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MUSIC OFF THE RECORD: GYPSY NIGHTS Northwest Sinfonietta Dr. Ken Owen.

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Presentation on theme: "MUSIC OFF THE RECORD: GYPSY NIGHTS Northwest Sinfonietta Dr. Ken Owen."— Presentation transcript:

1 MUSIC OFF THE RECORD: GYPSY NIGHTS Northwest Sinfonietta Dr. Ken Owen

2 EXOTICISM What is Exotic to you? What are Gypsies? Where do they come from? What do they do?



5 GYPSIES IN EUROPE From Northern India to Eastern Europe 11 th -12 th centuries Not accepted remained nomadic & separate Spread through Europe Larger populations in Eastern Europe

6 MISCONCEPTIONS, PERCEPTIONS AND NAMES Europeans thought they came from Egypt = Egyptsies gypsies German “Zigeuner” = untouchable Separate, mysterious, unapproachable

7 EXOTICISM = PERCEPTION, NOT REALITY Many Gypsies in Hungary Hungarian = Gypsy? Music & other art about gypsies makes no attempt at accurate representation Excitement of unknown and different

8 CSÁRDÁS Hungarian folk dance Danced by country girls in Inns of rural Hungary Aristocratic party promoters made it up! Verbunkos with inserted pop tunes

9 CSÁRDÁS Verbunkos orginiated in 1700s Recruiting tool for army Gypsy bands forced to play for Gypsy girls to dance The style developed, stuck, and traveled through Eruope Michael McLean – a high school string teacher orchestrated a traditional csárdás


11 JAN VÁCLAV VOŘÍŠEK Born: May 11, 1791, Vamberk, Bohemia

12 JAN VÁCLAV VOŘÍŠEK Dad was Schoolmaster Church organist Choir master Jan studied piano, organ, violin and composition w/father Prodigy – toured bohemia as a boy Played Mozart piano concertos & his own works Studied law at UP

13 JAN VÁCLAV VOŘÍŠEK Gave up law for music Bohemia liked Mozart – Jan too Beethovenesque Vienna – success! Met Beethoven To Viennese Hungarian/Bohemian = gypsy Didn’t want to be “the gypsy composer” Studied Vienese composers to learn to not sound Hungarian Didn’t work – Viennese always thought of him as gypsy Died: November 19, 1825, Vienna, Austria

14 SINFONIA IN D Jan’s only work for orchestra w/out piano Listen for instrument groups Back & forth Combine for climaxes Opening 3 note motive – Beethoven? Stormy scherzo in d minor

15 ANTONÍN DVOŘÁK Born: September 8, 1841 Nelahozeves, Czech Part of Bohemia = lower class culture Studied music as a boy with the village schoolmaster 12 yrs – had to quit to learn family trade – butchery 13 yrs – on his own to big city Learn German Better musical opportunities 16 yrs – Prague Organ school & viola in small orchestras

16 ANTONÍN DVOŘÁK Worked his way up to Prague Opera orchestra 30s – composition competition to benefit “young, poor, and talented artists” Brahms = judge Dvorak won several times Friends w/Brahms – promoted his music.

17 ROMANCE FOR VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA Started as a string quartet Dvorak didn’t like it – wouldn’t publish it Publisher liked 2 nd movement – sounded gypsy Would sell well Dvorak reworked into the Romance

18 ROMANCE FOR VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA Melancholy tone Composed in same year that he lost 3 children Intentionally wrote Czech music Visited and taught in USA Died: May 1, 1904 Prague

19 BÉLA BARTÓK Born: March 25, 1881, Nagyszentmiklós Hungary/Romania Father = amateur musician – cello & piano Mother = teacher & played piano Noticed young Bela’s talent when Mom taught him (5 yrs old)

20 BÉLA BARTÓK 7 yrs old father dies Mom supports family w/piano lessons 10yrs – has composed and offered a place at Academy of Music in Budapest Mom wants him to stay home After regular schooling goes to Budapest Recognized as prominent pianist in Hungary

21 BÉLA BARTÓK Proud Hungarian Recognized that composers using “Hungarian” folk music = pop music Studied Hungarian folk song – traveled, recorded, dictated Piano professor at BAM Composed music imitating folk song

22 OLD HUNGARIAN DANCES Several large scale projects flopped Opera & others Publishers didn’t want any more Moved to Suburbs and wrote only a few piano pieces that year “Hungarian Peasant Songs” Subset of 9 movements titled “Old Dance Tunes” 2007 – Clark McAlister orchestrated as Old Hungarian dances


24 BÉLA BARTÓK Disturbed by fascist governments in Italy and Germany Forbade his music to be broadcast in those countries Fled to USA Always wanted to go home Died: September 26, 1945, New York

25 PABLO MARTÍN MELITÓN DE SARASATE Y NAVASCUÉS Born: March 10, 1844, Pamplona Last of the Paganini tradition

26 SARASATE Father = Bandmaster 8yrs old – performing in public as a child prodigy Frequently asked to play for Queen Isabella II at the Royal Palace

27 SARASATE Foremost Spanish violinist, toured Throughout Europe Russia Middle East North America South America Owned 2 Stradivarius violins Left to museums

28 ZIGEUNERWEISEN (GYPSY AIRS) Like most Europeans, thought Hungarian = gypsy Traveled to Hungary to meet Liszt – Hungarian music please! List had a student who played a popular song that his father had written Sarasate used it to write Zigeunerweisen


30 ZIGEUNERWEISEN (GYPSY AIRS) Claimed it as Hungarian music and that he thought it was folk music Received a letter from the songwriter asking for credit Thereafter acknowledged the songwriter in credits

31 ZIGEUNERWEISEN (GYPSY AIRS) Csárdás form Slow introduction – “lassu” – elaborate flourishes Inserted popular song – much simpler solo line Fast fiery fiddling – “friss” = gypsy fiddling


33 THANK YOU AND ENJOY THE CONCERT! Dr. Owen Pierce College Puyallup “Lectures and presentations” tab

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