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Expansion West Period 4: 1800-1848.

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Presentation on theme: "Expansion West Period 4: 1800-1848."— Presentation transcript:

1 Expansion West Period 4:

2 Expansion so far… Louisiana Purchase (1803) Florida (1819)

3 Jackson’s Presidency Political Recap…
Jefferson James Madison—1808 James Monroe—1816 James Q. Adams— 1824 Jackson--1828 Jackson’s Presidency B—Bank War I—Indians T—Tariffs C—Common Man H—hiring friends (spoils system) I—? N—Nullification Crisis

4 After Jackson: Whigs v. Democrats
Whig Party develops Diverse group unified in their hatred for Jackson Active in social reform, tended to be native born, economic nationalism…

5 Whigs run multiple candidates
Election of 1836 Democrats Martin Van Buren Whigs run multiple candidates Daniel Webster (N) Hugh Lawson White (S) William Henry Harrison

6 Panic of 1837 Political nightmare for Van Buren Inflation, drastically cut wages, lack of available credit, etc… Influenced by Jackson’s bank war

7 Election of 1840 “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” War hero strategy
Lacked strategy for anything else “puppet president” for H. Clay and D. Webster John Tyler (VP) to carry the South

8 Plan Backfires… Harrison dies in office after one month
“His Accidency” Southerner, slave owner, state rights, etc… Expelled from Whig party Congress was chaos

9 In the west…Mexican independence--1821
Americans poured into Mexican territory


11 Three regions of westward expansion
1) Oregon Territory –shared w/ Great Britain “mountain men” & trade panic of 1837 = “Oregon Fever” mass migration: by there were 5,000 settlers in Willamette Valley Oregon Trail 1845 = 5,000/year 1849 = 30,000 1850 = 55,000

12 Three regions of westward expansion
2) California Franciscan friars—1769 50 + years Enslaved native population 72,000 to 18,000 Californios—1834 Confiscated mission territory Large ‘rancho’ grants from Mexican government Occasional American trappers & traders By 1846 approx 800 Americans and 10,000 Californios (settlers of Hispanic descent)

13 Three regions of westward expansion
3) Republic of Texas—1836 Stephen Austin—land grant Buffer b/w Comanche & Texans By 1824—20,000 white settlers plus enslaved blacks Mexico gov was worried Slavery was illegal Outlawed immigration into Tejas (1830) It didn’t work

14 Texan independence--1836 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Was elected president Dissolved congress “Napoleon of the West” Texans: “free our slaves to make slaves of us all” Volunteers from southern US defended Texans Battle of the Alamo

15 Texan independence--1836 Sam Houston Tennessee frontiersman
Fought w/ Jackson Moved to Texas in 1832 Defeated Mexican army Santa Anna bought freedom by recognizing Texan independence

16 The Lone Star Republic Sam Houston elected president
Jackson waited until last day in office to recognize the republic Van Buren ignored the issue Pro-slavery drew settlement Population 1836 = 40,000 Population 1845 = 150,000 Annexation Treaty was rejected in 1843

17 Election of 1844—James K. Polk
Defeated Henry Clay Dedicated expansionist Southern Democrat Plantation and slave owner “Humorless, drab, workaholic, dogmatic” Platform: reduce tariffs, annex Texas, resolve border disputes w/ Britain, and acquire Oregon, California, and New Mexico He accomplished them all and died 3 months after leaving office

18 Oregon Country-- 54°40' or Fight
Expansionist prepared to go to war w/ Britain Polk supported it Britain proposed a treaty to extend 49th parallel James Buchanan (Sec. of State) signed in 1846 Why no war?

19 Mexican War Texas joins union—1845
Mexico breaks off relations with US a few days later Polk orders several thousand US troops into disputed territory Provoked attach & declared war Army grew from 7,000 to 78,700 troops 40,000 + were state militia men unregulated and undisciplined

20 The War—1846-1848 General Zachary Taylor Fought on four fronts
Southern Texas Central Mexico New Mexico California

21 Shady deals Polk made a deal w/ Santa Anna (exiled to Cuba)
End the war US pays Santa Anna for territory Backfired

22 The end & The Legacy US defeated Mexico City
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) US acquired border at Rio Grande, New Mexico, and California for 15 million Very deadly “first” imperial war Ulysses S. Grant: “one of the most unjust wars ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation” –Cival War was “our punishment” for the “unholy Mexican war” Necessitated the Department of the Interior


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