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 Semantics vs Pragmatics  Semantics = the study of meaning, esp. denotation (wikipedia).  Pragmatics = the study of meaning, esp. denotation and beyond.

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Presentation on theme: " Semantics vs Pragmatics  Semantics = the study of meaning, esp. denotation (wikipedia).  Pragmatics = the study of meaning, esp. denotation and beyond."— Presentation transcript:


2  Semantics vs Pragmatics  Semantics = the study of meaning, esp. denotation (wikipedia).  Pragmatics = the study of meaning, esp. denotation and beyond (connotation)

3  Reference and Deixis  Speech Act  Implicatures  Politeness  Presupposition  Conversation Analysis

4  Proposed by Paul H. Grice  (i) the act of meaning, implying, or suggesting one thing by saying something else, or (ii) the object of that act. (Stanford, 2010)  What is said vs What is implicated  What is said can be contradicted, agreed or disagreed with, whereas what is implicated cannot (Cruse, 2011)

5  A: Has John cleared the table and washed the dishes?  B: He has cleared the table. ▪ i. That’s not true. ▪ ii. ? That’s not true, he has washed the dishes. ▪ iii. You’re right. ▪ iv. ? You’re right, he has washed the dishes What is implicated is “he has not washed the dishes”  B has said that John has cleared the table and implicated that he has not washed the dishes.

6  Another example  Shut that flaming door! ▪ ?You have every right to be. ▪ ?No, you’re not – you’re only pretending.  Anger is not said but implicated. (Cruse, 2011)

7  Make your contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction, of the talk exchange in which you are engaged.  Comprised of 4 maxims

8  Do not say what you believe to be false.  Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.

9  Make your contribution as informative as is required for the current pruposes of the exchange in which you are engaged.  Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.  Ex. A: What did you have for lunch today? ▪ Sandwich ▪ ?Food ▪ ?I had seven pieces of sandwiches, three of which was slight burnt.

10  Be relevant  A: Have you seen Mary today?  B: ?I’m breathing.  Make the strongest statement that can be relevantly made, justifiable by your evidence (Levinson, 1983)  John captured a wild cat >> Somebody caught an animal.

11  Avoid obscurity.  Avoid ambiguity.  Avoid unnecessary prolixity (lengthy, wordy).  Be orderly.  ? The lone ranger rode off into the sunset and jumped on his horse.

12  Theoretical Definition: S conversationally implicates p iff S implicates p when:  (i) S is presumed to be observing the Cooperative Principle (cooperative presumption);  (ii) The supposition that S believes p is required to make S's utterance consistent with the Cooperative Principle (determinacy); and  (iii) S believes (or knows), and expects H to believe that S believes, that H is able to determine that (ii) is true (mutual knowledge).

13  Flouting = Speaker (S) intentionally violates the maxims, knowing that the hearer (H) is well aware of his/her intention.  I married a rat. ▪ Metaphoric expression  It must be somewhere. ▪ Further search is needed.  A: Did you hear about Mary’s B: Yes, well, it rained the whole time (Mary is approaching)

14  A: I’ll look after Sam for you. Don’t worry. B: Oh, don’t offer her any post-prandial concoctions involving super-cooled oxide of hydrogen.

15  Conversational Implicatures  1. Generalised conversational Implicatures (GCI)  2.Particularised conversational Implicatures (PCI)

16 (Meibauer, 2009)

17  A: What time is it? B: Some of the guests are already leaving PCI: It must be late. GCI: Not all of the guests are already leaving.  A: Where’s John? B: Some of the guests are already leaving. PCI: Perhaps John has already left. GCI: Not all of the guests are already leaving.

18  Levinson(200) divides DCI into 3 types  Q-Implicatures  I-Implicatures  M-Implicatures

19  What you do not say is not the case  Choosing a weaker member of a set implicates that the stronger members do not apply  He owns 3 cars. ▪ Imp: He does not own 4 or 5 cars.  It made her ill. ▪ Imp: She did not die.  The gunman’s target was the PM. ▪ Imp: The gunman did not hit the PM.

20  Enrichments of what is said.  What is simply expressed is stereotypically exemplified.  We went to that new restaurant yesterday. ▪ Imp: I had a meal.  John is going out with a nurse. ▪ Imp: The nurse is female.

21  Marked expressions call for marked interpretations.  There is a good reason to speak unconventionally.  Bill caused the car to stop ▪ Normal: Bill stopped the car. ▪ Imp: Bill did not stop the car in the normal way  The corner of Sue’s lips turned slightly upwards ▪ Normal : Sue Smile. ▪ Imp: Sue’s expression is not a smile.

22  cooperative principle is formulated for instances in which interactants are interested in 'a maximally effective exchange of information' (Grice, 1975: 47). We cannot assume that a writer's primary purpose in writing a literary text is the effective exchange of information nor, even, that the writer necessarily intends the reader to grasp his or her intentions (Hickey, 1998).

23  the writer at least would like the reader to grasp the basic, literal meaning of his or her written utterance and that the reader shares this desire; as long as this is all that is meant by the effective exchange of information.

24  Render exactly what S says and implicates  Facilitate the communication between S and H  Textual equivalence vs Maximal cooperation

25  น ส ยิ่งลักษณ์ ชินวัตร นายกรัฐมนตรี กล่าว สุนทรพจน์ในพิธีเปิดการประชุม World Economic Forum on East Asia ปี 2555  Ms.Yingluck Shinawatra, the Prime Minister of Thailand, gave the opening speech at ……. (The context is not clear whether it is known that Ms.Yingluck is from Thailand.)  observe Maxim of Quantity

26  His rose-white boyhood  วัยหนุ่มกุหลาบขาว  วัยหนุ่มสีขาวเหมือนกุหลาบ  วัยหนุ่มบริสุทธิ์ดังกุหลาบขาว  วัยหนุ่มที่แสนบริสุทธิ์

27  การจัดกระบวนการการสื่อสารและแลกเปลี่ยน เรียนรู้กับกลุ่มต่างๆ ในชุมชน ทั้ง 7 หมู่บ้าน ประกอบด้วย กลุ่มผู้นำชุมชน ( ได้แก่ กำนัน ผู้ใหญ่บ้าน กรรมการหมู่บ้าน สมาชิกสภาเทศบาล ) กลุ่มแกนนำชุมชน ( ได้แก่ แม่บ้าน อสม. ผู้สูงอายุ เกษตรตำบล เยาวชน ) เครือข่ายพระสงฆ์ ครู ประชาชนในชุมชน  Communication and learning exchange process between different groups from the seven villages i.e. local administrative officers ( the sub-district headman, the village headmen, the village committee members, the municipality members), community leaders (housewives, volunteers, elders, agricultural officers, youths), monks, teachers and other inhabitants

28  Cruse, D.A. (2011). Meaning in Language.  Fawcett, Peter (2003). Translation and Language.  Hickey, L. (1998). The Pragmatics of Translation Topics.  Levinson, S.C. (1983). Pragmatics.  Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2010). Implicatures.

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