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Psychological therapy in early psychosis David Fowler Reader in Clinical Psychology, UEA Consultant Clinical Psychologist, NMHCT.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychological therapy in early psychosis David Fowler Reader in Clinical Psychology, UEA Consultant Clinical Psychologist, NMHCT."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychological therapy in early psychosis David Fowler Reader in Clinical Psychology, UEA Consultant Clinical Psychologist, NMHCT

2 What I will talk about What is CBT for psychosis and are there different types of CBT? Do we need different therapies for different phases of early psychosis? The case for the use of specific psychological interventions and current research

3 Acknowledgements Norfolk Early Intervention service colleagues: Dr Iain Macmillan, Nick Bishop, Mark Wright, Peter Edge, Ruth Lin, Jane Wallace...and new...., UEA colleagues and Doctoral students: Mike Day, Claire Harrison, Sam Vaughan, James Plaistow PRP (Welcome Trust programme grant) colleagues: Philippa Garety, Elizabeth Kuipers, Paul Bebbington, Graham Dunn, Rebbecca Rollinson et al...

4 Young people with early psychosis Have episodes of severe disturbances in thought, emotion and behaviour (delusions and hallucinations) Most recover from such episodes but some remain socially disabled and depressed Some are at high risk of developing chronic syndromes with need for repeated hospitalisation and high service use need specialised multidisciplinary care due to the complexity of their problems and “difficult to treat” presentations

5 Ben came into contact with mental health services because his mother was worried about him. He had recently left home to live in a bed-sit. He had become increasingly disorganized. His flat walls were covered in paintings and he was pre-occupied with drawing, not sleeping and not eating or looking after himself. He talked in a bizarre way about God, good and evil and about how his task was to save the world. He said that painting helped him to make sense of things. He was clearly listening to voices. He said these were God and the Devil talking to him. He said he didn't need any help. Ben

6 A psychological perspective Psychosis as a life crisis which sets a series of adaptive demands for the individual

7 Making sense of psychosis: formulating psychotic problems Normal models of adaptation to stress Vulnerability stress models Cognitive models of psychotic symptoms

8 The evolution of voices and delusional beliefs

9 The cognitive model of psychosis and its clinical implications The cognitive perspective suggests that psychosis is more amenable to understanding than is commonly believed Helping people understand the nature of their personal vulnerability to psychosis is a core process of cognitive therapy Cognitive therapy involves helping people to become aware of errors in the way they think about psychotic experience to compensate for these The aim is to help the person construct a less distressing and more adaptive way of understanding their predicament

10 Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Works from the patient’s point of view Is collaborative Builds up strengths (does not strip away defences) Builds on good basic psychotherapeutic skills (warmth, empathy, concern) Central task is making sense of and explaining psychosis Process of therapy, strategy and use of techniques is guided by individualised assessment and formulation

11 The six stages of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychosis Engagement and assessment Promoting self regulation of psychotic symptoms Developing a shared model of psychosis Addressing delusions and beliefs about voices Addressing dysfunctional assumptions about self and others Addressing social disability and risk of relapse

12 Adaptations in working with people with persistent voices and delusions People with high conviction in delusions typically lack of a shared rationale with therapists People with voices typically do not regard them as symptoms Overcoming dissonance and working from the patients perspective is key Flexibility, individualisation, and careful attention to engagement is required

13 Engagement Assessment Narrative Work

14 Engagement Assessment Formulation Schema work

15 Engagement Strategies Formulation

16 Engagement Strategies Formulation Relapse prevention Interventions

17 CBT for psychosis?

18 CBT for psychosis: a better analogy

19 Does CBT work? Published trials with people with treatment resistant psychosis Effect size London-East Anglia trial: CBT versus case management 0.86 (Kuipers, Fowler, Garety et al, Brit. J Psychiatry,1997; 1998) (9 months individually formulated CBT) 29% improvement in BPRS symptom ratings 65% CBT versus 17% CM made 25% improvement in symptoms Manchester trial: CBT versus supportive counselling 0.57 (Tarrier et al; BMJ 1998; Brit. J Psychiatry,1999) (8 weeks, CBT package techniques) Wellcome trial: CBT versus befriending 1.18 (Sensky, Turkington, Kingdom et al, Arch.Gen, Psych 2000) (9 months individually formulated CBT).

20 Systematic review of trials of CBT (odds ratio) Participants receiving CBT have a 22% greater chance of making a 50% improvement in mental state at post treatment than alternative condition

21 RCT of CBT to prevent relapse: The PRP project Sample: People with psychosis presenting with second or subsequent acute psychotic relapse in 5 centres in London, Essex and Norfolk Design 1) Alone: CBT vs TAU n=280 2) Family CBT vs FI vs TAU n=90 9 months treatment, 2 year f/u Measures: 1) relapse, readmission, cost 2) symptoms, social functioning, quality of life 3) process measures Recruitment at 11/03 n=212

22 CBT in relapse prevention (Gumley et al, 2003) Targeted at high risk of relapse groups Therapy initiated at recovery: traditional CBT approach (psychoeducation, warning signs, management of relapse, fear of relapse) Booster sessions at incipient relapse At 12-months, 11 (15.3%) CBT group 19 (26.4%) TAU admitted 13 (18.1%) CBT relapsed compared to 25 (34.7%) in TAU CBT group showed greater improvement in negative symptoms (mean difference CBT - TAU in change from baseline at 12 months -1.73, p = 0.035, 95% CI –3.33, -0.13), global psychopathology (-4.10, p = 0.0012, 95% CI –6.55, -1.65), performance of independent functions (2.70, p = 0.027, 95% CI 0.32, 5.08) and prosocial activities (3.99, p =0.0072, 95% CI 1.10, 6.88). (Rector and Beck, 2003, Schiz, Res., Sensky et al, 2001; also show benefits in negative symptoms, gen psychopathology from traditional CBT approach)

23 Conclusions There is strong evidence for effects of CBT on symptom reduction and distress with people who have distressing chronic treatment resistant psychotic symptoms There are promising indications of evidence for CBT in preventing relapse/readmission the PRP study will provide a definitive indication

24 What interventions for what stage of early psychosis ? At risk mental states - anomalous experiences. odd beliefs, distress First Episode - severe disturbances of thought, behaviour and affect Recovery - amotivation, depression, withdrawal First admission- psychosis and the effects hospitalisation Second episode and relapse Delayed recovery/ongoing psychosis-treatment resistant symptoms, relapse, chronic emotional disturbance and social disability

25 The evidence basis for specific psychosocial interventions at different stages At Risk Mental States: 2 preliminary trials of CBT; further trials underway/planned First Episode: equivocal evidence for CBT-large trial (SoCRATES) suggests support = CBT Social recovery and depression: No trials-need for a new treatment (evidence for supported employment (IPS) in chronic cases, preliminary evidence for CBT on depression/negative symptoms) Relapse: good preliminary evidence: PRP trial will be definitive Delayed recovery and treatment resistant psychosis: evidence is strong, NICE suggest CBT should be provided

26 Problems in At Risk Mental States “Something odd is going on” “I feel strange” “I feel different from others” “I sense evil around ” Anomalous experiences Search for meaning and delusional formation Ongoing psychological difficulties Engagement problems Drug abuse

27 Therapy targets for early stage psychosis Establishing a relationship Providing a framework for understanding anomalies of experience Decatastrophising and normalising assisting the search for meaning managing ongoing psychological problems (anxiety/depression) Promoting adaptive behaviour by behave expts Structured short term therapy akin to traditional CBT for anxiety/depression

28 Problems at the recovery stage “I still feel ill” “Something’s wrong with me” “I’m not quite right” “I feel different to before” “I'm fine” “I'm ok” “don’t want help” “just want to get on with my life” Amotivation depression social withdrawal and social disability anomalies of experience and beliefs NB: These problems are often missed in people who may be described as doing ok

29 Outcomes at 2 years: First admission psychosis cohorts in Norfolk (no EI service) Measures: CAN, HoNoS, GAF, Health records Cohort 96/97 98/99 No. 77 61 Complete recovery (no relapse) 22% 17% Mod/severe ongoing psychosis 9% 37/9% Mod/severe Depression 60/28% 55/31% Number of unmet needs 5 5 Mean GAF 58 63 None/ meaningful activity 60/15% 66/16%

30 The Issues  Suicide occurs in 10-15% of cases;mainly in first 5 years.  Parasuicidal risk averages 20-30%  Rate of post psychotic depression in first- episodes: 25%-80%

31 Depression as a psychological reaction to psychosis and trauma: recent psychological studies Depression in early psychosis is associated with increased loss shame humiliation and entrapment and lower social comparison (Iqbal et al, 2001; Plaistow and Fowler, submitted) Depression, negative symptoms and social disability are strongly associated with each other at the recovery stage and also with the degree to which individuals can see themselves in meaningful roles and goals in the future (Day and Fowler, Submitted) Depression is associated with reporting intrusive memories and avoidance of traumatic events (Fowler et al, In Press)

32 So, what does all this mean for early intervention?? Amongst cases apparently symptomatically stable (in between psychotic episodes) we need to monitor and target depression and hopelessness, and prevent appraisals of loss shame and entrapment We need to carefully target patterns of social avoidance which may emerge initially as protective

33 Individual placement and support Vocational workers focussing on social recovery who have links to employers and knowledge of employment issues work alongside case managers as part of an assertive outreach team (Bond) Hartford study (Mueser et al, J.Cons Clin Psychol, In Press) IPS (373 days employed) vs 176 days standard treatment Crowther et al BMJ, 2001 systematic review

34 Developing Individual Placement and Support Effects are on low paid service sector employment which is transitive Needs attention to meaningful goals and career pathways At present suitable for people who are fully recovered ready to work Can psychological therapy prepare more people for IPS? Factors involved include hopelessness, amotivation, cognitive deficits and depression

35 The case for Social Recovery oriented CBT in early psychosis We need a new treatment which offers social opportunities while addressing psychological problems including depression, social avoidance Ideally this will combine best practice in vocational interventions (IPS) with structured psychological interventions (CBT) This treatment is in the early stages of development

36 Key psychosocial interventions in Early intervention in psychosis to include: Support through the acute phase in least restrictive supportive therapeutic settings CBT for delayed recovery: treatment resistant psychosis and relapse Social recovery intervention: Case managers providing an assertive vocational recovery programme addressing depression and anxiety in collaboration with supported employment/education/leisure. User and family support and psyched groups Family work With protocol driven psychopharmacology


38 And it should all lead to..... a much better social and symptomatic long term outcome for young people with severe mental illness

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