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EXPANSION WEST PERIOD 4: 1800-1848. Louisiana Purchase (1803) Florida (1819) EXPANSION SO FAR…

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Presentation on theme: "EXPANSION WEST PERIOD 4: 1800-1848. Louisiana Purchase (1803) Florida (1819) EXPANSION SO FAR…"— Presentation transcript:

1 EXPANSION WEST PERIOD 4:

2 Louisiana Purchase (1803) Florida (1819) EXPANSION SO FAR…

3 Jefferson James Madison—1808 James Monroe—1816 James Q. Adams— 1824 Jackson Jackson’s Presidency B—Bank War I—Indians T—Tariffs C—Common Man H—hiring friends (spoils system) I—? N—Nullification Crisis POLITICAL RECAP…

4 Whig Party develops Diverse group unified in their hatred for Jackson Active in social reform, tended to be native born, economic nationalism… AFTER JACKSON: WHIGS V. DEMOCRATS

5 Democrats Martin Van Buren Whigs run multiple candidates 1.Daniel Webster (N) 2.Hugh Lawson White (S) 3.William Henry Harrison ELECTION OF 1836

6 Political nightmare for Van Buren Inflation, drastically cut wages, lack of available credit, etc… Influenced by Jackson’s bank war PANIC OF 1837

7 “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” War hero strategy Lacked strategy for anything else “puppet president” for H. Clay and D. Webster John Tyler (VP) to carry the South ELECTION OF 1840

8 Harrison dies in office after one month “His Accidency” Southerner, slave owner, state rights, etc… Expelled from Whig party Congress was chaos PLAN BACKFIRES…

9 Mexican independence Americans poured into Mexican territory IN THE WEST…MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE--1821

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11 1) Oregon Territory –shared w/ Great Britain  “mountain men” & trade  panic of 1837 = “Oregon Fever”  mass migration: by 1845 there were 5,000 settlers in Willamette Valley  Oregon Trail  1845 = 5,000/year  1849 = 30,000  1850 = 55,000 THREE REGIONS OF WESTWARD EXPANSION

12 2) California Franciscan friars— years Enslaved native population 72,000 to 18,000 Californios —1834 Confiscated mission territory Large ‘rancho’ grants from Mexican government Occasional American trappers & traders By 1846 approx 800 Americans and 10,000 Californios (settlers of Hispanic descent) THREE REGIONS OF WESTWARD EXPANSION

13 3) Republic of Texas—1836 Stephen Austin—land grant Buffer b/w Comanche & Texans By 1824—20,000 white settlers plus enslaved blacks Mexico gov was worried Slavery was illegal Outlawed immigration into Tejas (1830) It didn’t work THREE REGIONS OF WESTWARD EXPANSION

14 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Was elected president Dissolved congress “Napoleon of the West” Texans: “free our slaves to make slaves of us all” Volunteers from southern US defended Texans Battle of the Alamo TEXAN INDEPENDENCE--1836

15 Sam Houston Tennessee frontiersman Fought w/ Jackson Moved to Texas in 1832 Defeated Mexican army Santa Anna bought freedom by recognizing Texan independence TEXAN INDEPENDENCE--1836

16 Sam Houston elected president Jackson waited until last day in office to recognize the republic Van Buren ignored the issue Pro-slavery drew settlement Population 1836 = 40,000 Population 1845 = 150,000 Annexation Treaty was rejected in 1843 THE LONE STAR REPUBLIC

17 Defeated Henry Clay Dedicated expansionist Southern Democrat Plantation and slave owner “Humorless, drab, workaholic, dogmatic” Platform: reduce tariffs, annex Texas, resolve border disputes w/ Britain, and acquire Oregon, California, and New Mexico He accomplished them all and died 3 months after leaving office ELECTION OF 1844—JAMES K. POLK

18 Expansionist prepared to go to war w/ Britain Polk supported it Britain proposed a treaty to extend 49 th parallel James Buchanan (Sec. of State) signed in 1846 Why no war? OREGON COUNTRY-- 54°40' OR FIGHT

19 Texas joins union—1845 Mexico breaks off relations with US a few days later Polk orders several thousand US troops into disputed territory Provoked attach & declared war Army grew from 7,000 to 78,700 troops 40,000 + were state militia men unregulated and undisciplined MEXICAN WAR

20 General Zachary Taylor Fought on four fronts Southern Texas Central Mexico New Mexico California THE WAR—

21 Polk made a deal w/ Santa Anna (exiled to Cuba) End the war US pays Santa Anna for territory Backfired SHADY DEALS

22 US defeated Mexico City Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) US acquired border at Rio Grande, New Mexico, and California for 15 million Very deadly “first” imperial war Ulysses S. Grant: “one of the most unjust wars ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation” –Cival War was “our punishment” for the “unholy Mexican war” Necessitated the Department of the Interior THE END & THE LEGACY

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