Presentation on theme: "Aggression, Appeasement, and War Chp. 18 section 1 pp. 468-472 Adapted from a presentation by Becca Sehnert 2012."— Presentation transcript:
Aggression, Appeasement, and War Chp. 18 section 1 pp. 468-472 Adapted from a presentation by Becca Sehnert 2012
Main Idea During the 1930s, dictators undermined world peace.
Dictators Challenge World Peace Japan on the Move Mussolini and Hitler thought desire for peace was weakness and responded with aggression Japan’s military and ultranationalists though Japan should be = to western powers So they seized Manchuria in 1931 and withdrew from the League of Nations This strengthened militarists and they over ran eastern China Westerners had no effect on the conquering
Dictators Challenge World Peace Italy Invades Ethiopia Mussolini used his military for imperialist ambitions Looked at Ethiopia in NE Africa In 1935, Italy invaded Ethiopia Mussolini had more modern weapons Ethiopia looked to the League of Nations for help but they didn’t have power to enforce the sanctions and Italy conquered Ethiopia in 1936
Dictators Challenge World Peace Hitler’s Challenge Hitler found the western democracies to be WEAK! So he built up the German military against the treaty of Versailles Then in 1936 he went into Rhineland Germans HATED Versailles treaty and Hitler gained popularity Western democracies didn’t take action Uh oh! Then they adopted appeasement
Dictators Challenge World Peace Appeasement and Neutrality Developed appeasement cuz – France was demoralized – Couldn’t move against Hitler British didn’t want to confront German dictator – They thought Versailles treaty was too harsh against Germany
Dictators Challenge World Peace Appeasement and Neutrality Britain and France liked Hitler cuz he fought against the spread of Soviet communism Pacifism spread and all people wanted was peace! USA congress passed Neutrality Acts cuz they didn’t want to get involded in the European war
Dictators Challenge World Peace Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis Germany, Italy, and Japan were known as the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis They fought soviet communism – Agreed to not butt in about expansions Created anti-democratic powers
Spanish Civil War From Monarchy to Republic 1936 Spanish civil war drew other European countries to fight 1920s Spain was dominated by upper class, CC, and military In 1931, king was forced to leave the country Republic was set up with new constitution Republican gov. passed controversial reforms Took church lands and ended church control of edu Gave some peasants land, women could vote, ruling class lost powers Public opinion was divided – Leftists wanted radical reform – Conservatives backed by military, rejected change – Wanted peace!!!
Spanish Civil War Nationalists Versus Loyalists 1936 Francisco Franco led a revolt that started the civil war Nationalists joined Franco Supporters of republic, aka Loyalists – Communists, socialists, supporters of democracy Hitler and Mussolini helped Franco 37,000 volunteers joined the International Brigades and fought against fascism Gov. of Britain, Franco, and USA remained neutral
Spanish Civil War Dress Rehearsal Both sides committed atrocities Took ~1 million lives Worst horror… – Germans air raid on Guernica One April morning in 1937, German bombers dropped bombs on the market square Then they shot anyone on the streets who survived – = total of 1600 innocent people killed! Nazis said this was an “experiment” to see what their planes could do » I call BS! 1939, Franco won and made a fascist dictatorship and scared people into following him
German Aggression Continues Hitler wanted all German-speaking people to be in the Third Reich Thought he had the right to conquer Slavs to the east “Nature is cruel, so we may be cruel, too…I have the right to remove millions of an inferior race that breeds liker vermin.”-Hitler
German Aggression Continues Austria Annexed 1938 Hitler wanted to make Anschluss » Austria and Germany Forced Austrian chancellor to appoint Nazis to cabinet Sent German army to make order Made a speech at former residence of Hapsburg leader Hitler silenced those who opposed him
German Aggression Continues Czech Crisis Germany went after Czechoslovakia next Czechoslovakia was one of 2 remaining democracies in Eastern Europe Britain and France didn’t want to start a war to save it, wanted a peaceful solution Sudetenland must be annexed to Germany said Hitler Munich Conference in Sept. 1938 – British and French wanted appeasement – Caved in to Hitler and persuaded Czechs to surrender Sudetenland peacefully – Hitler agreed not to expand territory further
German Aggression Continues “Peace for Our Time” British prime minister, Neville Chamberlain, said he made “peace for our time” Edouard Daladier said, “The fools, why are they cheering?” Winston Churchill had warned the government about the Nazi threat and said, “They had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor; they will have war.”
Europe Plunges Toward War Like Churchill said, Munich didn’t bring peace Europe went to war March 1939 Hitler took over Czechoslovakia Appeasement failed Promised to protect Poland from Hitler
Europe Plunges Toward War Nazi-Soviet Pact August 1939 Hitler announced a nonaggression pact with Stalin, Soviet leader Nazi-Soviet Pact bound Hitler and Stalin to peace Secretly agreed to not fight if other went to war and divide up Poland and E Euro Pact was based on mutual need – Hitler feared communism – Stalin feared fascism Hitler didn’t want to fight w/West. Democracies and soviet union at the same time Stalin wanted w. allies against Nazi control He bought time to build army and got territory
Europe Plunges Toward War Invasion of Poland Sept. 1, 1939, 1 week after Nazi-Soviet Pact Germans invaded Poland 2 days after, Britain and France declared war on Germany WWII began!
Why War Came Versailles divided the world- those who agreed and those who didn’t – Germany, Italy, Japan, and Soviet Union felt left out People debated why western democracies didn’t respond to Hitler with force – Hoped diplomacy and compromise would solve problem Historians say Britain and France could have stopped Hitler in 1936 by aiding Loyalist Spain – Didn’t want to risk war
VOCAB Sanctions – Penalties Appeasement – Giving in to demands of aggressor to keep peace Pacifism – Opposition to all war! Anschluss – Union of Austria and Germany
REVIEW What Treaty ended World War I? – Treaty of Versailles What was the Economy in after WWI and before WWII? – A Depression What country did Germany invade to begin WWII? – Poland What type of government did the Soviet Union have after WWI until 1992? – Communism
REVIEW 2 What was the leading political party in Germany by the middle 1930’s? – Nazi What year did WWII Start? – 1939 What 2 countries were first to declare war on Germany in WWII? – Great Britain and France
REVIEW 3 Who was Prime Minister of Great Britain during WWII? Winston Churchill Who was the Dictator of the Soviet Union during WWII? Joseph Stalin Who was the Dictator of Germany during WWII? Adolf Hitler