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1920s ~ Not Roaring in South Carolina TAHSC By Ruth Pekarek.

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Presentation on theme: "1920s ~ Not Roaring in South Carolina TAHSC By Ruth Pekarek."— Presentation transcript:

1 1920s ~ Not Roaring in South Carolina TAHSC By Ruth Pekarek

2 South Carolina’s Depression began in 1920s…Why? During World War I, SC was feeding Europe. ~ Europe resumed farming ~ Foreign Market was closed to SC Overproduction of cotton and tobacco Crop prices fall Boll Weevil Drought

3 How did the depression affect the economic and social lives of rural South Carolinians? Analyze the following quotes and pictures taken from the 1920s and 1930s to generalize how the depression affected the economic and social lives of rural South Carolinians. Write your conclusions on the Oral History and Photograph Analysis worksheet.

4 “I was not able to finish my education because of the problems. I was forced to live in various places with my older sisters.” Creola Steward, Denmark, SC Interviews from The Times and Democrat: Reflections in Time. Hughes, Cathy C., ed. Orangeburg, SC: Sun Printing Inc., 1999.

5 Oral History “We never did have much but each other and the church and the vegetables in Mama’s garden. We just tightened our belts a little bit more and went on like we always did.” Oral History Interviews of the Great Depression, Schulz History 202 class, on deposit in South Carolinian Library. Taken from South Carolina Album University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC

6 Oral History “Five dollars a week in pay was a lot of money. Once the government was giving away flour and apples, but my mother would not let my father go and get any… she didn’t believe in handouts. I cut lawns for 7 ½ cents an hour. I thought I was in big money when I finally worked my way to 10 cents an hour. Daddy was a carpenter during the 1930s and earned wages of five dollars a week. Bread was 5 cents a loaf, fatback 3 cents a pound, and liver 10 cents a pound. My family of seven could eat for several days on 75 cents worth of groceries.” Kirk Stokes, Orangeburg, SC Interviews from The Times and Democrat: Reflections in Time. Hughes, Cathy C., ed. Orangeburg, SC: Sun Printing Inc., 1999.

7 Oral History “We didn’t have to wait for the crash of the stock market… our hard times started in 1926 when cotton prices fell drastically. I remember the days when eggs were one cent each, bread 8 cents a loaf and gasoline was five gallons for a dollar.” Dick Banks, St. Matthews, SC Interviews from The Times and Democrat: Reflections in Time. Hughes, Cathy C., ed. Orangeburg, SC: Sun Printing Inc., 1999.

8 Oral History “The depression was a terrible time, but the hardships brought us closer to God. It made us better people because we learned to do without. Because we lived on a farm we never worried about food.” Kathryn Gambrell, North, SC Interviews from The Times and Democrat: Reflections in Time. Hughes, Cathy C., ed. Orangeburg, SC: Sun Printing Inc., 1999.

9 Oral History “We lived off the land and because all the families of the community looked after each other we didn’t suffer that much. The drop in cotton and corn prices created a cutback in the purchase of store bought items, but we endured.” Ross Horton, Branchville, SC Interviews from The Times and Democrat: Reflections in Time. Hughes, Cathy C., ed. Orangeburg, SC: Sun Printing Inc., 1999.

10 Oral History "I almost went broke in 1920 and '21. The boll weevil. We didn't know how to fight it then, and it was heart-breaking to see a good crop go down. Some of my neighbors just gave up and moved away. You could get farm land for almost nothing. It was impossible for me to meet my notes, but the bank was kind enough to let me get by with just the interest. And I had to scrape to do that.” John B. Culbertson, Campobello, SC Williams, R.V. “John C. Culbertson.” South Carolina Writers’ Project. Courtesy of Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

11 Oral History “Henry and I got married, began buying our own little farm and settled down to raise a family. The children came quickly, nine of them, and the farm was slow in getting paid for. But we could have cleared the $393 which we still owed on it had it not been for the boll weevil. The cotton crops were destroyed for several years and then real disaster struck. A fire destroyed our home and everything we owned. We didn't have nothing left - - not even our clothes, not even a spoon! With no insurance on the house and the mortgage on the farm due, there was nothing we could do but let our little farm go.” Mrs. H. D. Martin, Beaufort, SC Martin, Chlotilde R. “The Johnsons Build a House.” South Carolina Writers’ Project. Courtesy of Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

12 Old Home Near Jacksonboro, SC Wolcott, Marion Post. “Old home near Jacksonboro, South Carolina.” Photograph. December (LC-USF D). Courtesy of Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

13 Negro Sharecropper, Will Cole and his son picking cotton Wolcott, Marion Post. “Negro sharecropper, Will Cole and his son picking cotton.” Photograph. September (LC-USF D). Courtesy of Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

14 K enneth Textile Mill, Oconee County “ Inside Kenneth Mill.” Photograph. [1920]. Oconee Heritage Center, Walhalla, South Carolina.

15 Mules and Men in Oconee County “Mules and men.” Photograph. [1920]. Oconee Heritage Center, Walhalla, South Carolina.

16 A Liquor Still Getting Busted, Oconee County “A liquor still getting busted.” Photograph. [1920]. Oconee Heritage Center, Walhalla, South Carolina.

17 Negro Home Near Charleston, SC Wolcott, Marion Post. “Negro home near Charleston, South Carolina.” Photograph. December (LC-USF D). Courtesy of Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

18 Oldest Son of a Sharecropper Family Working in the Cotton Lange, Dorothea. “Oldest son of a sharecropper family working in the cotton.” Photograph. June (LC-USF C). Courtesy of Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

19 Schoolhouse Near Summerville, SC Wolcott, Marion Post. “Schoolhouse near Summerville, South Carolina.” Photograph. December (LC- USF E). Courtesy of Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. bin/quary/D?fsaall:52:/temp/~pp_5AYu

20 Sharecropper Family Near Chesnee, SC Lange, Dorothea. “Sharecropper family near Chesnee, South Carolina.” Photograph. July (LC-USF C). Courtesy of Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

21 Tobacco Workers Florence County, SC Cox, photographer. “Tobacco workers. Florence County, South Carolina.” Photograph. Summer (LC-USF D). Courtesy of Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

22 Stringing Tobacco Florence County, SC Cox, photographer. “Stringing Tobacco. Florence County, South Carolina.” Photograph. Summer (LC-USF D). Courtesy of Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

23 Economic Effects of the Depression Farmers receive less money for crops Could not pay debts on land or goods Collapse of farming ~ many people lost land Banks failed and closed No one had cash money Needed two incomes ~ women worked outside of home Textile industry expanded

24 Social Effects of the Depression Loss of jobs Mass exodus of blacks and whites looking for jobs People move from farm work to mill jobs Families took in boarders or moved in with other family members Children worked to help support family Children didn’t finish school because of work

25 More Social Effects of the Depression Barter system used instead of money (trading goods for goods) Doctors, lawyers, and ministers paid with goods instead of money Friends and family helped each other Everyone cut back ~ only the essentials bought Grew or raised food ~ bought only sugar and coffee


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