Presentation on theme: "Homework Review and More Pronouns! March 8 2014. Sentence Structures Sentences can be classified as simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex depending."— Presentation transcript:
Sentence Structures Sentences can be classified as simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex depending on the number and types of clauses they contain.
Clauses Clauses: 1)Independent: subject & predicate & can stand alone as a complete sentence. 2)Subordinate: subject & predicate, but functions within a sentence as adjective, adverb, or noun and cannot stand alone.
Without a passport, Eva could not visit her grandparents in Hungary. A simple sentence may contain compound elements—a compound subject, verb, or object—but it does not contain more than one full sentence pattern (that which contains subject/predicate pair)
Spring comes in like a lion and goes out like a lamb. Spring (SS) comes/goes (CP) She lies, spits, and claws when she is angry. She (SS) lies, spits, and claws (CP) He and his three closest friends always trade responsibilities. He and friends (CS) trade (SP)
Compound Sentences A compound sentence is composed of two or more independent clauses with no subordinate clauses. FANBOYS (coordinating conjunctions) or a semicolon will most often join the independent clauses. I won the race, and then I fell down as if inebriated. The doctor coughed, and I winced. (two subjects, each with their own verb)
Complex Sentences Complex sentences are composed of one independent clause with one or more subordinate clauses. The dog who ate the pie skulks in the corner. If you say no now, you may forever regret it. What matters most to me is your friendship. (Subject-what; pred-matters)
Exercise 49-1 1.Complex (that the network outage could have been avoided = sub/noun) 2.Complex (who lose a loved one = sub/adj) 3.Simple 4.Compound (two indy) 5.Complex (whenever we lose power=sub/adv)
Pronoun Reference 23-1 1)Our German conversation group is made up of six people, three of whom I had never met before. 2)Many people believe that the polygraph is highly reliable if it is administered by a licensed examiner. 3)Mission San Jose High School has many involved parents who participate in many committees and activities… 4)Paul Robeson’s outspoken attitude toward fascism led people to label him a Communist. 5)The report points out that the bald eagle was removed from the endangered species list in 1997 after several decades of protection.
Since its inception in the 1980s, the Internet has grown to be one of the largest communications forums in the world. Building on a platform that government scientists had started developing in the 1950s, a team of academics initially created the Internet as a noncommercial enterprise that would serve only the needs of the academic and technical communities. With the introduction of user- friendly browser technology in the 1990s, however, the Internet’s appeal expanded tremendously. By the late 1990s, many businesses were connecting to the Internet with high-speed broadband and fiber- optic connections, which is also true of many home users today, who now access information, shop, and communicate more easily than ever before. This degree of connectivity, however, can lead to some possible drawbacks. Users can be bombarded with spam or pop-up ads or attacked by harmful viruses and worms. Experts say the best way to protect home computers from harm is to keep antivirus protection up to date and to shut computers down when they are not in use.
Eliminating Distracting Shifts 13-1 When online dating first became available, many people thought that it would simplify romance. They believed someone could type in a list of criteria—sense of humor, etc—and a database would select a perfect mate. Thousands of people signed up…and filled out their profiles, confident that true love was only a few mouse-clicks away. As it turns out…People still have to contact the potential matches they find, exchange emails and phonecalls, and meet each other in the real world. Although a database might produce…, chemistry simply cannot be predicted. More often than not, matches who seem perfect online just don’t click in person. Electronic services may help singles expand their pool of potential dates, but nothing can substitute for the hard work of romance.
Verb Tense Shifts …colonists who settled…received…but by 1675, there had been…That year…led the Wampanoag tribe…The war…raged on for more than a year and left (or, leaving…) Metacomet’s attempt…failed. Finally he too was killed…colonists sold his wife and children…..Indians did not leave…but the settlers recorded…One…account was written…She was a minister’s wife who was kidnapped…and held captive…Her history, A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, tells…Although it does not paint….Rowlandson’s narrative, which is considered…, shows its author to have been a keep observer of life in an Indian camp.
Who and Whom The choice between ‘who’ and ‘whom’—over which so many people puzzle—primarily occurs in subordinate clauses and in questions. *Who and whoever, subjective case pronouns, are used for subjects and subject complements. I don’t care who did it. (s/he did it) *Whom and whomever, objective case pronouns, are used for objects. Whomever you give it to, I hope I am not around to see the aftermath. (You give it to him/her.)
The Case of Case Case is a grammatical category whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by a noun or pronoun in a phrase, clause, or sentence. In some languages, nouns, pronouns and their modifiers take different inflected forms depending on what case they are in.
You already know cases! Possessive case (a.k.a. genitive) Your dog, my book, Anne’s issues Subjective case (a.k.a. nominative) Anne is here. This is she. Objective case (a.k.a. accusative or dative) Please give this to him. I visited Anne. Vocative case Paul, could you please help out? You, get over here!
ERGO Who and whoever = Subjective Case (complete the action of the verb) Whom and whomever= Objective Case (receive the action of the verb or follow a preposition)
Who & Whom Decide between who(ever) and whom(ever) based on their function within the clause they introduce. The prize goes to the purebred husky who had the nicest gait, coat, and demeanor. I will vote for whoever is best suited for the position. (Tricky, because the clause is an object of preposition within the sentence, BUT whoever is a subject within the clause!)
When functioning as the object of a preposition in a subordinate clause, whom is often separated from its preposition. The partner whom I was assigned to was very supportive. ***The partner to whom I was assigned was very supportive.****The partner I was assigned (to) was very supportive.***
Practice : ) EX: I do not know _whom__ she means. 1. To ____________ did you give the book? 2. _______ will you ask to help you with all this work? 3. You may give this money to ____________ seems to need it most. 4. ____________ did this should be kicked out of office 5. I can't remember ____________ told me that
Practice : ) 6. I can't figure out ____________ I should blame for this 7. ____________ shall I say is calling? 8. You are accusing me of telling ____? 9. This is the man without ____ the project would have collapsed. 10. I saw three men, one of _____ was carrying a bag. 11. Give this to the man _____ is carrying the bag.
Doozy You may give this money to ____________ you please. WHOEVER WHOMEVER Whoever (haha) can come up with a convincing, well-reasoned argument for which of these is correct will receive 3 extra points on their midterm.