Presentation on theme: "MUSIC OFF THE RECORD: GYPSY NIGHTS Northwest Sinfonietta Dr. Ken Owen."— Presentation transcript:
MUSIC OFF THE RECORD: GYPSY NIGHTS Northwest Sinfonietta Dr. Ken Owen
EXOTICISM What is Exotic to you? What are Gypsies? Where do they come from? What do they do?
COSTUMES? AMUSEMENT PARKS?
CREEPY FORTUNE TELLERS? HISTORY?
GYPSIES IN EUROPE From Northern India to Eastern Europe 11 th -12 th centuries Not accepted remained nomadic & separate Spread through Europe Larger populations in Eastern Europe
MISCONCEPTIONS, PERCEPTIONS AND NAMES Europeans thought they came from Egypt = Egyptsies gypsies German “Zigeuner” = untouchable Separate, mysterious, unapproachable
EXOTICISM = PERCEPTION, NOT REALITY Many Gypsies in Hungary Hungarian = Gypsy? Music & other art about gypsies makes no attempt at accurate representation Excitement of unknown and different
CSÁRDÁS Hungarian folk dance Danced by country girls in Inns of rural Hungary Aristocratic party promoters made it up! Verbunkos with inserted pop tunes
CSÁRDÁS Verbunkos orginiated in 1700s Recruiting tool for army Gypsy bands forced to play for Gypsy girls to dance The style developed, stuck, and traveled through Eruope Michael McLean – a high school string teacher orchestrated a traditional csárdás
JAN VÁCLAV VOŘÍŠEK Born: May 11, 1791, Vamberk, Bohemia
JAN VÁCLAV VOŘÍŠEK Dad was Schoolmaster Church organist Choir master Jan studied piano, organ, violin and composition w/father Prodigy – toured bohemia as a boy Played Mozart piano concertos & his own works Studied law at UP
JAN VÁCLAV VOŘÍŠEK Gave up law for music Bohemia liked Mozart – Jan too Beethovenesque Vienna – success! Met Beethoven To Viennese Hungarian/Bohemian = gypsy Didn’t want to be “the gypsy composer” Studied Vienese composers to learn to not sound Hungarian Didn’t work – Viennese always thought of him as gypsy Died: November 19, 1825, Vienna, Austria
SINFONIA IN D Jan’s only work for orchestra w/out piano Listen for instrument groups Back & forth Combine for climaxes Opening 3 note motive – Beethoven? Stormy scherzo in d minor
ANTONÍN DVOŘÁK Born: September 8, 1841 Nelahozeves, Czech Part of Bohemia = lower class culture Studied music as a boy with the village schoolmaster 12 yrs – had to quit to learn family trade – butchery 13 yrs – on his own to big city Learn German Better musical opportunities 16 yrs – Prague Organ school & viola in small orchestras
ANTONÍN DVOŘÁK Worked his way up to Prague Opera orchestra 30s – composition competition to benefit “young, poor, and talented artists” Brahms = judge Dvorak won several times Friends w/Brahms – promoted his music.
ROMANCE FOR VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA Started as a string quartet Dvorak didn’t like it – wouldn’t publish it Publisher liked 2 nd movement – sounded gypsy Would sell well Dvorak reworked into the Romance
ROMANCE FOR VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA Melancholy tone Composed in same year that he lost 3 children Intentionally wrote Czech music Visited and taught in USA Died: May 1, 1904 Prague
BÉLA BARTÓK Born: March 25, 1881, Nagyszentmiklós Hungary/Romania Father = amateur musician – cello & piano Mother = teacher & played piano Noticed young Bela’s talent when Mom taught him (5 yrs old)
BÉLA BARTÓK 7 yrs old father dies Mom supports family w/piano lessons 10yrs – has composed and offered a place at Academy of Music in Budapest Mom wants him to stay home After regular schooling goes to Budapest Recognized as prominent pianist in Hungary
BÉLA BARTÓK Proud Hungarian Recognized that composers using “Hungarian” folk music = pop music Studied Hungarian folk song – traveled, recorded, dictated Piano professor at BAM Composed music imitating folk song
OLD HUNGARIAN DANCES Several large scale projects flopped Opera & others Publishers didn’t want any more Moved to Suburbs and wrote only a few piano pieces that year “Hungarian Peasant Songs” Subset of 9 movements titled “Old Dance Tunes” – Clark McAlister orchestrated as Old Hungarian dances
BÉLA BARTÓK Disturbed by fascist governments in Italy and Germany Forbade his music to be broadcast in those countries Fled to USA Always wanted to go home Died: September 26, 1945, New York
PABLO MARTÍN MELITÓN DE SARASATE Y NAVASCUÉS Born: March 10, 1844, Pamplona Last of the Paganini tradition
SARASATE Father = Bandmaster 8yrs old – performing in public as a child prodigy Frequently asked to play for Queen Isabella II at the Royal Palace
SARASATE Foremost Spanish violinist, toured Throughout Europe Russia Middle East North America South America Owned 2 Stradivarius violins Left to museums
ZIGEUNERWEISEN (GYPSY AIRS) Like most Europeans, thought Hungarian = gypsy Traveled to Hungary to meet Liszt – Hungarian music please! List had a student who played a popular song that his father had written Sarasate used it to write Zigeunerweisen
ZIGEUNERWEISEN (GYPSY AIRS) Claimed it as Hungarian music and that he thought it was folk music Received a letter from the songwriter asking for credit Thereafter acknowledged the songwriter in credits
ZIGEUNERWEISEN (GYPSY AIRS) Csárdás form Slow introduction – “lassu” – elaborate flourishes Inserted popular song – much simpler solo line Fast fiery fiddling – “friss” = gypsy fiddling
THANK YOU AND ENJOY THE CONCERT! Dr. Owen Pierce College Puyallup Choralconductor.org “Lectures and presentations” tab