Presentation on theme: "SOCIOLOGY – W HAT IS IT ?. According to Allan Johnson, what does sociological practice offer? What does Johnson say we must do before we can eliminate."— Presentation transcript:
SOCIOLOGY – W HAT IS IT ?
According to Allan Johnson, what does sociological practice offer? What does Johnson say we must do before we can eliminate the unnecessary suffering in the world? B ELL W ORK /N OTES – E XAMINING S OCIAL L IFE – 1/21/14 This is your header! You should write it at the top of the page
W HAT DID YOU THINK ?
T HAT ’ S WHY : Sociology Psychology History Political Science Economics Anthropology
C AN YOU DEFINE …. Psychology? The study of behavior and mental processes History? The study of past events in human societies Economics? The study of productions, distribution & consumption of goods and services Anthropology? The comparative study of past and present culture Sociology? The study of human social behavior from a group perspective N OTES – E XAMINING S OCIAL L IFE – 1/30/14
H OW DO YOU THINK SOCIOLOGICALLY ? You have to ask the right questions, sociologists are concerned with a variety of things, some examples? Race gender, Socioeconomic status (how much $$$ someone makes) Age Occupation Political Preference Etc… N OTES – E XAMINING S OCIAL L IFE – 1/30/14
W EEKEND A CTIVITY – DOING S OCIOLOGY – Over the weekend, your task is to practice some sociology. You are to go to a public place and simply observe & take notes for at least an hour Take notes on the people you see Are they alone or with other people? Describe their behavior/how they are communicating with others Take note on sources of mass media, clothing, music etc.. BE SURE TO RECORD THE TIME OF EACH OBSERVATION
S ET UP YOUR NOTEBOOK Location:______________ Time Observations Summary of observations – 1 paragraph W EEKEND A CTIVITY – DOING S OCIOLOGY –
T HINGS TO TAKE NOTE OF WHILE OBSERVING Different groups of or individual people Clothing, the way people carry themselves in public Sources of mass media, music Race, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age, occupation Activities people are engaged in Topics of conversation
Q UESTIONS TO ASK YOURSELF FOLLOWING YOUR OBSERVATIONS (1) What is the structure of this particular society as a whole? What are its essential components, and how are they related to one another? How does it differ from other varieties of social order? Within it, what is the meaning of any particular feature for its continuance and for its change? (2) Where does this society stand in human history? What are the mechanics by which it is changing? What is its place within and its meaning for the development of humanity as a whole? How does any particular feature we are examining affect, and how is it affected by, the historical period in which it moves? And this period - what are its essential features? How does it differ from other periods? What are its characteristic ways of history-making? (3) What varieties of men and women now prevail in this society and in this period? And what varieties are coming to prevail? In what ways are they selected and formed, liberated and repressed, made sensitive and blunted? What kinds of `human nature' are revealed in the conduct and character we observe in this society in this period? And what is the meaning for 'human nature' of each and every feature of the society we are examining? Once you’ve reflected on your observations, write at least a paragraph and be prepared to share it with the class on Monday.
N OTES – T HE DEVELOPMENT OF S OCIOLOGY – 1/31/14 Sociology as an academic discipline began in the 1800s What was going on in the 1800s that could have led to the development of sociology? Why sociology is a subject: 1. The industrial revolution Rapid growth of urban populations leads to many social problems 2. American & French Revolutions People could no longer question the effect of society on the individual 3. The Enlightenment/Renaissance Rejection of religious explanations & adoption of the scientific method
E ARLY E UROPEAN S OCIOLOGISTS Auguste Comte ) Sort of looks like Hannibal Lecter Considered the father of sociology Lived through the French Revolution Focused on two areas Social order & Social change Also coined the term “Sociology”
H ARRIET M ARTINEAU British author Wrote Society in America in 1837 Looked at marriage. The family, race relations, education and religion Basically established the focus of sociological study Argued that scholars should advocate change for the problems they studied Spoke in favor of women’s rights, religious tolerance & abolition of slavery
H ERBERT S PENCER Thought of society as an organism w/ a set of interdependent parts that worked to maintain the system over time STRONGLY influenced by Charles Darwin Came up with Social Darwinism – coined the term “survival of the fittest”
K ARL M ARX Father of Socialism Divided society into two parts The bourgeoisie (boozh-wah- ZEE) They own the means of production & the Proletariat or workers Believed that the majority of social issues were an outcome of the conflict between these two groups
E MILE D URKHEIM Like Comte, Durkheim was concerned with social order Like Spencer, he saw society as a set of interdependent parts that served different functions Particularly interested in religion – he believed that shared beliefs were the glue that held society together Wrote one of the 1 st true sociological studies – Suicide
M AX W EBER Interested in separate groups within society rather than society as a whole Thought that sociologists should go beyond observable facts and work to uncover peoples feelings and thoughts by using the principle of VERSTEHEN (fer-SHTAY-en) Verstehen involves an attempt to understand the meanings individuals attach to their actions
B ELL W ORK & N OTES MODERN PERSPECTIVES – 2/3/14 What is VERSTEHEN & how does it apply to what you guys did over the weekend? Once you’ve answered the question, go over your observations & be prepared to share what you saw with the class
Take 5 minutes to answer these questions in your notebook 1. What do you see in this picture? 2. How does this picture tell you about the society that these individuals are a part of? 3. What types of questions do you think sociologists would ask upon seeing a picture like this?
What sociologists see: An orderly world where all involved are fulfilling a role. The young people are preforming their role- that of a student & the school is performing its task of preparing students to be productive citizens in society Others would see a setting where there is competition for resources, they would be curious about the power relationships involved in this picture and how those relationships affected the distribution of resources Still others would see a setting made up of small groups. They would have to know how relationships among these groups affect what foes on in school
N OTES MODERN PERSPECTIVES – 2/3/14 Major Theoretical Perspectives Sociologists develop theories or explanations of relationships among particular phenomena to better understand the world There are 3 major Theoretical Perspectives, or schools of thought in sociology Each one is a lens that presents a slightly different image of society or focuses on different aspects
F UNCTIONALIST P ERSPECTIVE Society is a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a social system. Primarily focuses on the functions of things like, family, religion, education and economy To functionalists society is best compared to the human body – a variety of systems work together to ensure the bodies survival
F UNCTIONALIST P ERSPECTIVE Realizing that not everything element of society is functional functionalists are also concerned with Dysfunction or the negative consequence an element has for the stability of society Functions can be either positive or negative, they can also either be a Manifest function – the intended and recognized consequence of some element in society Or Latent function – unintended or unrecognized consequence of an element of society
B ELL W ORK & CONTINUED P ERSPECTIVE NOTES – 2/4/14 Identify something in your life (other than school or a car) that you interact with on a daily basis and describe its manifest & latent functions Identify and describe the two groups the conflict perspective primarily concerned with
C ONFLICT P ERSPECTIVE Focuses on the forces in society that promote competition and change Particularly interested in the family, racial groups, gender & the relationship between the workers and employers The basis of social conflict is the competition over scarce resources When a group obtains those resources they generally protect them through laws, social programs or violence ExamplesExamples?
H OW WOULD A CONFLICT THEORIST BREAK DOWN THIS STORY ?
S YMBOLIC I NTERACTIONIST P ERSPECTIVE Focus on small groups and how individuals interact with one another in society Interested in the ways individuals respond to one another in everyday situations Interested also in the symbols (a symbol is anything that represents anything else) that play a part in our daily lives 3 basic parts of symbolic interactionism Meaning Language Thought
L EVELS OF ANALYSIS Microsociology- small group settings and the everyday face to face interactions Macrosociology – study of large scale systems or society as a whole Globalization – the development of economic political sand social relationships that stretch world wide
P ERSPECTIVES P RACTICE Use your notes, your neighbor and a book if necessary, to complete the sociological perspectives worksheet.
N OTE B OOK C HECKS T HE FOLLOWING SHOULD BE IN YOUR NOTEBOOK FOR TOMORROW Bell Work/Notes – Examining Social Life – 1/30/14 Weekend Activity – DOING Sociology – Notes – The development of Sociology – 1/31/14 Bell Work & Notes MODERN PERSPECTIVES – 2/3/14 Bell Work & continued Perspective notes – 2/4/14 Homework – Research Methods
S OCIOLOGICAL E XPERIMENTS Objectives: I can describe the process of Sociological research and the scientific method I can Apply the different types of Sociological research
B ELL W ORK Write down the steps of the scientific method!! Can you think of a time when you have used the scientific method in your life? Discuss with a partner on a possible scenario where you have and report back to the class - Debating what movie to see or where to eat - Figuring out how to act on dates “If I open the door for her and listen to her stories, then the I will get another date” - If your TV gets fuzzy or Xbox won’t work, you experiment with different knobs and buttons until it does! Ask a Question Backgroun d Research Hypothesi s Test Hypothesis Analyze Data Draw Conclusion
S INCE THE FIRST STEP TO RESEARCH IS TO ASK A QUESTION …. Brainstorm 4 questions you have about human behavior/ social interaction! For Example: Mr. K wonders why the same students seem to be consistently late to class
N ATURALISTIC O BSERVATION A study method that involves covertly or overtly watching subjects' behaviors in their natural environment, without intervention
C ASE S TUDIES Research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more participants
S URVEYS Research method in which information is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions
L ONGITUDINAL S TUDIES Method of research where data is collected about a group of participants over a number of years to asses how characteristics change or remain the same during development
C ROSS -S ECTIONAL S TUDY Method of research in which data is collected from groups of participants of different ages and compared so that conclusions can be drawn about differences due to age
S TATISTICAL ANALYSIS / C ORRELATIONAL S TUDIES The measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of data How does time spent studying psychology correlate to a students’ final grade? Time Spent Studying Time Spent Brushing Teeth Final Grade in Sociology Days Absent
Correlation DOES NOT prove Causation!!! !
E XPERIMENTS Allow the researcher to control the situation and reduce the influence of outside influence Hypothesis-educated guess about the relationship of 2 variables Variable- any factor capable of change Experimental group-the group to which an independent variable is applied Control group- the group that is treated the same way as the experimental group except that the independent variable is not applied
A CTIVITY With the person next to you try to match your 8 questions (4 each) about human behavior to the method of study that would be most effective. Once you’ve matched them, talk to Mr. K and come to write your questions on the different pieces of paper around the room
W HICH PERSPECTIVE DOES THE FOLLOWING DESCRIPTION, TOPICS, INDIVIDUALS OR TERMS APPLY TO ? Weber Interactionism When a group attains power over another group, they will make laws and ruels to protect their position of power Conflict Family, automobiles, education, crime Functionalism Dating/marriage tradition, development of children, group relationships Interactionism Interested in those who have power and those who do not conflict
This theorist was interested in groups and individuals within society and how they interacted with one another Weber This theorist was interested in how different parts of society work together to create agreement Durkheim This theorist believed society was created by competition for power and control of resources Marx He was also interested in the jobs different groups performed and if the groups were functioning correctly Durkhiem This theorist studied why thins in society stay the same and or change Comte
Marx stated that these people own nothing and work for those who own businesses Proletariat the main or intended function of something Manifest function The unintended function of something Latent function
How was Frankie's incident used by the Cuban American group as a way to gain attention Interactionism How did the different people in the government work together to make the decision to send Frankie back to Cuba Functionalism How did the newspapers, television etc. use frankies story to make more profit and communicate their political views Interactionism How does a family with divorced parents like Frankie’s family influence society functionalism
B ELL WORK – 2/12/14 – L UNCH T ABLE A NALYSIS Take out your completed notes from when you observed and analyzed your lunch table. Write a paragraph summary of what you observed I’m going to be walking around to check in your chapter 1 review, once you finish your paragraph discuss with a neighbor what you noticed at your lunch table