOBAL CYOSPHERE WATCH GCW.

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Presentation on theme: "Status of cryospheric observations in South America Gino Casassa Geoestudios & University of Magallanes Chile GLOBAL CYOSPHERE WATCH GCW."— Presentation transcript:

1 Status of cryospheric observations in South America Gino Casassa Geoestudios & University of Magallanes Chile GLOBAL CYOSPHERE WATCH GCW

2 “White” Glaciers: National Agencies, GTNH, Research Institutions Rock Glaciers: Mining companies, Research Institutions, National Agencies (starting) Permafrost: Mining companies, Research Institutions (Darío Trombotto, IANIGLA, Mendoza) Snow Hydrology: National Agencies, Research Institutions, Water & Hydroelectric Companies Snow Avalanches: National Agencies, Research Institutions, Mining companies Lake & River Ice: No active research/monitoring Latin American Cryosphere

3 RECENT INCREASE OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS RELATED TO GLACIERS  CHILE FREEZES GLACIER LAW.  CHILE approves “Glacier Policy”, with a glacier definition that has no lower limit on size, and which accepts a glacier as an ice mass having no flow. Even small snowfields can now be considered as glaciers.  CHILE modifies Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) law, now includes glaciers.  ARGENTINA approves Glacier Law, includes as well “periglacial environment with hydrological significance”.  CHILE. Changes to EIA. Glacier drilling now needed.

4 Schwikowski et al., 2004

5 Francou et al., 2013

6 A) “WHITE” GLACIERS “Clean Glacier”: all surface debris free. “Covered Glacier”: partly covered by debris. Glaciar Olivares Gama, sub-subcuenca Olivares. Glaciar San Francisco, subcuenca Alto Maipo. Glaciar del Paine Grande, Magallanes Glaciar Olivares Alfa Geoestudios, 2013

7 Glaciar Pedregoso, cuenca Río Aconcagua Flujo ROCK GLACIER Zanja de exploración en glaciar Monolito, que fluye de derecha a izquierda. Bandas oscuras en el hielo son planos de cizalle en la Zona de Ablación (zona de compresión).  Cubierta de detritos: Espesor 0,3 a 3,3 m de gravas angulosas. Conductividad térmica 0,20 a 0,26 (media 0,217) W/mK  Núcleo de hielo: Espesor >40 m. 78% a 82% promedio de hielo, resto detritos rocosos, principalmente en bandas.  Morrena basal: 50% hielo, 50% detritos rocosos. Espesor, algunos metros. Geoestudios, 2013

8 GLACIERS IN SOUTH AMERICA: ~28,000 km 2 (~10% of all mountain glaciers) *excluding glaciers in Antarctic Peninsula & Greenland PATAGONIAN ICEFIELDS: NPI ~4,000 km 2 ; SPI ~12,500 km 2. TOTAL ~16,500 km 2, ~60% in area of all South American glaciers area Global Glacier Changes: facts and figures, UNEP-WGMS, 2009

9 GLACIERS in SOUTH AMERICA Casassa, VICC 2010

10 Bahr et al. (1997): V = 0,025*A^γ where A: Area V: volume γ = 1.37 for valley glaciers γ = 1.25 for ice caps Casassa, VICC 2010

11 H/

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13 México: only 2 mountains are glacier-covered, with a reduction of more than 20% in the last 50 years Venezuela: 87% glacier loss during the last 50 years Colombia: 2-5% annual retreat during the last 10 years Ecuador: glacier reduction of 27% in Peru, Cordillera Blanca: in glacier reduction >26% Chile & Argentina, northern sector: starting in 1980 glaciers (monitored since 1970) have incremented their retreat; glaciers in central and southern Chile and Argentina are losing ice, many times in an accelerated rate, with only a few cases of stable & advancing glaciers

14 10th Meeting Latin American Snow and Ice Working Group UNESCO IHP November 2011,, Mérida, Venezuela 2012: NOVEMBER MEETING OF GTNH in CUZCO, Peru 2013: QUITO, Ecuador

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17 Francou et al., 2013

18 CHILE

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21 SNOW ROUTES North of Chile Pascua Lama

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23 Carrasco et al., 2005

24 Gerd Dercon Laboratory Head, Soil and Water Management & Crop Nutrition Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Technical Officer)

25 BENCHMARK SITES

26 STATION/HUT SUB- GREY, TORRES DEL PAINE NATIONAL PARK

27 Takk fyrir!


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