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The animal metaphor and the conceptualization of cabra (goat) in Brazilian Portuguese Speaker FERNANDA CAVALCANTI CAGLIARI.

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Presentation on theme: "The animal metaphor and the conceptualization of cabra (goat) in Brazilian Portuguese Speaker FERNANDA CAVALCANTI CAGLIARI."— Presentation transcript:

1 The animal metaphor and the conceptualization of cabra (goat) in Brazilian Portuguese Speaker FERNANDA CAVALCANTI CAGLIARI (IT) – JUNE /2014 Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 1

2 The animal metaphor and the conceptualization of cabra (goat) in Brazilian Portuguese Speaker FERNANDA CAVALCANTI CAGLIARI (IT) – JUNE /2014 Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 2

3 The animal metaphor and the conceptualization of cabra (goat) in Brazilian Portuguese ’s research focused on polysemic uses of the conventional expression cabra (goat) and highlights the uses of that expression which, in certain regions of Brazil, can be applied to refer both to the animal itself or to a man. The main objective of the research was to analyze emergencies of concepts regarding the male figure, both physically and socio- culturally situated, especially those that license the conventional expression cabra (goat). The animal metaphor and the conceptualization of cabra (goat) in Brazilian Portuguese ’s research focused on polysemic uses of the conventional expression cabra (goat) and highlights the uses of that expression which, in certain regions of Brazil, can be applied to refer both to the animal itself or to a man. The main objective of the research was to analyze emergencies of concepts regarding the male figure, both physically and socio- culturally situated, especially those that license the conventional expression cabra (goat). Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 3

4 One of the objectives of the survey applications was to discuss in the light of Conceptual Metaphor Theory whether and how animal metaphors motivate the conventional expression cabra (goat). The research is based on congruent animal metaphors, such as - HUMAN IS ANIMAL, OBJECTIONABLE PEOPLE ARE ANIMALS and PEOPLE ARE ANIMALS (Kövecses, 2010) and the GREAT CHAIN OF BEING METAPHOR (Lakoff and Turner, 1989). One of the objectives of the survey applications was to discuss in the light of Conceptual Metaphor Theory whether and how animal metaphors motivate the conventional expression cabra (goat). The research is based on congruent animal metaphors, such as - HUMAN IS ANIMAL, OBJECTIONABLE PEOPLE ARE ANIMALS and PEOPLE ARE ANIMALS (Kövecses, 2010) and the GREAT CHAIN OF BEING METAPHOR (Lakoff and Turner, 1989). Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 4

5 Surveys : Four surveys of three, thirteen, sixteen and ten questions each, were applied with 123 participants from Fortaleza, Northeast of Brazil. Participants’ profile: 105 undergratuate students aged, in general, between 19 and 23 years old, from two universities in Fortaleza. 18 independent professionals, aged, in general, between 40 and 55 years old (teachers, psychologists, educators, social project directors, designers and doormen). A Qualitative-Quantitative treatment of the data was carried out. Surveys : Four surveys of three, thirteen, sixteen and ten questions each, were applied with 123 participants from Fortaleza, Northeast of Brazil. Participants’ profile: 105 undergratuate students aged, in general, between 19 and 23 years old, from two universities in Fortaleza. 18 independent professionals, aged, in general, between 40 and 55 years old (teachers, psychologists, educators, social project directors, designers and doormen). A Qualitative-Quantitative treatment of the data was carried out. Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 5

6 The analysis was based on five criteria: 1.The participants’ mental images of cabra (goat). 2.The participants’ judgments about the real life usage examples of the expression cabra (goat). 3.The participants’ judgment about the different definitions of the expression cabra (goat). 4.The participants’ perception and beliefs regarding the relation man and animal, especially the relation man and the animal cabra (goat). 5. The participants’ perception and beliefs about the language and culture. The analysis was based on five criteria: 1.The participants’ mental images of cabra (goat). 2.The participants’ judgments about the real life usage examples of the expression cabra (goat). 3.The participants’ judgment about the different definitions of the expression cabra (goat). 4.The participants’ perception and beliefs regarding the relation man and animal, especially the relation man and the animal cabra (goat). 5. The participants’ perception and beliefs about the language and culture. Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 6

7 7 Survey 1 1. What it comes to your mind when you hear the word CABRA (goat)? List the words that come to your mind. 2. Do you believe that word cabra (goat) is used to designate male individual? 3. What for you is truly cabra (goat)? Arrange the following expression in a list. (cabra macho (virile goat); cabra da peste; cabra bom (good goat); cabra raparigueiro (womanzing goat); cabra véi (old goat), a man; a hired killer; a male individual).

8 Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 8 Survey 2 1. Do you like animal? 2. Do you have some animals ? 3. Did you ever had a contact with a cabra (goat)? 4. When you think of cabra (goat), what it comes to your mind? 5. Do you associate cabra (goat) with some symbology ? 6. In your opinion, which is the main characteristic of cabra (goat)? 7. Do you know any interesting story of cabra (goat)? 8. Do you believe that cabra (goat) is associated to some region of Brazil? 9. Do you see any social and cultural role of cabra (goat) in the context you live in ? 10. Do you think that cabra (goat) is associated to some idea of fellowship? 11. Do you think that cabra (goat) is associated to some idea of violence ? 12. Do you think that cabra (goat) is associated to some idea of bravery ? 13. Do you think that cabra (goat) is associated to some idea of manliness ? 14. In your opinion, which gender cabra represents? The female or male gender? 15. Do you like the cabra’s (goat )smell? 16. Do you like the cabra’s (goat) appearance? Do you think that it is a beautiful animal ?

9 Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 9 Survey 3 1. Do you believe that men and women are animals? 2. If you believe that both the man and the woman are animals, what is the difference between man / woman and other animals? 3. Do you believe that there are differences between the northeastern Brazilian men and Brazilian men in general? Why? 4. Do you agree with such definition of cabra (goat): (i) Any male individual; (ii) Any Brazilian male individual; (iii) Just some kind of Brazilian male individual. 5. Do you think the expressions cabra da peste and cabra macho (virile goat) refer to: (i) Any male individual; (ii) Any Brazilian male individual; (iii) Any Brazilian and northeastern male individual. 6. Do you think that cabra (goat) is also used to refer to: (i) Any female individual; (ii) Any Brazilian female; (iii) Just some kind of Brazilian female individuals; (iv) it only refers to male individual. 7. When you hear the expression cabra bom (good goat), what kind of image comes to your mind? 8. Do you agree with the definition that cabra (goat) is a representative mix between mulatto and black? 9. Do you agree with the definition that cabra (goat) is hired killer? 10. Do you agree with the definition that cabra (goat) is resident of rural area? 11. Do you agree with the definition that cabra (goat) is a cangaceiro? 12. Do you agree with the expression that says ‘There are no bad candy and no good goat’? 13. "Do not scare me! Say to those bastards I can take it. I am a man, a goat. I am a man!" When you read this passage from the novel Dead Fire by José Lins do Rêgo, do you think that this idea of ​​man is appropriate?

10 Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 10 Survey 4 1. Do you believe that man is an animal? Why? 2. Do you believe that man could be represented by an animal? Which one? Why? 3. Do you agree with the image of northeastern man be represented by Cabra? 4. Do you see some differences when a man is designated by cabra instead of ‘Man, ‘Dude’ or ‘buddy’? Which difference do you see? 5. In your opinion, do man and cabra (goat ) share some physical characteristics? Which ones? 6. In your opinion, do man and cabra (goat) share some behaviors? Which ones? 7. Do you use an expression cabra (goat) to address for your grandfather, father, husband, brothers and friends in general? Why? 8. Do you use an expression cabra (goat) to address for bosses, co-wokers and authorites? Why? 9. Do you believe that cabra (goat) has a nationality ? 10. Do you think that you could be represented by an animal? Which one? Why?

11 1. The participants’ mental images of cabra (goat). Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti % of 33 participants who answered survey 1 said the animal image comes to their minds when they hear the expression. cabra (goat). 15.2% said the man image comes to their minds. 9.1% said cabra da peste and a milk image. 6.1% didn’t answer or answer the male individual image. 3.0% said the sheep or the thief or the countryside’s image. All 30 participants who answered survey 3 said they have a good image when they hear the expression of cabra bom (good goat). 50.0% of 30 participants who answered survey 3 said they disagree with the image of the northeastern man of Brazil was represented by cabra (goat). 30.0% said they agree with. 10% said “it depends on”; 3.3% said they didn’t care about or didn’t answer.

12 2. The Participants judgments about the real life usage examples of the expression cabra (goat). Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti % of 33 participants believe that expression refers to male individual; 6.1% don’t % of 30 participants don’t believe that expression refers to a female individual; 10% believe that expression refers to some kind of female individual; 3.3% believe that expression refers to any kind of female individual % of 30 participants disagree with such expression as: ‘there is no bad candy and no good goat’; 10.0% didn’t answer or didn’t know; 3.3% didn’t understand % of 30 participants agree with the passage of Rêgo’s novel (“You don’t scare me. Say to those bastards that I can stand. I am a man, a goat. I am a Man” ). 26.7% don’t; 3.3% said “maybe” or didn’t understand % of 30 participants said there is a difference when a man is called goat instead of ‘man’, ‘dude’ or ‘buddy’. 20.0% said there is no difference. 3.3 % said “maybe” % of 30 participants don’t use an expression cabra (goat) to address their parents, relatives and friends ; 43.3% do; 6.7% said “maybe” % of 30 participants don’t use an expression cabra (goat) to address their bosses, co-workers, authorities. 13.3% do. 6.7% said “It depends on”; 3.3% said “maybe”

13 3. The participants’ judgment about the different definitions of the expression cabra (goat). Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti % of 33 participants, among eight different meanings, indicated a man as the first meaning of cabra (goat); 27.3% indicated cabra da peste; 15.2% indicated any male individual; 12.1%, cabra macho (virile goat); 9.1% didn’t answer; 3.0%, cabra bom (good goat). They didn’t mention cabra véi (old goat) nor hired killer, and cabra raparigueiro (womanizing goat) % of 33 participants indicated a hired killer as the last meaning of the expression of cabra (goat); 24.2% indicated any male individual; 18.2% didn’t answer; 15.2%, cabra raparigueiro (womanizing goat); 6,1%, cabra bom (good goat); 3.0% cabra véi (old goat) % of 30 participants chose any individual as a definition of cabra (goat); 43.3% chose some kind of male individual; 10.0% chose any Brazilian male individual; 3.3% didn’t understand % of 30 participants chose any Brazilian and northeastern male individual as a definition of cabra da peste and cabra macho (virile goat); 23.3% chose any male individual as a definition of cabra da peste and cabra macho (virile goat); 6.7% chose any Brazilian male individual; 3.3% didn’t understand % of 30 participants disagree with a definition of cabra as a representative of miscegenation of mulatto and black; 6.7% don’t know that definition; 3.3% agree with that definition or said “maybe” % of 30 participants disagree with the definition of cabra as a hired killer; 13.3% agree with that definition; 10% said “maybe”; 3.3% don’t know it % of 30 participants disagree with the definition of cabra (goat) as a resident of rural area; 30.0% agree with that definition; 10.0% said “maybe” % of 30 participants disagree with the definition of cabra as a cangaceiro 13.3% agree with that definition; 6.7% don’t know that definition or said “maybe”.

14 4. The participants’ perception and beliefs regarding the relation between man and animal, especially the relation man and the animal cabra (goat). Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti % of 30 participants who answered survey 3 believe that man and woman are animals; 3.3% said “maybe” % of 30 like animals; 10.0% said “it depends on”; 3.3% don’t like them % of 30 participants have an animal. 46.7% don’t % of 30 participants had contact with goats; 26.7% don’t; 3.3% said “maybe”. 5. The main features of goat pointed out by the participants were the scream, the horns, the resistance, the smell, the bravery, the character, the stubbornness, the persistence in resisting, the milk and the naughtiness % of 30 participants don’t associate cabra (goat) with an idea of fellowship. 40.0% do; 6.7% said “it depends on”; 3.3% didn’t answer % of 30 participants don’t associate a cabra (goat) with an idea of violence; 40.0% do; 6.7% didn’t know; 3.3% said “it depends on” % of 30 participants who answered survey 2 associate a cabra (goat) with an idea of bravery; 30.0% don’t; 6.7 didn’t answer; 3.3% said “it depends on” % of 30 participants don’t associate a cabra (goat) an idea of manhood; 43.3% do; 6.7% didn’t answer.

15 4. The participants’ perception and beliefs regarding the relation man and animal, especially the relation between man and the animal cabra (goat). (cont.) Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti % of 30 participants agree with the representation of a human being by an animal; 30.0% don’t; 6.7 didn’t know; 3.3% didn’t answer % of 30 participants don’t like the goat’s smell; 23.3% said “it depends on”; 3.3% like it or didn’t know % of 30 participants admit they could be represented by an animal. 43.3% don’t. 10.0% didn’t answer; 3.3 didn’t know % of 30 participants like goat’s appearance; 26.7 don’t; 6.7% said “ it depends on” or didn’t know. 14. The participants said man and goat sharing some similar behavior such as : resistance, stubbornness, strength, bravery, resilience, group life, distrust, be industrious, intelligence, slowness and the way to defend. 15. The participants mentioned rationality as the main point of difference between man and animal

16 5. The participants’ perception and beliefs about the language and culture. Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti % of participants believe that there is a difference between a Brazilian man in general and a Brazilian northeastern man; 26.7% don’t; 3.3% didn't answer % of 30 participants associate a cabra (goat) to some symbology; 36.7 don’t; 6.7% didn’t answer. They mentioned esoteric references as Zodiac, Satanism, Paganism and the Occult % of participants know no story about cabra (goat); 3.3% do or didn’t answer % indicated the Northeast of Brazil as the region that cabra (goat) comes from; 13.3% didn’t answer; 6.7% indicated the Sertão region; 3.3% indicated the Center East of Brazil or Center East and Northeast of Brazil % of 30 participants believe that cabra ( goat) has a social and cultural function in the context they live in; 36.7% don’t; 13.3% didn’t answer % of 30 participants believe that cabra ( goat) represents more male gender than female gender. 26.7% believe cabra ( goat) represents more female gender than male gender; 16.7% believe cabra ( goat) represents both female gender and male gender; 6.7% said “it depends on” % participants believe that cabra (goat) has a nationality; 23.3% don’t; 6.6% said It is likely or didn’t know or didn’t answer.

17 According to the participants: (i)the expression cabra (goat) evokes, at first, the image of animal and secondly the image of man; (ii)if, on the one hand, it is not appropriate the northeastern man be represented by cabra (goat) because it could be offensive; on the other hand an expression cabra bom (good goat) evokes an image of a good guy; (iii) If the expression cabra (goat) was judged as offensive to address for bosses, co-workers and authorities, it is not so clear if the use of that expression is or is not offensive to address for grandfather, father, brothers and friends in general; According to the participants: (i)the expression cabra (goat) evokes, at first, the image of animal and secondly the image of man; (ii)if, on the one hand, it is not appropriate the northeastern man be represented by cabra (goat) because it could be offensive; on the other hand an expression cabra bom (good goat) evokes an image of a good guy; (iii) If the expression cabra (goat) was judged as offensive to address for bosses, co-workers and authorities, it is not so clear if the use of that expression is or is not offensive to address for grandfather, father, brothers and friends in general; Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 17

18 (iv) The use of that expression is evaluated as a peculiar expression of the Northeast of Brazil. (v) The use of that expression could be evaluated as offensive or flattering. That is, when a man is called by cabra (goat), he could be evaluated like a sexist and rude person or he could be evaluated like a strong, courageous and hardworking person. (vi) In terms of use of expression cabra, the most representative meaning is a ‘man’ and the less representative one is ‘hired killer’. In terms of use of expression cabra da peste and cabra macho (virile goat), the most representative meaning is Brazilian northeastern man. (iv) The use of that expression is evaluated as a peculiar expression of the Northeast of Brazil. (v) The use of that expression could be evaluated as offensive or flattering. That is, when a man is called by cabra (goat), he could be evaluated like a sexist and rude person or he could be evaluated like a strong, courageous and hardworking person. (vi) In terms of use of expression cabra, the most representative meaning is a ‘man’ and the less representative one is ‘hired killer’. In terms of use of expression cabra da peste and cabra macho (virile goat), the most representative meaning is Brazilian northeastern man. Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 18

19 (vii) In general the relationship between man and animal was evaluated well. However, it seems that it is not well evaluated the fact the human being is represented by the animal in general. Because the animals are not rational; they have no sense of morality, no language and no aesthetic sense. Yet, some animals were evaluated well such as: birds and big cats. (viii) In terms of goat animal, it was evaluated as brave stubborn, strong-willed animal as well as tough in face of adversity situations. It was also evaluated as important animal in terms of social and cultural role. (ix) In terms of northeastern man, he was viewed as different of the Brazilian man in general because he is sexist, rude, courageous, and hardworking. (vii) In general the relationship between man and animal was evaluated well. However, it seems that it is not well evaluated the fact the human being is represented by the animal in general. Because the animals are not rational; they have no sense of morality, no language and no aesthetic sense. Yet, some animals were evaluated well such as: birds and big cats. (viii) In terms of goat animal, it was evaluated as brave stubborn, strong-willed animal as well as tough in face of adversity situations. It was also evaluated as important animal in terms of social and cultural role. (ix) In terms of northeastern man, he was viewed as different of the Brazilian man in general because he is sexist, rude, courageous, and hardworking. Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 19

20 We emphasize the polysemic and metaphorical nature of the expression cabra, once the participants admit that the expression refers to both a brave, valuable man (in the sense of friendship) and an unsophisticated, rude man; and they admit that kind of man is understood in terms of negative and positive characteristics. That is, the participants understand man in terms of goat based on the congruent animal metaphors that capture negative and positive characteristics of human beings (Kövecses, 2010). The concept of cabra (goat) is motivated by congruent animal metaphors such as: The generic-level conceptual metaphor HUMAN IS ANIMAL and the specific level conceptual metaphors RUDE, SEXIST, NON EDUCATED MAN IS GOAT; BRAVE, RESISTANT MAN IS GOAT. We emphasize the polysemic and metaphorical nature of the expression cabra, once the participants admit that the expression refers to both a brave, valuable man (in the sense of friendship) and an unsophisticated, rude man; and they admit that kind of man is understood in terms of negative and positive characteristics. That is, the participants understand man in terms of goat based on the congruent animal metaphors that capture negative and positive characteristics of human beings (Kövecses, 2010). The concept of cabra (goat) is motivated by congruent animal metaphors such as: The generic-level conceptual metaphor HUMAN IS ANIMAL and the specific level conceptual metaphors RUDE, SEXIST, NON EDUCATED MAN IS GOAT; BRAVE, RESISTANT MAN IS GOAT. Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 20

21 Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 21

22 BARCELONA, Antônio. O poder da metonímia. In: SIQUEIRA, Maity (Org.). Cadernos de Tradução. Porto Alegre. n. 25, p.7-24, jul-dez BORODISTSKY, Lera. Does language shape thought?: mandarin and english speaker´s conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology, Academic Press. n. 43. p.1-22, CASCUDO, Luís Câmara. Coisas que o povo diz. 2. ed. São Paulo: Globo Editora, ed., FELTES, Heloísa Pedroso de Moraes. Semântica cognitiva: ilhas, pontes e teias. Porto Alegre: Edipurcs, FREYRE, G. Nordeste. 7ª edição. São Paulo: Global Editora (1ª edição, 1937). GIBBS, Raymond. The poetics of mind: figurative thought, language, and understanding. New York: Cambridge University Press, GIBBS, Raymond. Embodiment and cognitive science. Cambridge: CUP, GIBBS, Raymond. Metaphor and thought: the state of the art. In: GIBBS, Raymond. (Ed.). The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought. New York: Cambridge University Press, p GIBBS, Raymond. Porque a linguística cognitiva deveria se preocupar mais com métodos empíricos. In: SIQUEIRA, Maity (Org.). Cadernos de Tradução. Porto Alegre. n. 25, p , jul-dez GIBBS, Raymond. The wonderful, chaotic, creative, heroic, challenging world of researching and apply metaphor. In: LOW, Graham et al. (Ed.), Researching and applying metaphor in the real world. Human cognitive processing 26. John Bejamins Publishing Company, p GIBBS, Raymond. Evaluating conceptual metaphor theory. Discourse Processes, New York: Routlegde. n. 48. p , GRADY, J. Primary metaphors as inputs to conceptual integration. Journal of Pragmatics, n. 37. p JOHNSON, Mark. Philosophy’s debt to metaphor. In: GIBBS, Raymond (Ed.). The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought. New York: Cambridge University Press, p KLEIN, Devorah E.; MURPHY, Gregory L. The representation of polysemous words. Journal of Memory and Language, n. 45, p , KÖVECSES, Z. Metaphor in culture: universality and variation. Nova York: Cambridge University Press KÖVECSES, Zoltán. Variation in Metaphor. In: VIEIRA, Josalba.; VEREZA, Solange (Orgs.). Ilha do Desterro. Florianópolis. n. 53. p.13-39, BARCELONA, Antônio. O poder da metonímia. In: SIQUEIRA, Maity (Org.). Cadernos de Tradução. Porto Alegre. n. 25, p.7-24, jul-dez BORODISTSKY, Lera. Does language shape thought?: mandarin and english speaker´s conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology, Academic Press. n. 43. p.1-22, CASCUDO, Luís Câmara. Coisas que o povo diz. 2. ed. São Paulo: Globo Editora, ed., FELTES, Heloísa Pedroso de Moraes. Semântica cognitiva: ilhas, pontes e teias. Porto Alegre: Edipurcs, FREYRE, G. Nordeste. 7ª edição. São Paulo: Global Editora (1ª edição, 1937). GIBBS, Raymond. The poetics of mind: figurative thought, language, and understanding. New York: Cambridge University Press, GIBBS, Raymond. Embodiment and cognitive science. Cambridge: CUP, GIBBS, Raymond. Metaphor and thought: the state of the art. In: GIBBS, Raymond. (Ed.). The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought. New York: Cambridge University Press, p GIBBS, Raymond. Porque a linguística cognitiva deveria se preocupar mais com métodos empíricos. In: SIQUEIRA, Maity (Org.). Cadernos de Tradução. Porto Alegre. n. 25, p , jul-dez GIBBS, Raymond. The wonderful, chaotic, creative, heroic, challenging world of researching and apply metaphor. In: LOW, Graham et al. (Ed.), Researching and applying metaphor in the real world. Human cognitive processing 26. John Bejamins Publishing Company, p GIBBS, Raymond. Evaluating conceptual metaphor theory. Discourse Processes, New York: Routlegde. n. 48. p , GRADY, J. Primary metaphors as inputs to conceptual integration. Journal of Pragmatics, n. 37. p JOHNSON, Mark. Philosophy’s debt to metaphor. In: GIBBS, Raymond (Ed.). The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought. New York: Cambridge University Press, p KLEIN, Devorah E.; MURPHY, Gregory L. The representation of polysemous words. Journal of Memory and Language, n. 45, p , KÖVECSES, Z. Metaphor in culture: universality and variation. Nova York: Cambridge University Press KÖVECSES, Zoltán. Variation in Metaphor. In: VIEIRA, Josalba.; VEREZA, Solange (Orgs.). Ilha do Desterro. Florianópolis. n. 53. p.13-39, Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 22

23 KÖVECSES, Zoltán. Universalidade versus não-universalidade metafórica. In: SIQUEIRA, Maity. (Org.). Cadernos de Tradução. Porto Alegre, n. 25, p , jul-dez KÖVECSES, Z. Metaphor: a practical introduction. 2a edição. Nova York: Oxford University Press LAKOFF, George. Women, fire and dangerous things: what categories reveal about the mind. University of Chicago Press, LAKOFF, George. Cognitive semantics. In: ECO,U. SANTAMBROGIO, M. VIOLLI, P (Orgs.), Meaning and Mental Representation. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, p LAKOFF, George. The contemporary theory of metaphor. In: ORTONY, Andrew (Ed.). Metaphor and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p LAKOFF, G. The neural theory of metaphor. In: GIBBS, Raymond W (Ed.). The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p LAKOFF, G. JOHNSON, M. Metáforas da Vida Cotidiana. São Paulo: EDUC e Mercado das Letras. (1980), LAKOFF, G. TURNER, M. More than Cool Reason: A field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, MACEDO, Ana Cristina Pelosi de. Categorização semântica: uma retrospectiva de teorias e pesquisa. Revista do Gelne. v. 4, n. 1/2, MACEDO, Ana Cristina Pelosi de. Cognição e linguística. In: MACEDO, Ana Cristina Pelosi de; FELTES; Heloísa Pedroso de Moraes; FARIAS, Emília Maria Peixoto (Orgs.). Cognição e linguística: explorando territórios, mapeamentos e percursos. Porto Alegre: Edipucrs, p RODRIGUEZ, Irene Lopéz. Women, biches, chickens and vixens: animal metaphors for women in English and Spanish. Revista de Estudios Culturales de la Universitat Jaume I. v.VII. p.77-10, ROSCH, Eleanor. Cognitive representations of semantic categories. Journal of Experiemental Psychology. General. n.104, p , ROSCH, Eleanor et al. Basic object in natural categories. Cognitive Psychology, n.8. p , ROSCH, Eleanor; MERVIS, Carolyn B. Family resemblances: studies in the internal structures of categories. Cognitive Psychology, n.7. p , WITTGENSTEIN, Ludwig. Tratado lógico-filosófico/Investigações filosóficas. Lisboa. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, YU, Ning. Metaphor from body and culture. In: GIBBS, Raymond (Ed.). The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p , KÖVECSES, Zoltán. Universalidade versus não-universalidade metafórica. In: SIQUEIRA, Maity. (Org.). Cadernos de Tradução. Porto Alegre, n. 25, p , jul-dez KÖVECSES, Z. Metaphor: a practical introduction. 2a edição. Nova York: Oxford University Press LAKOFF, George. Women, fire and dangerous things: what categories reveal about the mind. University of Chicago Press, LAKOFF, George. Cognitive semantics. In: ECO,U. SANTAMBROGIO, M. VIOLLI, P (Orgs.), Meaning and Mental Representation. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, p LAKOFF, George. The contemporary theory of metaphor. In: ORTONY, Andrew (Ed.). Metaphor and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p LAKOFF, G. The neural theory of metaphor. In: GIBBS, Raymond W (Ed.). The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p LAKOFF, G. JOHNSON, M. Metáforas da Vida Cotidiana. São Paulo: EDUC e Mercado das Letras. (1980), LAKOFF, G. TURNER, M. More than Cool Reason: A field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, MACEDO, Ana Cristina Pelosi de. Categorização semântica: uma retrospectiva de teorias e pesquisa. Revista do Gelne. v. 4, n. 1/2, MACEDO, Ana Cristina Pelosi de. Cognição e linguística. In: MACEDO, Ana Cristina Pelosi de; FELTES; Heloísa Pedroso de Moraes; FARIAS, Emília Maria Peixoto (Orgs.). Cognição e linguística: explorando territórios, mapeamentos e percursos. Porto Alegre: Edipucrs, p RODRIGUEZ, Irene Lopéz. Women, biches, chickens and vixens: animal metaphors for women in English and Spanish. Revista de Estudios Culturales de la Universitat Jaume I. v.VII. p.77-10, ROSCH, Eleanor. Cognitive representations of semantic categories. Journal of Experiemental Psychology. General. n.104, p , ROSCH, Eleanor et al. Basic object in natural categories. Cognitive Psychology, n.8. p , ROSCH, Eleanor; MERVIS, Carolyn B. Family resemblances: studies in the internal structures of categories. Cognitive Psychology, n.7. p , WITTGENSTEIN, Ludwig. Tratado lógico-filosófico/Investigações filosóficas. Lisboa. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, YU, Ning. Metaphor from body and culture. In: GIBBS, Raymond (Ed.). The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p , Slides – Fernanda Cavalcanti 23


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