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1 University challenge Why does Dionysus visit Heracles? To learn the way to Hades & about the best restaurants, wine shops, doss houses, knocking shops.

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Presentation on theme: "1 University challenge Why does Dionysus visit Heracles? To learn the way to Hades & about the best restaurants, wine shops, doss houses, knocking shops."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 University challenge Why does Dionysus visit Heracles? To learn the way to Hades & about the best restaurants, wine shops, doss houses, knocking shops etc.

2 2 University challenge 1Why does Dionysus want to bring a poet back to Athens? To save the city 2What is his personal interest in this? He’s worried that if the city fails there will be no more theatre festivals (of which he is the god) 3 Who helps Dionysus across the Styx? Charon the ferryman 4 Who do the initiates call upon to lead them? What is another name for this god? Iacchos, another name for Dionysus 5 What are Aeschylus and Euripides arguing about? Who is entitled to the chair for the best playwright in Hades

3 3 Panepisthmion Agon In the prologue Dionysus appears dressed up as who? Heracles.

4 4 University challenge 1 What does Dionysus wear to resemble the macho Heracles? A Club, and lion skin. 2 Dionysus calls himself “son of Jug”. How does this reveal that he has lost his identity? Because he is son of Zeus. Jug refers to his role as god of wine 3 How does the opening moments indicate that proper behaviour in the city is confused? The slave rides while the god must walk. 4 What is it that Dionysus began craving for when he was reading Euripides “Andromeda”? A classical (dead) poet to restore the theatre (the city), as the living ones are too “slick“. 5 Slaves who fought in the battle of Arginusae were given citizenship. How does this effect Xanthius? He didn’t, so is not allowed to cross the lake to Hades by boat, but must walk around it thru the marshes.

5 5  Frogs were sacred to Dionysus because they lived in the marshes around his temple. What was the 2 nd choros to enter (the second Parodos)? The initiates (of Demeter) / Elusian mysteries

6 6 University challenge 1What sort of competition are the Frogs and Dionysus having in the Frog parodos? Farting and burping 2 Xanthias points out the “murderers and perjurers” to prove to Dionysus that they have reached hell/Hades. How does Aristophanes take a dig at the Cities leader in this scene? He has Xanthias pointing at well known figures in the audience. 3 What does the beautiful light that fills the stage at the beginning of the parodos symbolise? The light of rebirth that the city needs. 4 explain the reference ‘the Princess of spring, who returns at this season salvation to bring’? Demeter’s daughter, Persephone, who returns from Hades for ½ the year brings spring back to the world. 5 Explain why the clothes of the chorus/initiates are torn? Typical of the ecstatic worshipers of Dionysus, symbolising the poverty of war torn Athens

7 7 University challenge In the episodes after the parodos what does Dionysus do repeatedly. Changes identity with Xanthias out of fear.

8 8 University challenge 1 Outside Pluto’s palace how does Dionysus show he (and the theatre/city) is a mess? He wets himself, and invokes himself for help! 2What happens in the first role exchange? He swaps his club and lion skin for Xanthias luggage. 3 What happens when the beautiful maid of Persephone comes out of the palace? Dionysus changes places again to his true identity. 4 What Athenian leader is represented by all this changing, and why? Theramenes, because he changed sides between Athens and Sparta at the right moment. 5How do the consequences of battle of Arginusae mirror these identity changes, and the disintegrating city? Slaves becoming masters (Freed), and the masters slaves (generals executed).

9 9 University challenge Frogs is unusual having a mini-agon, before the parabasis then the main agon between the Dramatists. What is this mini-agon about? A pain contest to see who is the slave and who is the god

10 10 University challenge 1 Who is Aeacus, and what is his problem ? The gate Keeper of Pluto’s palace. He can’t tell which of the two is the god Dionysus! 2When they are flogged to see who doesn’t feel pain. Why does this test fail? And what is the remedy Aeacus follows? They both feel pain, so he sends them indoors for the master (Pluto) to decide. 3 In what way is this mini-agon unlike usual agons? It has no serious debate, just slapstick comedy. 4 In the parabasis that follows, what metaphor does Aristophanes use to argue for the party of old families “aristoi” against the new men (ultra democrats) who follow the mob and oppose peace? Good verses debased coinage. 5Who is the extreme leader who Aristophanes is attacking in this parabasis? Cleophon (or Cleigenes)

11 11 University challenge The scenes after the parabasis sets up the agon. A playwright has arrived in Hades and is causing civil war & chaos just like he did in Athens. Who is he, and how is he upsetting everyone? Euripides. By claiming to be the best playwright.

12 12 University challenge 1 Dionysus’ identity is now restored (by Pluto and Persephone), so can decide the Agon. Exactly what is he to decide, and how does his restored identity qualify him to judge it? As god of Theatre he can decide who is the better playwright Aeschylus or Euripides. 2Both poets are compared on 4 categories. Give 3 of them. The general nature of their tragedies. The prologues. The songs. Weight of the lines. 3 What do we learn from the Agon are the essential differences between Euripides are Aeschylus. Aeschylus traditional, heroic, wordy. Euripides is modern, everyday, democratic. 4 After the first 3 categories, Dionysus can’t who is the better poet. So what does he revert to, and consequently, who wins? Physically weighing the verses. Aeschylus wins. 5Pluto now enters to ratify the decision. What is innovative about this for Old Comedy? 4 speaking parts on stage.

13 13 University challenge Having decided who is the best playwright in Hades, Dionysus remembers he still has a decision to make. What is it? Who to take back to save the city..

14 14 University challenge 1 Dionysus will decide who to take back by seeing how each will answer an important political question in that year 404BC. What is th equestion? What is to be done about Alcbiades 2Explain the Alcibiades question. He was Athens most successful General by not trusted because of his flamboyant lifestyle. 3 More detail…. Athens had execute its best generals after Arginusae. Alcibiades had changed sides, and been suspected of sacrilege. 4 What did the two playwrights suggest? Aeschylus: if they need him they’ll have to put up with his ways. Euripides: don’t let him back. 5So …what did Dionysus decide and why? Aeschylus, because he thinks Euripides answer too clever.

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