2Objective Why was the Treaty of Versailles not ratified by the Senate? Because of conservative opposition in the Senate?Because of Wilson’s stubbornness?Both?
3In early 1919, President Wilson traveled to Versailles, France for a peace conference. He met with European leaders and presented a plan for peace based on his Fourteen Points.Wilson’s vision of a postwar world was grounded in the idea of “peace without victory.”
4Wilson’s Fourteen Points made specific proposals to promote future peace. Practice open diplomacy.Allow freedom of the seas.Encourage free trade.Reduce arms stockpiles.Scale back colonialism.Encourage self-determination of nations.Establish a League of Nations.
5Wilson traveled to France and was greeted like a hero! The Europeans loved him and the U.S. for making the world “safe for democracy” and ending the war.
6Wilson brought many of his closest advisors with him to Versailles, but he did not bring along any Republicans.In the following months, this would prove to be a major political faux-pas which would prevent the passing of the Treaty of Versailles through the American Senate.Republican Senators likeHenry Cabot Lodge vowedto thwart all of Wilson’s plans
7The Big Four RespondWhile many members of the European public were supportive of Wilson’s plan, the other political leaders who made up the “Big Four” were not so pleased…David Lloyd George (Britain),Vittorio Orlando (Italy),andGeorges Clemenceau (France)had different plans for the Treaty of Versailles….
8Allied leaders at Versailles wanted reparations. European leaders did not share Wilson’s vision of peace without victory.They wanted Germany to pay for war damages.They also wanted to protect European colonialism and expand their countries’ territories.8
9Georges Clemenceau (France) We have to keep our empire strong and maintain our dominance of the seas!David Lloyd George (Britain)We want lots of land, even though we didn’t contribute much to the war effort because we wanted to find out who would win…Vittorio Orlando (Italy)The Germans must be punished, and never be able to invade our precious France again! Evil baby-eaters! Who came up with those stupid hats anyway? Thank God for French fashion designers!Georges Clemenceau (France)
10II. Treaty of Versailles (1919) In summary, the Treaty provided for…A reduced German militaryCessation of Alsace-Lorraine to FranceReparations/War GuiltMandatesLeague of NationsMany American liberals were disgusted with the Treaty
12and pay a $32 billion USD reparation bill ReparationsFurthermore…Germany was forced to admit responsibility for the war, give up any sort of non-defensive military,and pay a $32 billion USD reparation bill
22II. The Big Four negotiate a treaty A. Woodrow Wilson (President of the US)David Lloyd George (Prime Minister of Britain)Georges Clemenceau (Prime Minister of France)Vittorio Orlando (Prime Minister of Italy)B. Europeans ignored most of the 14 Points (except League of Nations)C. Germany blamed for the war, stripped of a military, and required to pay reparationsD. Treaty signed in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles onJune 28, 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of FranzFerdinandE. Wilson returned home to the U.S. frustrated, but still supportive of the Treaty
23Wilson left the conference frustrated, but still supportive of the Treaty. He was greeted with a hero’s welcome.Hooray again!
24IV. Ratification Debate Many Americans were concerned with the constitutionality of the LeagueWashington’s Farewell AddressMonroe Doctrine
25IV. Ratification Debate The Treaty/League caused a stir in the US Senate.Democrats (Wilson/Internationalists)Irreconcilables (Progressive Republicans)William Borah (Idaho)Hiram Johnson (California)Robert Lafollette (Wisconsin)Reservationists (Republicans)Henry Cabot Lodge
26The Republicans in the Senate were not nearly as welcoming as the American public. I don’t think we should get involved with Europe again. And I’m suspicious of this whole League of Nations thing! I don’t want to sign the treaty!Senator Henry Cabot Lodge
27Quick! What’s that called? I don’t think the US should ever get involved in another European war again. We should just mind our own business over here in the Western Hemisphere…Quick! What’s that called?Isolationism!WOOT!
28Also, Article X of the League of Nations concerns me Also, Article X of the League of Nations concerns me. It states that all members are required “to respect and preserve against external aggression the territorial integrity” of all other member nations. That sounds like we have to commit our military to foreign wars all the time!The Republicans who refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles became known as the “Irreconcilables.”
30This is no good!No good at all!Maybe if I ride around the country on a train giving speeches I will be able to convince people that the Treaty of Versailles rocks!
31You can’t go on a speaking tour You can’t go on a speaking tour! You just got back from six months of hard work in Europe. You’re getting too old for this! I advise against this!
32I MUST go, for the good of the nation and the good of the world I MUST go, for the good of the nation and the good of the world! Stupid doctor…
33Refusing to compromise with the Republicans (as always, Wilson felt he alone knew what was best), and ignoring his doctor, Wilson went on a speaking tour of the U.S. to attempt to gain popular support and pressure Senators into ratifying the Treaty of Versailles.The Senate must ratify the Treaty for the same reason we went to war…which I seem to have forgotten…can you remind me?
35He gave 37 speeches in 29 cities in 3 weeks. The American people supported him, especially when he promised them that American soldiers would never again have to die in a foreign war.
36At a speech in Pueblo, Colorado… The League of Nations will make the world safe for…for…uh, I’m not feeling so well…. <collapse on the ground>
37Wilson returned to Washington where, a few days later, he suffered a massive stroke. He spent the next year and a half (until the end of his presidency) completely incapacitated. His wife Edith and a circle of close advisors ran the government for him and kept his condition secret from the public.
38IV. Ratification Debate In an attempt to sway public opinion, Wilson suffered a stroke.When the Reservationists proposed an amended version of the Treaty, Wilson instructed Democrats to reject it.As a result, the US never signed the Treaty of Versailles, and did not join the League.
40In March of 1920, the U.S. Senate officially rejected the Treaty of Versailles, including U.S. entry into the League of Nations.The U.S. later signed separate peace treaties with each of the Central Power.
41Wilson left office in 1921. He died in 1924. Because of his failure to get the Treaty of Versailles ratified, he felt like a total failure and came to believe that joining World War I had been in vain.
45Why the League failedFrench and British self interestAbsent powers - USAIneffective sanctionsLack of enforcement of decisionsUnfair treatyReaching decisions unanimouslyEuropean club
46III. Wilson pushes for ratification of the Treaty of Versailles A. Irreconcilables (Republicans such as Henry Cabot Lodge and Robert La Follette) objected to the Treaty1. Did not want to get the U.S. involved in another European war2. Wanted to return to isolationism3. Objected to Article X of the League of Nations which required all members to commit troops to protect other member nations
47B. In 1919 Wilson went on speaking tour of the country to pressure the Senate into ratification of the Treaty of Versailles1. Wilson collapsed and later suffered a massive stroke2. Edith Galt Wilson (wife) and close advisors kept his condition secret and did his job for him while he was incapacitated for thenext year and a half until the end of his presidencyC. Senate officially rejected the Treaty in March 19201. U.S. never joined League of Nations2. U.S. signed separate treaties with former Central PowersD. The rejection of the Treaty of Versailles left Wilson feeling like afailure and he came to believe that U.S. involvement in WWI had been pointless