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What Does it Take to Succeed in the Era of the Common Core? David Liben

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Presentation on theme: "What Does it Take to Succeed in the Era of the Common Core? David Liben"— Presentation transcript:

1 What Does it Take to Succeed in the Era of the Common Core? David Liben

2 PAGE 2 Five Essential Studies Hernandez 2011 “Double Jeopardy” Lesnick et al 2010 “Reading on Grade Level in Third Grade: How Is it Related to High School Performance and College Enrollment?” Fletcher and Lyon 1998 74 percent of third graders who read poorly still struggling in 9 th grade Snow et al 1998 “A person who is not at least a modestly skilled reader by the end of third grade is quite unlikely to graduate from high school” Juel 1988 First grade reading scores “reliable predictor of later reading scores”

3 PAGE 3 Why? How is it that tests so early can predict results so many years later? What are we doing in curriculum that might be perpetuating these trends? What are we not doing in our curriculum that might be perpetuating these trends?

4 PAGE 4 What are not the causes? Lack of critical thinking Failure to know or use comprehension strategies Failure to master the standards

5 Quick Quiz: Which is harder?

6 PAGE 6 Question 1: Literal Meaning Low on Bloom’s Taxonomy Restate the following sentence in your own words:

7 PAGE 7 “The former render possible theoretical cognition according to principles a priori; the latter in respect of this theoretical cognition only supplies in itself a negative principle (that of mere contrast), but on the other hand it furnishes fundamental propositions which extend the sphere of the determination of the will and are therefore called practical.”

8 PAGE 8 Question 2: Synthesis High on Bloom’s Taxonomy Read the following passage, then write a letter to the editor defending the moral values the main character displays with regard to animals.

9 PAGE 9 “Where's Papa going with that ax?" said Fern to her mother as they were setting the table for breakfast. "Out to the hoghouse," replied Mrs. Arable. "Some pigs were born last night.“ "I don't see why he needs an ax," continued Fern, who was only eight.

10 PAGE 10 "Well," said her mother, "one of the pigs is a runt. It's very small and weak, and it will never amount to anything. So your father has decided to do away with it.” "Do away with it?" shrieked Fern. "You mean kill it? Just because it's smaller than the others?"

11 PAGE 11 Which question was easier? Why? Would a lesson (or a whole week of lessons) on “finding main idea” or “making inferences” help you to answer question 1?

12 PAGE 12 8 th Grade Reading Standards Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision. Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).

13 PAGE 13 If critical thinking, strategies and standards are not the causes…

14 PAGE 14 What are the causes? Vocabulary: Failure to grow sufficient vocabulary Knowledge: Failure to develop wide background knowledge Fluency: Failure to become a fluent reader

15 PAGE 15 Importance of Vocabulary Nearly a century of research (Whipple 1925, NAEP 2012) Feature of complex text that likely causes greatest difficulty (Nelson et al 2012) Cunningham and Stanovich (1997) Vocabulary assessed in grade 1 predicts 30% of grade 11 comprehension Having to determine the meaning of too many words slows readers up; a far greater problem with complex text Not knowing words on the page is debilitating “30 Million Word Gap” After much research…

16 PAGE 16 Academic Vocabulary on Three Passages of NYS Third Grade Test mimic “special bond” struts scampers plunge flop surface “shooting out” flap scowled shifted defense fierce darted wiggle gear clanked swelling distant as an adjective in the “distant truck” observe restless cast v. strikes v

17 PAGE 17 Academic Vocabulary on Just One Passage of NYS Sixth Grade Test Imposing Harness Finesse Surge Glanced “comfort washed over me” Process Straddled Draperies Magnificent Transformed breathtaking Cascaded Contrasted Imposing Ascent Ascend Descend Exhilarating Labored Constricted Exclamation Rasping Speck Glanced

18 PAGE 18 Academic Vocabulary SBAC and PARCC Sample Items - Grade 3 only Unfortunate Filtered Scarred Scuffs Fraying Seams Overlooked Spouting Blossom Bank (as in river) Pitch (as in sound) Nifty Pose Tender Scorched Scaly Nutrients Crops Spouting

19 PAGE 19 Importance of Knowledge Similar history of research (Kintsch 1998, most of John Guthrie's work, Adams 2009…) Recht and Leslie, 1988 – baseball study Makes sense as knowledge of words and knowledge of the world go together Take a look at recent tests aligning with the Common Core

20 PAGE 20 Topics and References in Third Grade Passages NY State Tests Leaves in the fall, playing with leaves, suburban setting Ecology frogs—habitats, ponds, species in trouble, food chain, life cycle GW Carver—African American History, agriculture, sense of time 20 th century 1900s, professor Benny West—Quaker/religious groups, schoolmaster/old schools, small town rural life, Italy/England/Europe Snow Walker—northern rural life, snowshoes, dogsleds, Alaska The Nautilus—submarines, diesel, maps, Hawaii, North Pole, nuclear power, the arctic

21 PAGE 21 Topics and References in Sixth Grade Passages NY State Tests Caving: Rappelling, caves structure, “life flashing before your eyes”, limestone, minerals Stargazing in the South Pole: Astronomy and astronomers, constellations, National Science Foundation, military transport planes, road construction, kilometers, continents, “high peaks” the size of France, crevasses Girl who wants to be a food scientist: masters degree, microbiology, “biological standpoint”, sensory science, internships, West Africa, “a science and an art”, varieties of wheat

22 PAGE 22 Topics and References in Third Grade SBAC and PARCC Sample Tests Babe Ruth Smithsonian Alaska Native peoples Japan & Japanese art National Geographic Society Indonesia Animal communication U.S. Congress Animal mating Gills Animal traits Vertebrate Amphibian Larva Pupa Lifecycle Mammals Mass-produced

23 Illustration: PARCC Redacted

24 PAGE 24 Imagine what it’s like to be a student with vocabulary and knowledge deficits… …on test day.

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28 PAGE 28 Ready to give up yet?

29 PAGE 29 Letter from a Principal “ We continue to struggle with the gaps in vocabulary development and background knowledge when students engage in close reading of a complex passage. We continue to model and assist students navigating through complex informational and fictional text, and hope that the efforts will help them carry skills to the next piece of text they encounter.”

30 PAGE 30 We owe our students a better experience reading than this. We have to help them get the vocabulary and knowledge of the world they need to be able to read complex text.

31 PAGE 31 What To Do About Vocabulary and Knowledge “Building knowledge systematically in English language arts is like giving children various pieces of a puzzle in each grade that, over time, will form one big picture…”

32 PAGE 32 Growing Vocabulary and Background Knowledge Through Reading Most words learned through context of reading or being read to But not all reading is equally effective at doing this Reading a number of texts within a topic grows knowledge and vocabulary far more than any other way Both NY elementary school programs do this extremely well, but it is not the only way

33 PAGE 33 Growing Vocabulary and Background Knowledge Through Reading Read Aloud Project (RAP) K-2 Text Sets grades K-12 Assigned Readings within a topic

34 PAGE 34 Growing Vocabulary Through Direct Instruction What is direct vocabulary instruction? Need to grow vocabulary through reading AND direct instruction How many words can students learn? Biemiller 2010 Word Study How to choose words for teaching the-common-core-detail-pg the-common-core-detail-pg

35 PAGE 35 Importance of Fluency What is fluency? Name who you think is one of the wisest, most intelligent people to ever live on our planet. Just one please. Rasinski (2005) 61% of 9 th grade students in bottom quartile of fluency with pre-Common Core 8 th grade texts.

36 PAGE 36 What to do About Fluency if Students Decode without Automaticity You can’t be fluent reader if you can’t decode If your K-2 program produces fluent readers with standards aligned complex text by end of second grade then no reason to change If not, need to look at something different How CKLA differs from other foundational standards programs

37 PAGE 37 What To Do About Fluency for Students Who Decode with Automaticity Reading While Following Along Repeated Reading Tim Rasinski Developmental Fluency Lessons Fluency Packets

38 PAGE 38 Guided Reading Given all of this, how might it change? Why should it change?

39 PAGE 39 Close Reading Where does Close Reading fit into all of this? How often do I do Close Reading?

40 PAGE 40 WHAT ARE THE FEATURES OF COMPLEX TEXT? Subtle and/or frequent transitions Multiple and/or subtle themes and purposes Density of information Unfamiliar settings, topics or events Lack of repetition, overlap, or similarity in words and sentences Complex sentences Uncommon vocabulary Lack of words, sentences or paragraphs that review or pull things together for the student Longer paragraphs Any text structure which is less narrative and/or mixes structures Subtle and/or frequent transitions Multiple and/or subtle themes and purposes Density of information Unfamiliar settings, topics or events Lack of repetition, overlap, or similarity in words and sentences Complex sentences Uncommon vocabulary Lack of words, sentences or paragraphs that review or pull things together for the student Longer paragraphs Any text structure which is less narrative and/or mixes structures

41 PAGE 41 Resources - Close Reading 2-12 & Text Dependent Questions Featured Lessons on – sample-lessons-list-page sample-lessons-list-page ELA/Literacy lesson bank including RAP, BAP, & AAP – bank-content-list-page bank-content-list-page Text Dependent Questions Resources from – question-resources question-resources Short Guide to Creating Text Dependent Questions – creating-text-dependent-questions-detail-pg creating-text-dependent-questions-detail-pg

42 PAGE 42 Resources - Guided Reading ‘Both And’ Paper by David & Meredith Liben –

43 PAGE 43 Resources - Text Sets and Assigned Readings ELA SCASS Navigating Text Complexity – m_Models.html m_Models.html ReadWorks – Reading A-Z – EBSCO Databases (state membership) – 13.pdf 13.pdf Webinar on Finding Texts at Different Lexile Levels: – texts-hidden-resources-at-your-fingertips-detail-pg texts-hidden-resources-at-your-fingertips-detail-pg

44 PAGE 44 Resources - Text Sets and Assigned Readings Book on “Teaching with Text Sets” American Reading Company Webinar on Finding Texts at Different Lexile Levels: Light Sail: Curriculet: http://www.curriculet.com Starting in the spring full text sets will begin to be loaded up on Nonfiction Text Sets from TC Reading and Writing Project classroom-libraries-and-text-sets-for-students/text-sets.html classroom-libraries-and-text-sets-for-students/text-sets.html

45 PAGE 45 Resources - Direct Vocabulary Instruction “Wordly Wise” published by Educators Publishing Service (EPS) Bringing Words to Life, Beck and McKeown Marzano Six Step Program ep_Process.pdf ep_Process.pdf “Word Nerds” - Stenhouse Publishers Frayer model (all over the internet) Words Their Way Words-Their-Way-Series/ Words-Their-Way-Series/

46 PAGE 46 Fluency Resources Fluency packets, fluency assessments, and fluency benchmarks resources resources Additional fluency packets for grade 2-3 and 9-10 available starting Sept Fluency Development Lesson - Tim Rasinski y%20Development%20Lesson.pdf y%20Development%20Lesson.pdf

47 PAGE 47 Conclusion None of this is quick, none of this happens without you. Thank You!

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