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1 Preview 8-1 Connecting ideas with andConnecting ideas with and 8-2 Connecting ideas with but and orConnecting ideas with but and or 8-3 Connecting ideas.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Preview 8-1 Connecting ideas with andConnecting ideas with and 8-2 Connecting ideas with but and orConnecting ideas with but and or 8-3 Connecting ideas."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Preview 8-1 Connecting ideas with andConnecting ideas with and 8-2 Connecting ideas with but and orConnecting ideas with but and or 8-3 Connecting ideas with soConnecting ideas with so 8-4 Using auxiliary verbs after but and andUsing auxiliary verbs after but and 8-5 Using and + too, so, either, neitherUsing and + too, so, either, neither 8-6 Connecting ideas with becauseConnecting ideas with because 8-7 Connecting ideas with even though/althoughConnecting ideas with even though/although CONTENTS

2 2 PREVIEW PUNCTUATION: CORRECTINCORRECT ? OR Elephants eat leaves and brush.

3 3 PREVIEW PUNCTUATION: CORRECTINCORRECT ? OR Flounder are fish all fish live in water. Flounder are fish. All fish live in water. CORRECT

4 4 PREVIEW PUNCTUATION: CORRECTINCORRECT ? OR Carrots onions and celery are vegetables. CORRECT,,

5 5 8-1 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH AND We had salmon, asparagus, and salad for dinner.

6 6 8-1 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH AND CONNECTING ITEMS WITHIN A SENTENCE (a) NO COMMA: I ate an apple and a banana. (b) COMMA: I ate an apple a banana and a pear.,,

7 7 and connects two words NO COMMA and connects three or more COMMAS 8-1 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH AND CONNECTING ITEMS WITHIN A SENTENCE (a) NO COMMA: I ate an apple and a banana. (b) COMMA: I ate an apple a banana and a pear.,,

8 8 8-1 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH AND CONNECTING TWO SENTENCES (c) COMMA: I ate an apple and you ate a pear.,

9 9 and connects two sentences COMMA 8-1 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH AND CONNECTING TWO SENTENCES (c) COMMA: I ate an apple and you ate a pear.,

10 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH AND CONNECTING TWO SENTENCES (d) PERIOD: I ate an apple You ate a pear. (e) INCORRECT: I ate an apple, you ate a pear..

11 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH AND CONNECTING TWO SENTENCES (d) PERIOD: I ate an apple You ate a pear. (e) INCORRECT: I ate an apple, you ate a pear.. period two complete sentences no “and” no comma

12 LET’S PRACTICE I like lettuce and tomato on my cheeseburger. COMMA NO COMMA COMMAS ?

13 LET’S PRACTICE I speak Hindi and you speak Swedish. COMMA NO COMMA COMMAS ?,

14 LET’S PRACTICE I like lettuce tomato and cheese on my hamburger. COMMA NO COMMA COMMAS ?

15 LET’S PRACTICE I like lettuce tomato and cheese on my hamburger. COMMA NO COMMA COMMAS ?,,

16 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH BUT AND OR I studied for the test, but I failed.

17 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH BUT AND OR (a) The team played well but didn’t win. (b) Is it going to rain or snow? (c) Would you like peas carrots squash? and, but and or “conjunctions” connect items commas series of three or more,, or

18 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH BUT AND OR (d) I had the flu but I didn’t feel sick. (e) Did you have the flu or was it just a cold? I had the flu. = a sentence I didn’t feel sick. = a sentence,, two complete sentences with but or or comma

19 LET’S PRACTICE and but or COMMA NO COMMA + I love to eat ice cream ____ it gives me a stomachache.

20 20 I love to eat ice cream ____ it gives me a stomachache. 8-2 LET’S PRACTICE but, and but or COMMA NO COMMA +

21 LET’S PRACTICE and, but or COMMA NO COMMA + She goes to school, studies hard ____ gets good grades.

22 LET’S PRACTICE and but or COMMA NO COMMA + Would you like an apple ____ a banana.

23 LET’S PRACTICE or and but or COMMA NO COMMA + Would you like an apple ____ a banana.

24 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH SO Rajiv got a new bike, so he went for a ride.

25 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH SO, so two independent clauses (a) She was tired, so she took a nap.

26 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH SO So results: cause: She was tired. result: She took a nap. (a) She was tired, so she took a nap.

27 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH SO (a) She was tired, so she took a nap. (b) COMPARE: She was tired, but she didn’t take a nap. but unexpected result

28 LET’S PRACTICE so but He was frightened, ___ he didn’t cry. but

29 LET’S PRACTICE She was lonely, ___ she hugged her stuffed monkey. so but

30 LET’S PRACTICE His mother told him not to play in the mud, ___ he didn’t listen. but so but

31 USING AUXILIARY VERBS AFTER BUT AND AND He likes pizza, but I don’t.

32 32 (a) I don’t play tennis, but Jim does. (b) I like racketball, but Jim doesn’t. (c) I won’t be leaving, but Nazan will. (d) Yi-When has been to Rome, but Jen hasn’t. (e) She isn’t at school, but he is. 8-4 USING AUXILIARY VERBS AFTER BUT AND AND does = play tennis

33 33 (f) I don’t play tennis, and Jim doesn’t either. (g) I like racketball, and Jim does too. (h) I won’t be leaving, and Nazan won’t either. (i) Yi-When has been to Rome, and Jen has too. (j) She isn’t at school, and he isn’t either. 8-4 USING AUXILIARY VERBS AFTER BUT AND AND

34 34 I don’t play tennis, and Jim doesn’t either. I won’t be leaving, and Nazan won’t either. I don’t play tennis, but Jim does. 8-4 USING AUXILIARY VERBS AFTER BUT AND AND negative + but + affirmative affirmative + but + negative I like racketball, but Jim doesn’t. negative + and + negative

35 LET’S PRACTICE CORRECTINCORRECT ? OR I love to ski, but my sister does too. CORRECT I love to ski, and my sister does too.

36 LET’S PRACTICE CORRECTINCORRECT ? OR The man is cooking, but the woman isn’t.

37 LET’S PRACTICE CORRECTINCORRECT ? OR Lee hasn’t been to Tokyo, but Boram does. CORRECT Lee hasn’t been to Tokyo, but Boram has.

38 USING AND + TOO, SO, EITHER, NEITHER Ms. Poulos plays the violin, and her daughter does too.

39 USING AND + TOO, SO, EITHER, NEITHER (a) Hyun likes dogs, and Sun Hee does too. subj + aux + TOO (b) Hyun likes dogs, and so does Sun Hee. SO + aux + subj same meaning

40 USING AND + TOO, SO, EITHER, NEITHER (c) Bob doesn’t like dogs, and Jay doesn’t either. subj + aux + EITHER (d) Bill doesn’t like dogs, and neither does Jay. NEITHER + aux + subj same meaning

41 USING AND + TOO, SO, EITHER, NEITHER I am too. same meaning (e) I’m happy that we are cooking together. So am I. (f) I’m happy that we are cooking together.

42 USING AND + TOO, SO, EITHER, NEITHER I don’t either. (g) I don’t like bread. Neither do I. (h) I don’t like bread. same meaning

43 USING AND + TOO, SO, EITHER, NEITHER Me too. (i) I like fruit. Me neither. (j) I don’t like bread. informal English

44 LET’S PRACTICE E m m a Jay Amy too Amy is wearing high heels, and _______ ________________. Emma is too June

45 LET’S PRACTICE June E m m a Jay Amy Amy wears high heels, and _______ ________________. so does Emma so

46 LET’S PRACTICE June Emma Jay A m y Jay doesn’t have long hair, and ________________. neither does Amy neither

47 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH BECAUSE They are happy because they bought a new house.

48 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH BECAUSE (a) She is smiling because she is happy. because cause reason

49 49 complete sentence 8-6 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH BECAUSE (b) MAIN CLAUSE: She is smiling. (c) ADVERB CLAUSE: because she is happy. because + subject + verb = an adverb clause complete sentence

50 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH BECAUSE (d) She is smiling because she is happy. (no comma) MAIN CLAUSE ADVERB CLAUSE main clause + no comma + adverb clause (e) Because she is happy, she is smiling. (comma) MAIN CLAUSE ADVERB CLAUSE adverb clause + comma + main clause

51 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH BECAUSE (d) She is smiling because she is happy. (no comma) MAIN CLAUSE ADVERB CLAUSE (e) Because she is happy, she is smiling. (comma) MAIN CLAUSE ADVERB CLAUSE same meaning

52 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH BECAUSE (f) INCORRECT IN WRITING: She is smiling. Because she is happy. must be connected to a main clause Written?

53 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH BECAUSE (g) CORRECT IN SPEAKING: Why is he laughing? Because I told him a joke.

54 LET’S PRACTICE CORRECTINCORRECT ? OR Her eyes are watering. Because she is sick. CORRECT Her eyes are watering ________________. OR Because she is sick, __________________her eyes are watering. because she is sick

55 LET’S PRACTICE CORRECTINCORRECT ? OR The woman is happy because she loves her English class.

56 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH EVEN THOUGH / ALTHOUGH Even though we were tired, we didn’t rest.

57 57 (a) Even though I was very sad, I didn’t cry. I did not cry even though I was very sad. 8-7 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH EVEN THOUGH / ALTHOUGH

58 58 (a) Even though I was very sad, I didn’t cry. I did not cry even though I was very sad. (b) Although I was very sad, I didn’t cry. I did not cry although I was very sad. even though although same meaning adverb clause 8-7 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH EVEN THOUGH / ALTHOUGH +

59 59 (c) Because I was very sad, I cried. (d) Even though I was very sad, I did not cry. because expected result even though although unexpected result COMPARE: 8-7 CONNECTING IDEAS WITH EVEN THOUGH / ALTHOUGH

60 LET’S PRACTICE even though because ___________ I wanted to become a doctor, I went to medical school. Because

61 LET’S PRACTICE ___________ it was difficult to become a doctor, I did it anyway. Even though even though because

62 62 PHOTO CREDITS Images used under license from: Shutterstock, Inc. Clipart, Inc. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education and its licensors. All rights reserved.


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