2According to Allan Johnson, what does sociological practice offer? Bell Work/Notes – Examining Social Life – 1/21/14This is your header! You should write it at the top of the pageAccording to Allan Johnson, what does sociological practice offer?What does Johnson say we must do before we can eliminate the unnecessary suffering in the world?
4That’s why: Sociology Psychology History Political Science Economics Anthropology
5Can you define…. Notes – Examining Social Life – 1/30/14 Psychology? The study of behavior and mental processesHistory?The study of past events in human societiesEconomics?The study of productions, distribution & consumption of goods and servicesAnthropology?The comparative study of past and present cultureSociology?The study of human social behavior from a group perspective
6How do you think sociologically? Notes – Examining Social Life – 1/30/14How do you think sociologically?You have to ask the right questions, sociologists are concerned with a variety of things, some examples?Racegender,Socioeconomic status (how much $$$ someone makes)AgeOccupationPolitical PreferenceEtc…
7Weekend Activity – DOING Sociology – Over the weekend, your task is to practice some sociology.You are to go to a public place and simply observe & take notes for at least an hourTake notes on the people you seeAre they alone or with other people?Describe their behavior/how they are communicating with othersTake note on sources of mass media, clothing, music etc..BE SURE TO RECORD THE TIME OF EACH OBSERVATIONExplain how to set up note-book
8Weekend Activity – DOING Sociology – Set up your notebookLocation:______________Time ObservationsSummary of observations – 1 paragraph
9Things to take note of while observing Different groups of or individual peopleClothing, the way people carry themselves in publicSources of mass media, musicRace, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age, occupationActivities people are engaged inTopics of conversation
10Questions to ask yourself following your observations (1) What is the structure of this particular society as a whole? What are its essential components, and how are they related to one another? How does it differ from other varieties of social order? Within it, what is the meaning of any particular feature for its continuance and for its change?(2) Where does this society stand in human history? What are the mechanics by which it is changing? What is its place within and its meaning for the development of humanity as a whole? How does any particular feature we are examining affect, and how is it affected by, the historical period in which it moves? And this period - what are its essential features? How does it differ from other periods? What are its characteristic ways of history-making?(3) What varieties of men and women now prevail in this society and in this period? And what varieties are coming to prevail? In what ways are they selected and formed, liberated and repressed, made sensitive and blunted? What kinds of `human nature' are revealed in the conduct and character we observe in this society in this period? And what is the meaning for 'human nature' of each and every feature of the society we are examining?Once you’ve reflected on your observations, write at least a paragraph and be prepared to share it with the class on Monday.
11Notes – The development of Sociology – 1/31/14 Sociology as an academic discipline began in the 1800sWhat was going on in the 1800s that could have led to the development of sociology?Why sociology is a subject:1. The industrial revolutionRapid growth of urban populations leads to many social problems2. American & French RevolutionsPeople could no longer question the effect of society on the individual3. The Enlightenment/RenaissanceRejection of religious explanations & adoption of the scientific method
12Early European Sociologists Auguste Comte )Sort of looks like Hannibal LecterConsidered the father of sociologyLived through the French RevolutionFocused on two areasSocial order & Social changeAlso coined the term “Sociology”
13Harriet Martineau 1802-1876 British author Wrote Society in America in 1837Looked at marriage. The family, race relations, education and religionBasically established the focus of sociological studyArgued that scholars should advocate change for the problems they studiedSpoke in favor of women’s rights, religious tolerance & abolition of slavery
14Herbert SpencerThought of society as an organism w/ a set of interdependent parts that worked to maintain the system over timeSTRONGLY influenced by Charles DarwinCame up with Social Darwinism – coined the term “survival of the fittest”
15Karl Marx 1818-1883 Father of Socialism Divided society into two parts The bourgeoisie (boozh-wah-ZEE)They own the means of production& the Proletariat or workersBelieved that the majority of social issues were an outcome of the conflict between these two groups
16Emile DurkheimLike Comte, Durkheim was concerned with social orderLike Spencer, he saw society as a set of interdependent parts that served different functionsParticularly interested in religion – he believed that shared beliefs were the glue that held society togetherWrote one of the 1st true sociological studies – Suicide
17Max WeberInterested in separate groups within society rather than society as a wholeThought that sociologists should go beyond observable facts and work to uncover peoples feelings and thoughts by using the principle of VERSTEHEN (fer-SHTAY-en)Verstehen involves an attempt to understand the meanings individuals attach to their actions
18Bell Work & Notes MODERN PERSPECTIVES – 2/3/14 What is VERSTEHEN & how does it apply to what you guys did over the weekend?Once you’ve answered the question, go over your observations & be prepared to share what you saw with the class
19Take 5 minutes to answer these questions in your notebook 1. What do you see in this picture?2. How does this picture tell you about the society that these individuals are a part of?3. What types of questions do you think sociologists would ask upon seeing a picture like this?
20What sociologists see: An orderly world where all involved are fulfilling a role. The young people are preforming their role- that of a student & the school is performing its task of preparing students to be productive citizens in societyOthers would see a setting where there is competition for resources, they would be curious about the power relationships involved in this picture and how those relationships affected the distribution of resourcesStill others would see a setting made up of small groups. They would have to know how relationships among these groups affect what foes on in school
21Notes MODERN PERSPECTIVES – 2/3/14 Major Theoretical PerspectivesSociologists develop theories or explanations of relationships among particular phenomena to better understand the worldThere are 3 major Theoretical Perspectives, or schools of thought in sociologyEach one is a lens that presents a slightly different image of society or focuses on different aspects
22Functionalist Perspective Society is a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a social system.Primarily focuses on the functions of things like, family, religion, education and economyTo functionalists society is best compared to the human body – a variety of systems work together to ensure the bodies survival
23Functionalist Perspective Realizing that not everything element of society is functional functionalists are also concerned withDysfunction or the negative consequence an element has for the stability of societyFunctions can be either positive or negative, they can also either be aManifest function – the intended and recognized consequence of some element in societyOrLatent function – unintended or unrecognized consequence of an element of society
24Bell Work & continued Perspective notes – 2/4/14 Identify something in your life (other than school or a car) that you interact with on a daily basis and describe its manifest & latent functionsIdentify and describe the two groups the conflict perspective primarily concerned with
25Conflict PerspectiveFocuses on the forces in society that promote competition and changeParticularly interested in the family, racial groups, gender & the relationship between the workers and employersThe basis of social conflict is the competition over scarce resourcesWhen a group obtains those resources they generally protect them through laws, social programs or violenceExamples?
26How would a conflict theorist break down this story?
27Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Focus on small groups and how individuals interact with one another in societyInterested in the ways individuals respond to one another in everyday situationsInterested also in the symbols (a symbol is anything that represents anything else) that play a part in our daily lives3 basic parts of symbolic interactionismMeaningLanguageThought
28Levels of analysisMicrosociology- small group settings and the everyday face to face interactionsMacrosociology – study of large scale systems or society as a wholeGlobalization – the development of economic political sand social relationships that stretch world wide
29Perspectives Practice Use your notes, your neighbor and a book if necessary, to complete the sociological perspectives worksheet.
30Note Book Checks The following should be in your notebook for tomorrow Bell Work/Notes – Examining Social Life – 1/30/14Weekend Activity – DOING Sociology –Notes – The development of Sociology – 1/31/14Bell Work & Notes MODERN PERSPECTIVES – 2/3/14Bell Work & continued Perspective notes – 2/4/14Homework – Research Methods
31Sociological Experiments Objectives:I can describe the process of Sociological research and the scientific methodI can Apply the different types of Sociological research
32Bell Work Write down the steps of the scientific method!! Can you think of a time when you have used the scientific method in your life? Discuss with a partner on a possible scenario where you have and report back to the class- Debating what movie to see or where to eat- Figuring out how to act on dates“If I open the door for her and listen to her stories, then the I will get another date”- If your TV gets fuzzy or Xbox won’t work, you experiment with different knobs and buttons until it does!Ask a QuestionBackground ResearchHypothesisTest HypothesisAnalyze DataDraw Conclusion
33Since the first step to research is to ask a question…. Brainstorm 4 questions you have about human behavior/ social interaction!For Example: Mr. K wonders why the same students seem to be consistently late to class
34Naturalistic Observation A study method that involves covertly or overtly watching subjects' behaviors in their natural environment, without intervention
35Case StudiesResearch method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants
36SurveysResearch method in which information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
37Longitudinal StudiesMethod of research where data is collected about a group of participants over a number of years to asses how characteristics change or remain the same during development
38Cross-Sectional Study Method of research in which data is collected from groups of participants of different ages and compared so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age
39Statistical analysis/ Correlational Studies The measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of dataHow does time spent studying psychology correlate to a students’ final grade?Final Grade in SociologyFinal Grade in SociologyFinal Grade in SociologyTime Spent StudyingDays AbsentTime Spent Brushing Teeth
41ExperimentsAllow the researcher to control the situation and reduce the influence of outside influenceHypothesis-educated guess about the relationship of 2 variablesVariable- any factor capable of changeExperimental group-the group to which an independent variable is appliedControl group- the group that is treated the same way as the experimental group except that the independent variable is not applied
42 ActivityWith the person next to you try to match your 8 questions (4 each) about human behavior to the method of study that would be most effective. Once you’ve matched them, talk to Mr. K and come to write your questions on the different pieces of paper around the room
43Which perspective does the following description, topics, individuals or terms apply to? WeberInteractionismWhen a group attains power over another group, they will make laws and ruels to protect their position of powerConflictFamily, automobiles, education, crimeFunctionalismDating/marriage tradition, development of children, group relationshipsInterested in those who have power and those who do notconflict
44This theorist studied why thins in society stay the same and or change This theorist was interested in groups and individuals within society and how they interacted with one anotherWeberThis theorist was interested in how different parts of society work together to create agreementDurkheimThis theorist believed society was created by competition for power and control of resourcesMarxHe was also interested in the jobs different groups performed and if the groups were functioning correctlyDurkhiemThis theorist studied why thins in society stay the same and or changeComte
45the main or intended function of something Marx stated that these people own nothing and work for those who own businessesProletariatthe main or intended function of somethingManifest functionThe unintended function of somethingLatent function
46How was Frankie's incident used by the Cuban American group as a way to gain attention InteractionismHow did the different people in the government work together to make the decision to send Frankie back to CubaFunctionalismHow did the newspapers, television etc. use frankies story to make more profit and communicate their political viewsHow does a family with divorced parents like Frankie’s family influence societyfunctionalism
47Bell work – 2/12/14 – Lunch Table Analysis Take out your completed notes from when you observed and analyzed your lunch table.Write a paragraph summary of what you observedI’m going to be walking around to check in your chapter 1 review, once you finish your paragraph discuss with a neighbor what you noticed at your lunch table