Presentation on theme: "BMA5557: Theories for Action: How do we know if we know what we’re doing? Class # 2 Fall, 2010."— Presentation transcript:
1 BMA5557: Theories for Action: How do we know if we know what we’re doing? Class # 2Fall, 2010
2 GoalsExplore dynamics of “micro-leadership”– leading in interpersonal small group situationsUnderstand “theories for action” and how they influence (a) effectiveness and (b) ability to learn from experience
3 Agenda Introduction to case: how effective was Sandy? Why? How could we be helpful to Sandy?Learning and effective actionTheories for actionLadder of inferenceAdvocacy and inquiry
4 What grade would you give Sandy? A – outstanding performanceB – good, but not outstandingC – Fair, some things good, some not so goodD – Mediocre, Sandy did more things wrong than rightF – Very poor, Sandy basically flubbed the assignment
5 What did Sandy do that influenced your grade? Met objectives, but more like a checkmarkPut Bill on defensive, didn’t work to a resolutionLed him on – suggesting he’d succeed when S didn’t expect that+Articulated thoughts clearlyLeft no room for Bill; anything B raised S said “ no”No resolution, meeting accomplished nothingStarted on hearsay basis, meeeting based on emotion rather than factsSays B is problem even though admitting B is in low responsibility jobCompany waited a year to say “You’ve sucked for a yearSomething is going on with Bill – moving him down the road sets him up to failSandy didn’t ask Bill anythingS didn’t recognize that Bill wasn’t responding as expected, didn’t adaptSandy is wrong person to meet with B, doesn’t have any idea about himBill left door open but S missed the opportunitiesS leaves things unresolved, worse offSandy did job – communicate, but not much human elementWhy combine review with promotion? Need to prepare – Sandy wasn’t precise, meeting went sidewaysS didn’t set the stage for what meeting was about – opening made B defensige and led him down the wrong pathS started clear, but changed when acknowledged B in unchallenging job; seemed weak to B and things got worseS could have got back on track “You’re not performing. Here’s the plan. Are you on board?”S should ask Bill what’s happening before tearing him down
7 “There is nothing so practical as a good theory.” --Kurt Lewin
8 Theories for actionEspoused theory: the account an individual provides to describe, explain or predict her/his own behaviorTheory-in-use: the program (set of decision rules) that would produce an individual’s behavior
11 Ladder of influence: thinking processs We tacitly register some data and ignore other data.We make interpretations based on the data we select, and draw conclusions from them.Most of this occurs quickly, automatically and tacitly, outside of awareness.Hence, our conclusions feel so obvious to us that we see no need to retrace the steps we took from the data to the conclusions we reached.
12 Our skill at reasoning is essential -- and gets us in trouble If we thought about each inference we made, life would pass us by.But people can and do reach different conclusions. When they view their conclusions as obvious, they see no need to say how they reached them.When people disagree, they often hurl conclusions at each other from the tops of their respective ladders.This makes it hard to resolve differences and to learn from one another.
13 Model II (adapted from Argyris and Schön) Core ValuesStrategiesOutcomesValid informationFree, informed choiceInternal commitmentCombine advocacy & inquiryCollaborate in designing and managing relationships, processesPublic testingDouble-loop learning