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There, most of the land is owned by rich people who pay peasants very little money to work in the fields for them. If the peasants ________ (can) farm.

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Presentation on theme: "There, most of the land is owned by rich people who pay peasants very little money to work in the fields for them. If the peasants ________ (can) farm."— Presentation transcript:

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2 There, most of the land is owned by rich people who pay peasants very little money to work in the fields for them. If the peasants ________ (can) farm the land themselves, food production ______________ (be)much higher. What is needed is a change in land ownership, and it has been suggested that the land ______________ (share)equally among the peasants. The problem is that most politicians in India are landowners. They______________ (not vote)to lose their land and wealth, even if it ________(result)in a fairer society. would be should be shared wouldn’t vote resulted could

3 Forms of English Verbs tenses voices moods indicative imperative subjunctive

4 The Indicative Mood ——expressing a fact e.g. 1. In Africa most music is folk music. 2. The peasants there didn’t keep geese. 3. What’s in that case?

5 The Imperative Mood ——expressing an order, a command or a request e.g. 1. Take a deep breath. 2. Don’t tie it to that old branch.

6 e.g. 1. I wish I could fly in the sky. 2. The ship would have sunk with all on board but for the efforts of the captain. 3. He suggested that the meeting should be held at once. The Subjunctive Mood expressing wishes, suggestion and doubt, etc.

7 The subjunctive mood may be found in different kinds of sentences, such as unreal conditional sentences or some other clauses. I.The subjunctive mood in unreal conditionals Three types of unreal conditionals: ( 1) opposite to the present facts (NOW) (2) opposite to the facts in the past (PAST) (3) opposite to the facts in the future (FUTURE)

8 NOW 1. He isn’t here. He can’t help us with our work If he were here, he could help us with our work. 2. He doesn’t know the answer, so he doesn’t tell you now If he knew the answer, he ________ you now. 3. She doesn’t have enough money, and she isn’t able to buy that computer If she______ enough money, she __________ able to buy that computer. would tell hadshould be

9 if -clause m ain clause NOW PAST FUTURE past form (be—were) would/should/could/ might+inf.

10 PAST 1. She didn’t work hard enough, so she didn’t pass the exam If she had worked hard enough, she could have passed the exam. 2. He didn’t know the answer, so he didn’t tell you yesterday If he___________ the answer, he would have told you yesterday. 3. Since we had not a map with us, we lost the way If we________ a map with us, we ______________ the way. had known had wouldn’t have lost

11 if -clause m ain clause NOWpast form (be—were) would/should/could/ might+inf. PAST FUTURE had+p.p. would/should/could/ might+have+p.p.

12 FUTURE 1. I will not go abroad If I were to go abroad, I should go to France. 2. I won’t see him tomorrow If I saw him tomorrow, I __________ (pass) your note to him. 3. It won’t rain tomorrow If it ____________________________ (rain) tomorrow, we ____________ (stay) at home. would pass should rain/ rained/ were to rain would stay

13 if -clause m ain clause NOWpast form (be—were) would/should/could/ might+inf. PASThad+p.p.would/should/could/ might+have+p.p. FUTURE  past form  should+inf.  were to+inf. would/should/could/ might+inf.

14 Exercise: 1.If I ____(be) you, I would get up early in the morning. 2.If you ____(ask) him, he might tell you. 3.I didn ’ t see your sister at the meeting. If she ______(come), she would have met my brother. 4.If he had not lost his money, he ____ the piano last week. A.would buy B. had bought C. could have bought D. bought asked were had come C

15 5.They would go out even if it tomorrow. A.rain B. were to rain C. will rain D. would rain 6.I don ’ t think that I shall fail. But if I ____, I would try again. A.fail B. would fail C. should fail D. had failed B C

16 NOTE: a) Where “ if ” is followed by words such as “were”, “should” and “had”, we can put such a word at the beginning of the clause and leave out “if”. if I were you = were I you if I had known it =had I known it if he should come =should he come b) “ if ”can be replaced by “but for” and without”. but for = if it were not for / if it had not been for without= if there were not / if there had not been c) Pay special attention when if-clause and the main clause are used in different tenses.

17 Exercise: Is he feeling any better? --- No. If he had followed the doctor’s advice, he _____ quite all right now. A. will have been B. would have been C. would be D. will be 2. If he ____ his legs yesterday, he_____ the Summer Palace with us now. A.hadn’t hurt, would visit B. hadn’t hurt, would have visited C.didn’t hurt, would visit C. didn’t hurt, would have visited C (A)

18 3. But for his bravery, we ____able to save the village. A. would never have been B. had never been C. shall never be D. were never 4.____ the clouds, you would find the airplane in the sky easily. A. Were it not for B. If it were not C. Had it not been for D. If it had not been for 5. Without your help, I_____ the exam last term. A. would have passed B. wouldn’t pass C. would have failed D. fail in A A C

19 I I. Subjunctives after wish and if only ( 要是 … 该多好 ) wish+ that-clause---expressing wishes opposite to facts e.g. 1. I’m in the classroom now I wish I were in Beijing now. 2. I didn’t know the fact at that time I wish/ wished I had known the fact at that time. 3. He knows that you won’t go and visit him He wishes you would go and visit him.

20 that-clause NOW PAST FUTURE NOTE: a) “ wish” can be put into the past without changing the subjunctive. e.g. I wish/wished I had been there yesterday. b) “ if only” can be used in exactly the same way. past form had+p.p. would/could,etc.+inf.

21 Exercise: 1. I’m sorry I don’t know his address I wish I his address. 2. He wasn’t at the party yesterday He wishes/ wished he at the party yesterday. 3. I do wish I ____more about the subject. A. have known B.knew C. know D. will know knew had been B

22 4. If only I_____ as brave as you are. A. being B. was C. be D. were Did you see Monica before she left for Brazil? ---No. I wish I______ her. A.had seen B. have seen C. saw D. would see D A

23 III. Subjunctives also occur in that- clauses used to state commands ( 命令) or to express intentions( 意图) or necessity: verb form in that- clause: (should)+inf. 1.order/ suggest/demand/insist/advise/request( 请求 )... + that- clause 2.It is ordered/suggested/demanded/insisted/....+ that- clause 3.It is necessary/important/impossible/strange/a pity…+ that-clause 4.predictive/appositive clauses after order/ plan/ suggestion/idea…

24 Exercise: 1.Your advice that she_____ till next week is reasonable. A.will wait B. is going to wait C. waits D. wait 2.My father was strict. He requested that I ______television on week nights. A. mustn’t watch B. not watch C. couldn’t watch D. don’t watch D B

25 3. It’s necessary that the question _____ at once. A.should be settle B. be settled C. might be settled D. would be settled 4. It’s a pity that he______ such a good chance. A. missed B. misses C. had missed D. should miss 5. It was required that each student______ enough food on the trip. A. bring B. brought C. would bring D. had better bring B D A

26 IV. Other structures: 1. as if/ as though +unreal past tense 2. would rather + a past tense 3. It is ( high ) time that + a past tense/ should +inf. (note: “should” can’t be omitted)------implying that it is a little late

27 Exercise: 1.When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it___________. A.breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken 2. It is one o’clock in the morning. It’s high time that you _____your store. A. closed B. would close C. have closed D. had closed C A

28 3. ________ I known it, I should have told him. A.Have B. Had C. Having D. If 4. I was ill that day, otherwise I _______ the sports meet. A. would take part in B. had taken part in C. took part in D. would have taken part in 5.The child talks to us as if he_____ a grown- up. A.is B. will be C. had been D. were B D D

29 6. If I had studied English last year, I____ able to speak it now. A.would have been B. should be C. had been D. could be What do you think of it? ----We think it a thing of great importance that it______ done at once. A.is B. is to C. be D must be 8. It’s time we _____ our meeting. A.must begin B. begin C. begun D began B C D

30 9. You didn’t let me drive. If we______ in turn, you _____ so tired. A.drove, didn’t get B. drove, wouldn’t get C.were driving, would get D. had driven, wouldn’t have got 10. It was his curiosity that led James Watt to a great scientific invention. Without the curiosity about the raising of the kettle ( 水壶 ) lid, Watt___ the steam engine. A. would have invented B. wouldn’t have invented C. had invented D. hadn’t invented D B

31 Written Exercises Please write down three or four sentences which should be meaningful with the following as the beginning: If I were / had been… Or If there were / had been… (You can discuss with your partners first.)

32 ASSIGNMENT 《四轮》 Page 259


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