Presentation on theme: "Aggression, Appeasement, and War Chp. 18 section 1 pp"— Presentation transcript:
1Aggression, Appeasement, and War Chp. 18 section 1 pp. 468-472 Adapted from a presentation by Becca Sehnert 2012
2During the 1930s, dictators undermined world peace. Main IdeaDuring the 1930s, dictators undermined world peace.
3Dictators Challenge World Peace Japan on the Move Mussolini and Hitler thought desire for peace was weakness and responded with aggressionJapan’s military and ultranationalists though Japan should be = to western powersSo they seized Manchuria in 1931 and withdrew from the League of NationsThis strengthened militarists and they over ran eastern ChinaWesterners had no effect on the conquering
4Dictators Challenge World Peace Italy Invades Ethiopia Mussolini used his military for imperialist ambitionsLooked at Ethiopia in NE AfricaIn 1935, Italy invaded EthiopiaMussolini had more modern weaponsEthiopia looked to the League of Nations for help but they didn’t have power to enforce the sanctions and Italy conquered Ethiopia in 1936
5Dictators Challenge World Peace Hitler’s Challenge Hitler found the western democracies to be WEAK!So he built up the German military against the treaty of VersaillesThen in 1936 he went into RhinelandGermans HATED Versailles treaty and Hitler gained popularityWestern democracies didn’t take actionUh oh!Then they adopted appeasement
6Dictators Challenge World Peace Appeasement and Neutrality Developed appeasement cuzFrance was demoralizedCouldn’t move against HitlerBritish didn’t want to confront German dictatorThey thought Versailles treaty was too harsh against Germany
7Dictators Challenge World Peace Appeasement and Neutrality Britain and France liked Hitler cuz he fought against the spread of Soviet communismPacifism spread and all people wanted was peace!USA congress passed Neutrality Acts cuz they didn’t want to get involded in the European war
8Dictators Challenge World Peace Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis Germany, Italy, and Japan were known as the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo AxisThey fought soviet communismAgreed to not butt in about expansionsCreated anti-democratic powers
9Spanish Civil War From Monarchy to Republic 1936 Spanish civil war drew other European countries to fight1920s Spain was dominated by upper class, CC, and militaryIn 1931, king was forced to leave the countryRepublic was set up with new constitutionRepublican gov. passed controversial reformsTook church lands and ended church control of eduGave some peasants land, women could vote, ruling class lost powersPublic opinion was dividedLeftists wanted radical reformConservatives backed by military, rejected changeWanted peace!!!
10Spanish Civil War Nationalists Versus Loyalists 1936 Francisco Franco led a revolt that started the civil warNationalists joined FrancoSupporters of republic, aka LoyalistsCommunists, socialists, supporters of democracyHitler and Mussolini helped Franco37,000 volunteers joined the International Brigades and fought against fascismGov. of Britain, Franco, and USA remained neutral
11Spanish Civil War Dress Rehearsal Both sides committed atrocitiesTook ~1 million livesWorst horror…Germans air raid on GuernicaOne April morning in 1937, German bombers dropped bombs on the market squareThen they shot anyone on the streets who survived= total of 1600 innocent people killed!Nazis said this was an “experiment” to see what their planes could doI call BS!1939, Franco won and made a fascist dictatorship and scared people into following him
12German Aggression Continues Hitler wanted all German-speaking people to be in the Third ReichThought he had the right to conquer Slavs to the east“Nature is cruel, so we may be cruel, too…I have the right to remove millions of an inferior race that breeds liker vermin.”-Hitler
13German Aggression Continues Austria Annexed 1938 Hitler wanted to make AnschlussAustria and GermanyForced Austrian chancellor to appoint Nazis to cabinetSent German army to make orderMade a speech at former residence of Hapsburg leaderHitler silenced those who opposed him
14German Aggression Continues Czech Crisis Germany went after Czechoslovakia nextCzechoslovakia was one of 2 remaining democracies in Eastern EuropeBritain and France didn’t want to start a war to save it, wanted a peaceful solutionSudetenland must be annexed to Germany said HitlerMunich Conference in Sept. 1938British and French wanted appeasementCaved in to Hitler and persuaded Czechs to surrender Sudetenland peacefullyHitler agreed not to expand territory further
15German Aggression Continues “Peace for Our Time” British prime minister, Neville Chamberlain, said he made “peace for our time”Edouard Daladier said, “The fools, why are they cheering?”Winston Churchill had warned the government about the Nazi threat and said, “They had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor; they will have war.”
16Europe Plunges Toward War Like Churchill said, Munich didn’t bring peaceEurope went to warMarch 1939 Hitler took over CzechoslovakiaAppeasement failedPromised to protect Poland from Hitler
17Europe Plunges Toward War Nazi-Soviet Pact August 1939 Hitler announced a nonaggression pact with Stalin, Soviet leaderNazi-Soviet Pact bound Hitler and Stalin to peaceSecretly agreed to not fight if other went to war and divide up Poland and E EuroPact was based on mutual needHitler feared communismStalin feared fascismHitler didn’t want to fight w/West. Democracies and soviet union at the same timeStalin wanted w. allies against Nazi controlHe bought time to build army and got territory
18Europe Plunges Toward War Invasion of Poland Sept. 1, 1939, 1 week after Nazi-Soviet PactGermans invaded Poland2 days after, Britain and France declared war on GermanyWWII began!
19Why War CameVersailles divided the world- those who agreed and those who didn’tGermany, Italy, Japan, and Soviet Union felt left outPeople debated why western democracies didn’t respond to Hitler with forceHoped diplomacy and compromise would solve problemHistorians say Britain and France could have stopped Hitler in 1936 by aiding Loyalist SpainDidn’t want to risk war
20VOCAB Sanctions Appeasement Pacifism Anschluss Penalties Giving in to demands of aggressor to keep peacePacifismOpposition to all war!AnschlussUnion of Austria and Germany
21REVIEW What Treaty ended World War I? Treaty of VersaillesWhat was the Economy in after WWI and before WWII?A DepressionWhat country did Germany invade to begin WWII?PolandWhat type of government did the Soviet Union have after WWI until 1992?Communism
22REVIEW 2What was the leading political party in Germany by the middle 1930’s?NaziWhat year did WWII Start?1939What 2 countries were first to declare war on Germany in WWII?Great Britain and France
23REVIEW 3Who was Prime Minister of Great Britain during WWII? Winston ChurchillWho was the Dictator of the Soviet Union during WWII? Joseph StalinWho was the Dictator of Germany during WWII? Adolf Hitler