Presentation on theme: "OUTSOURCING in IT services Group HAPY: Hong Nhung NGUYEN Huong Trang TRAN Mengyao XING Zicong WANG March 2012."— Presentation transcript:
OUTSOURCING in IT services Group HAPY: Hong Nhung NGUYEN Huong Trang TRAN Mengyao XING Zicong WANG March 2012
Introduction Definitions IT outsourcing development Classifications The risks of IT outsourcing Feeny/Willcocks framework Case study companies DuPont case Volkswagen case Zara case Summary Advantages and disadvantages of IT outsourcing Recommendation References Overview
Outsourcing occurs when an organisation contracts with another organisation to provide services or products of a major function or activity (Belcourt, 2006). IT outsourcing: “… a decision taken by organisation to contract-out or sell the organisation IT assets, people, and/or activities to a third party vendor, who in exchange provides and manages assets and services for monetary returns over an agreed time period” (Kern, 1997, p.37) Definitions
1963: Electronic Data Systems signed the agreement with Blue Cross of Pennsylvania for data processing services -> beginning of IT outsourcing century. 1989: Kodak enter strategic alliance with IBM-IS partner ($1 billion outsourcing deal) ->widespread interest in outsourcing Recently, it evolves from one vendor-one client to multiple vendors-multiple clients. IT outsourcing development
The trend towards outsourcing is increasing in all industrial and commercial sectors. The growth in IT outsourcing in the last 10 years has been significant. Major drivers for upsurge in IT outsourcing: Global competition Downsizing The move to flatter organisation, The search for greater flexibility, Rapid change in technology Emphasis on concentrating on core competencies IT outsourcing development
Lacity and Hirschheim (1993) divided into 3 types: Total outsourcing: to a single third party, >80% of the IS budget Selective sourcing: source externally between 20%-80% of IS budget Total insourcing: retain >80% of the IS budget internally IT outsourcing classifications
Outsourcing has risks => significant to analyse risks of IT outsourcing Earl (1996) discusses eleven risks of IT outsourcing: The Risks of IT Outsourcing Possibility of weak management Dangers of an eternal triangle Business uncertaintyLack of organizational learning Outdated technology skillsLoss of innovative capacity Endemic uncertaintyFuzzy focus Hidden costsInexperienced staff Technology indivisibility
Founded in July 1802 as a gunpowder mill. Before 1997, it expanded as a chemical and energy company. In 1997, transformed to a science company. Figures: 2010: Net sales: $31.5 billion, 2011: 67,000 employees, operating in 90 countries DuPont case
Defined 5 of 9 capabilities as general competencies: Relationship building Leadership Contract facilitation Informed buying Making technology work Pointed to 3 faces as career paths: Business and IT vision Delivery of IT services Design of IT architecture How did DuPont apply the framework?
Have informed discussion with vendors improve architecture planning A benchmarking process was introduced improve contract monitoring Support senior technical capability and informed buying capability How did DuPont apply the framework?
By 2003: Fill 90% of key leadership positions internally The projected shortfall of in-demand employees was reduced from 30 in 1997 to 2 in 2004 Leverage its relationship with suppliers and renegotiate sourcing arrangements into the future How did DuPont apply the framework?
1937: Volkswagen Group established Late 1940s:Beetle was introduced and became internationally popular for 20 years before experiencing fluctuation, known as :” Himalayas chart” Early 1990s: dropped to a new low point In 2001: changed in strategy, developed “classic” and “sporty” brands Profile of Volkswagen
Leadership issue: failed on creating organizational arrangements Relationship building issue: failed on building a single organization in control of the overall process Contract monitoring issue: frequently changes on IT staff Analysis of Feeny/Willcocks Framework on Volkswagen case
Spanish clothing and accessories retailer, belongs to Inditex group. In 2010: Net sale: €8,088m, Contributed to total sale: 64.6% Numbers of countries: 77 Zara case
Zara’s IT strategy: Utilize technology that is simple, cost-effective and easy to use Doesn’t require a lot of IT support. Nine IS core capabilities from the framework are low Low level of IT infrastructure and organisation. No CIO; no formal processes for IT budgets; no investments for strategies and IT projects. Low leadership Using outdated software – POS terminals which ran on DOS. Architecture planning Contract facilitation Vendor development Recommendation: has a room for improvement IT source and Feeny/Willcocks framework
Preference for speed Unique business Vertical Integration All functions link together Have their own factory Why do Zara not IT outsourcing?
AdvantagesDisadvantages Cost-EffectivenessLoss of Control Qualitative ServicesCommunication Challenges & Different Standards Skilled ManpowerTime Zone- a double-edged Sword FocusCultural Differences Expertise in IT OutsourcingService Provider wants to diversify and take more projects Customer is Novice Summary Advantages and Disadvantages of IT outsourcing
Recommendation Step 1: Consider the risks of IT outsourcing. Step 2: Outsource or insource? Step 3: Consider using the Feeny/Willcocks framework to manage their IT function in long term. Summary
Austin, R.D. (2006) “ Volkswagen of America: Managing IT Priorities”, Harvard Business School. Hirschheim, R., & Lacity, M. C. (1993). The information systems outsourcing bandwagon. Sloan Management Review, 35(1), 73-86. Kern, T. (1997). The Gestalt of an Information Technology Outsourcing Relationship: An Exploratory Analysis. Paper presented at the 18th International Conference on Information Systems, Atlanta, USA Mcafee, A., Dessain, V., Sjoman, A. (2004) “ZARA IT for fast fashion”, Harvard Business School. Offshoring Times (No date) IT Outsourcing with Advantages and Disadvantages. Available at: http://www.offshoringtimes.com/Pages/2007/offshore_news144 4.html (Accessed: 8 th March 2012) Willcocks, L.P. and Feeny, D (2006) “IT Outsourcing and core is capabilities: Challenges and lessons at DuPont”, Information systems management, p.49-56. References