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What Does it Take to Succeed in the Era of the Common Core?

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Presentation on theme: "What Does it Take to Succeed in the Era of the Common Core?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What Does it Take to Succeed in the Era of the Common Core?
David Liben INTRODUCE YOURSELF

2 Five Essential Studies
Hernandez 2011 “Double Jeopardy” Lesnick et al 2010 “Reading on Grade Level in Third Grade: How Is it Related to High School Performance and College Enrollment?” Fletcher and Lyon percent of third graders who read poorly still struggling in 9th grade Snow et al 1998 “A person who is not at least a modestly skilled reader by the end of third grade is quite unlikely to graduate from high school” Juel 1988 First grade reading scores “reliable predictor of later reading scores” FROM 1988 TO FROM FIRST TO THIRD GRADE –

3 Why? How is it that tests so early can predict results so many years later? What are we doing in curriculum that might be perpetuating these trends? What are we not doing in our curriculum that might be perpetuating these trends? QUICK TURN AND TALK TO GET THE JUICES GOING—WHAT WE CONTROL IN SCHOOL – NOT TURNOVER, FINANCES, CLASS SIZE, ALL MATTER BUT THEY EFFECT ALL STUDENTS WHY NOT ALL EQUALLY AND BESIDES WE CAN’T CONTROL THEM GAP INCREASES IN NEARLY EVERY MEASURE IN OTHER WORDS THE LONGER IN SCHOOL THE GREATER GAP BETWEEN PROFICIENT AND NOT---THESE OF COURSE ARE OUR STRUGGLING READERS IN ORDER FOR THE GAP TO INCREASE PROFICIENT READERS MUST HAVE SOMETHING GOING FOR THEM THAT GROWS THEIR READING MORE AND MORE EACH YEAR COMPARED TO NON-PROFICIENT READERS COMPARE TO TWO CARS ONE GOING 10 MPH ONE GOING 20MPH AT END OF ONE HOUR DIF IS 10 MILES -- AT END OF TWO HOURS DIF IS 20 MILES – AT END OF 3 HOURS DIFFERENCE IS 30 MILES THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE FAST CARE AND THE SLOW CAR INCREASES EACH DAY – WHAT IS HAPPENING WITH PROFICIENT READERS AND NON-PROFICIENT READERS SUCH THAT THIS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THEM BECOMES GREATER EACH YEAR

4 What are not the causes? Lack of critical thinking
Failure to know or use comprehension strategies Failure to master the standards TO UNDERSTAND WHAT CAUSES SOMETHING NEED TO SOMETIMES UNDERSTAND WHAT DOES NOT CAUSE SOMETHING Critical thinking – not much on tests this early, does not explain increasing gap, we know kids can think critically why not do it on reading test? Comprehension strategies –very similar, how much on early tests, why wouldn’t they learn them if taught every year? And do proficient readers learn them more even thought the strategies make up huge part of interventions—research by Daniel willingham and the Beck study NO SPITTING Standards: try using older standard on younger text, standards not very rigorous in early grades, we had gap before there were state standards and had them after the state standards, have them in every state no matter how rigorous the standards How this changes what we look for in the classroom WHAT ARE THE CAUSES QUICK TURN AND TALK

5 Quick Quiz: Which is harder?

6 Question 1: Literal Meaning Low on Bloom’s Taxonomy
Restate the following sentence in your own words: This question doesn’t ask for much critical thinking. Just a literal translation of a sentence.

7 “The former render possible theoretical cognition according to principles a priori; the latter in respect of this theoretical cognition only supplies in itself a negative principle (that of mere contrast), but on the other hand it furnishes fundamental propositions which extend the sphere of the determination of the will and are therefore called practical.”  The sentence is from pg. 1 of The Critique of Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant. This is a page I actually struggled with when I had to read it during freshman year of college for a philosophy class.

8 Question 2: Synthesis High on Bloom’s Taxonomy
Read the following passage, then write a letter to the editor defending the moral values the main character displays with regard to animals. This question asks for a lot of critical thinking. Students have to INFER a character’s beliefs from their speech, SYNTHESIZE those beliefs into an understanding of the character’s moral framework, then use that understanding, to ARGUE for a point of view.

9 "I don't see why he needs an ax," continued Fern, who was only eight.
“Where's Papa going with that ax?" said Fern to her mother as they were setting the table for breakfast. "Out to the hoghouse," replied Mrs. Arable. "Some pigs were born last night.“ "I don't see why he needs an ax," continued Fern, who was only eight. Passage taken from Chapter 1 of Charlotte’s Web, by E.B. White.

10 "Well," said her mother, "one of the pigs is a runt
"Well," said her mother, "one of the pigs is a runt. It's very small and weak, and it will never amount to anything. So your father has decided to do away with it.” "Do away with it?" shrieked Fern. "You mean kill it? Just because it's smaller than the others?" Passage taken from Chapter 1 of Charlotte’s Web, by E.B. White.

11 Which question was easier? Why?
Would a lesson (or a whole week of lessons) on “finding main idea” or “making inferences” help you to answer question 1? This is the place to hammer home the point that reading is not a generic set of skills or strategies. Reading about philosophy requires knowledge about philosophy and the vocabulary of philosophy, not a practice making inferences. Reading about farm life requires different (and much simpler) knowledge of words and the world. A reader doesn’t struggle with the 1st question because of lack of critical thinking skills. They struggle with the 1st question because they lack KNOWLEDGE.

12 8th Grade Reading Standards
Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision. Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed). How would your 8th graders do with questions assessing these standards with Charlotte text –fine according to teachers who have done it try it.

13 If critical thinking, strategies and standards are not the causes…

14 What are the causes? Vocabulary: Failure to grow sufficient vocabulary
Knowledge: Failure to develop wide background knowledge Fluency: Failure to become a fluent reader TAKE A LOOK AT EACH

15 Importance of Vocabulary
Nearly a century of research (Whipple 1925, NAEP 2012) Feature of complex text that likely causes greatest difficulty (Nelson et al 2012) Cunningham and Stanovich (1997) Vocabulary assessed in grade 1 predicts 30% of grade 11 comprehension Having to determine the meaning of too many words slows readers up; a far greater problem with complex text Not knowing words on the page is debilitating “30 Million Word Gap” After much research… EXPLAIN NELSON ET AL

16 Academic Vocabulary on Three Passages of NYS Third Grade Test
mimic “special bond” struts scampers plunge flop surface “shooting out” flap scowled shifted defense fierce darted wiggle gear clanked swelling distant as an adjective in the “distant truck” observe restless cast v. strikes v NOT THE TEST THAT IS THE ISSUE

17 Academic Vocabulary on Just One Passage of NYS Sixth Grade Test
Imposing Harness Finesse Surge Glanced “comfort washed over me” Process Straddled Draperies Magnificent Transformed breathtaking Cascaded Contrasted Imposing Ascent Ascend Descend Exhilarating Labored Constricted Exclamation Rasping Speck Glanced THIS IS COMMON CORE ALIGNED – BECAUSE COMPLEX TEXT HAS LESS COMMON VOCABLARY

18 Academic Vocabulary SBAC and PARCC Sample Items - Grade 3 only
Unfortunate Filtered Scarred Scuffs Fraying Seams Overlooked Spouting Blossom Bank (as in river) Pitch (as in sound) Nifty Pose Tender Scorched Scaly Nutrients Crops Spouting Knowledge of some supports knowledge of others –point is not the test--- no third grader expected to know all, don’t need to know all

19 Importance of Knowledge
Similar history of research (Kintsch 1998, most of John Guthrie's work, Adams 2009…) Recht and Leslie, 1988 – baseball study Makes sense as knowledge of words and knowledge of the world go together Take a look at recent tests aligning with the Common Core SAMPLE SBAC PARCC--- GW CARVER, BIOLOGY OF ANIMALS, CHERRY TREES AND DC—HOW TO GET ADAMS 2009 SAT STORY –BURGESS SHALE, GETTY MUSEUM, CLOVIS NEW MEXICO, SOCIOLOGY OF COMPUTER DESIGN, POLITICS OF ENVIROMENTAL REPORTING, SHAKESPEARIAN THEATRES EXPLAIN GUTHRIE’S WORK

20 Topics and References in Third Grade Passages NY State Tests
Leaves in the fall, playing with leaves, suburban setting Ecology frogs—habitats, ponds, species in trouble, food chain, life cycle GW Carver—African American History, agriculture, sense of time 20th century 1900s, professor Benny West—Quaker/religious groups, schoolmaster/old schools, small town rural life, Italy/England/Europe Snow Walker—northern rural life, snowshoes, dogsleds, Alaska The Nautilus—submarines, diesel, maps, Hawaii, North Pole, nuclear power, the arctic -

21 Topics and References in Sixth Grade Passages NY State Tests
Caving: Rappelling, caves structure, “life flashing before your eyes”, limestone, minerals Stargazing in the South Pole: Astronomy and astronomers, constellations, National Science Foundation, military transport planes, road construction, kilometers, continents, “high peaks” the size of France, crevasses Girl who wants to be a food scientist: masters degree, microbiology, “biological standpoint”, sensory science, internships, West Africa, “a science and an art”, varieties of wheat THE POINT IS NOT THE TESTS – THE POINT IS THE TEXTS REPRESENT LEVELS OF COMPLEXITY CALLED FOR BY THE STANDARDS– MORE COMPLEX MEANS MORE DIFFICULT VOCABULARY ----AND THE TEXTS REPRESENT 50% INFO TEXT AND THUS YOU HAVE THESE REFERENCES --- THE REAL BIG POINT IS SUCCESS WITH THIS WILL TAKE TIME

22 Topics and References in Third Grade SBAC and PARCC Sample Tests
Babe Ruth Smithsonian Alaska Native peoples Japan & Japanese art National Geographic Society Indonesia Animal communication U.S. Congress Animal mating Gills Animal traits Vertebrate Amphibian Larva Pupa Lifecycle Mammals Mass-produced THE POINT IS NOT THE TESTS – THE POINT IS THE TEXTS REPRESENT LEVELS OF COMPLEXITY CALLED FOR BY THE STANDARDS– MORE COMPLEX MEANS MORE DIFFICULT VOCABULARY ----AND THE TEXTS REPRESENT 50% INFO TEXT AND THUS YOU HAVE THESE REFERENCES --- AND THESE TOPICS THE REAL BIG POINT IS SUCCESS WITH THIS WILL TAKE TIME---TO GROW KNOWLEDGE AND GROW VOCABUJLARY REMEMBER VOCABULARY IN CONTET ---NOT EXPECTED TO KNOW ALL – BUT HOW MUCH CAN YOU NOT KNOW

23 Illustration: PARCC Redacted

24 Imagine what it’s like to be a student with vocabulary and knowledge deficits…
…on test day. What comes less is a way of making the point vivid and memorable, and emphasizing not just the instructional value, but the moral urgency of helping kids develop the word and world knowledge they need. If we don’t help them rapidly gain vocab and knowledge, this is what they face every time they open a book or newspaper.

25 This seems like a lot of black marks, and for some students it would be less. Think first of 3rd graders, and especially, struggling 3rd graders. Walk audience through the 1st paragraph, what was blacked out and why. Inform them that the words blacked out are: Including both academic tier 2 words (fascinating), and domain specific tier 3 words (glacier), Also blacked out are topics or subject knowledge they don’t know about. (Alaska) This based on the knowledge and vocab of the WEAKEST 3rd grade readers (those we talked about at the beginning); for others it would obviously be less, but it still just a milder version of this.

26 Read some of this aloud filling in the blanks with the word “something
Read some of this aloud filling in the blanks with the word “something.” It’s not necessary to do it as a full exercise, or to read through every slide. Just enough to get the point across. FARAWAY, ALASKA, TOURISTS, “REPORTS FOR NEWSPAPERS” FASCINATING, GLACIERS, SPOUTING, NATIVE PEOPLE, GUIDEBOOK

27

28 Many people talk about helping students reading stamina
Many people talk about helping students reading stamina. How much MORE stamina does it take to read like this, than it would if you KNEW the words and topics that were blacked out.--- HOW WORDS WERE CHOSEN--- WHAT IS THE CONTEXT– MATTER OF HOW MANY WORDS– HOW FAMILIAR WITH TOPIC– HOW FAMILIAR WITH REFERENCES—GOLDEN HORN ALLEGORY Ready to give up yet?

29 Letter from a Principal
“ We continue to struggle with the gaps in vocabulary development and background knowledge when students engage in close reading of a complex passage.  We continue to model and assist students navigating through complex informational and fictional text, and hope that the efforts will help them carry skills to the next piece of text they encounter.”  THEY DO CARRY TO SOME EXTENT– BUT IF STUDENTS DON’T KNOW TOO MANY WORDS AND THE TOPIC IS TOO UNFAMILIAR THEN MODELING, ASSISTANCE, SKILLS, STRATEGIES WILL NOT BE ENOUGH – THEY HELP THEY ARE PART OF IT BUT THE TAIL NOT THE DOG

30 We owe our students a better experience reading than this
We owe our students a better experience reading than this. We have to help them get the vocabulary and knowledge of the world they need to be able to read complex text. If you want to really drive the point home about what kids need (reading strategies, or knowledge and vocab), you can ask teachers to imagine being asked questions about the passage they just read. Specific details - What was one problem that Eliza experienced? Find evidence in the text to support your answer. Inferences - What can you infer about the relationship between Japan and America from the response of the Japanese government to President Taft’s actions? Main idea – How did Eliza eventually achieve her dream? Does failure to answer these questions correctly mean that you don’t have mastery of the SKILLS required by the questions? Why or why not? What would you most need to answer these questions?

31 What To Do About Vocabulary and Knowledge
“Building knowledge systematically in English language arts is like giving children various pieces of a puzzle in each grade that, over time, will form one big picture…” TURN AND TALK – WHERE DOES THIS COME FROM Building knowledge systematically in English language arts is like giving children various pieces of a puzzle in each grade that, over time, will form one big picture. At a curricular or instructional level, texts—within and across grade levels—need to be selected around topics or themes that systematically develop the knowledge base of students. Within a grade level, there should be an adequate number of titles on a single topic that would allow children to study that topic for a sustained period. The knowledge children have learned about particular topics in early grade levels should then be expanded and developed in subsequent grade levels to ensure an increasingly deeper understanding of these topics. Children in the upper elementary grades will generally be expected to read these texts independently and reflect on them in writing. However, children in the early grades (particularly K–2) should participate in rich, structured conversations with an adult in response to the written texts that are read aloud, orally comparing and contrasting as well as analyzing and synthesizing, in the manner called for by the Standards. Preparation for reading complex informational texts should begin at the very earliest elementary school grades. What follows is one example that uses domain specific nonfiction titles across grade levels to illustrate how curriculum designers and classroom teachers can infuse the English language arts block with rich, age-appropriate content knowledge and vocabulary in history/social studies, science, and the arts. Having students listen to informational read-alouds in the early grades helps lay the necessary foundation for students’ reading and understanding of increasingly complex texts on their own in subsequent grades

32 Growing Vocabulary and Background Knowledge Through Reading
Most words learned through context of reading or being read to But not all reading is equally effective at doing this Reading a number of texts within a topic grows knowledge and vocabulary far more than any other way Both NY elementary school programs do this extremely well, but it is not the only way WHY BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE CROSSED OUT – TURN AND TALK DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THESE TWO MOST COMMON WAY OF READING INFORMATIONAL TEXT GETTING SLIDE WITH RESOURCES---VOCAB AND KNOWLEDGE ESSENTIAL WIHTOUT IT REPEATED FAILURE FOR THOSE WHO NEED US THE MOST—BEST WAY TO GROW VOCAB AND KNOWLEDGE TAKEN OUT BY READING FIRST --- THEN CONSERVATIVES BLAME TEACHERS – LIBERALS BLAME NOT ENOUGH MONEY THE RIGHT CURRICLUM COST NO MORE THAN THE WRONG CURRICLUM -- JOHN KING

33 Growing Vocabulary and Background Knowledge Through Reading
Read Aloud Project (RAP) K-2 Text Sets grades K-12 Assigned Readings within a topic BEFORE THERE WERE ZOMBIES THERE WERE VAMPIRES– TEXT SET K-2—WHAT ACHIEVEMENT FIRST IS DOING –WHEN ARE THESE TEXTS READ –TEXT SETS CAN BE READ DURING GUIDED READING – ALL IN

34 Growing Vocabulary Through Direct Instruction
What is direct vocabulary instruction? Need to grow vocabulary through reading AND direct instruction How many words can students learn? Biemiller 2010 Word Study How to choose words for teaching

35 Importance of Fluency What is fluency?
Name who you think is one of the wisest, most intelligent people to ever live on our planet. Just one please. Rasinski (2005) 61% of 9th grade students in bottom quartile of fluency with pre-Common Core 8th grade texts. NOT FLUENT YOU DON’T LEARN WORDS DON’T LEARN ABOUT THE WORLD----FLUENT STUDENTS DO--- ONE BIG REASON WHY THE GAP GROWS!!! WHAT DOES INSTRUCTION LOOK LIKE THAT ADDRESSES FLUENCY VOCAB KNOWLEDGE

36 What to do About Fluency if Students Decode without Automaticity
You can’t be fluent reader if you can’t decode If your K-2 program produces fluent readers with standards aligned complex text by end of second grade then no reason to change If not, need to look at something different How CKLA differs from other foundational standards programs HOW TO ASSESS FLUENCY-- MENTION IREAD AS WELL---SENIOR CITIZEN VOLUNTEER PROGRAM

37 What To Do About Fluency for Students Who Decode with Automaticity
Reading While Following Along Repeated Reading Tim Rasinski Developmental Fluency Lessons Fluency Packets

38 Guided Reading Given all of this, how might it change?
Why should it change? SMALL GROUP WORK WITH COMPLEX TEXT – MODULES OR TEXT SETS--- INDEPENDENT READING BEYOND NOVELS---

39 Close Reading Where does Close Reading fit into all of this?
How often do I do Close Reading? POSSIBLE TURN AND TALK --THREE QUESTIONS HAVE NOT MENTIONED CR HOW DOES IT FIT IN WITH ALL OF THIS HOW OFTEN ARE YOU DOING THIS, HOW IS IT GOING

40 WHAT ARE THE FEATURES OF COMPLEX TEXT?
Subtle and/or frequent transitions Multiple and/or subtle themes and purposes Density of information Unfamiliar settings, topics or events Lack of repetition, overlap, or similarity in words and sentences Complex sentences Uncommon vocabulary Lack of words, sentences or paragraphs that review or pull things together for the student Longer paragraphs Any text structure which is less narrative and/or mixes structures TURN AND TALK - WHAT IS NUMBERS ONE, TWO AND THREE IN TERMS OF DIFFICULTY COMPLEX TEXT CONTAINS ANY AND VARIED COMBINATION OF THESE—CAN’T ATOMIZE—CAN ONLY GET BETTER BY FOCUSING ON THE TEXT IN FRONT OF THE STUDENT AND SUPPORTING STUDENT WORK WITH THE TEXT.

41 Resources - Close Reading 2-12 & Text Dependent Questions
Featured Lessons on achievethecore.org ELA/Literacy lesson bank including RAP, BAP, & AAP Text Dependent Questions Resources from achievethecore.org Short Guide to Creating Text Dependent Questions

42 Resources - Guided Reading
‘Both And’ Paper by David & Meredith Liben

43 Resources - Text Sets and Assigned Readings
ELA SCASS Navigating Text Complexity ReadWorks Reading A-Z EBSCO Databases (state membership) Webinar on Finding Texts at Different Lexile Levels: SCHOLASTIC BOOK SETS -- AMERICAN READING COMPANY BOOK SETS --- VOLUME OF READING IS NOT ENOUGH - NEED WORD STUDY AS WELL

44 Resources - Text Sets and Assigned Readings
Book on “Teaching with Text Sets” American Reading Company Webinar on Finding Texts at Different Lexile Levels: Light Sail: Curriculet: Starting in the spring full text sets will begin to be loaded up on Nonfiction Text Sets from TC Reading and Writing Project

45 Resources - Direct Vocabulary Instruction
“Wordly Wise” published by Educators Publishing Service (EPS) Bringing Words to Life, Beck and McKeown Marzano Six Step Program “Word Nerds” - Stenhouse Publishers Frayer model (all over the internet) Words Their Way

46 Fluency Resources Fluency packets, fluency assessments, and fluency benchmarks Additional fluency packets for grade 2-3 and 9-10 available starting Sept Fluency Development Lesson - Tim Rasinski

47 Conclusion None of this is quick, none of this happens without you.
Thank You!


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