Presentation on theme: "The North-West Company & Hudson Bay Company- Fur Trade Rivalry & Settlement of the West Chapter 4 & 5 Notes Mr. Bausback SS10."— Presentation transcript:
The North-West Company & Hudson Bay Company- Fur Trade Rivalry & Settlement of the West Chapter 4 & 5 Notes Mr. Bausback SS10
The French were the first European explorers to come to the Red River. They were led by Pierre La Verendrye. The trail that they explored and left behind is called the La Verendrye trail. Who Were The First Explorers?
Nonsuc h The Hudson’s Bay Company Next came the Hudson’s Bay Company workers. The English King Charles II gave two explorers named Radisson and Groseilliers a ship called the Nonsuch. With this ship, they explored the land by Hudson’s Bay. King Charles II
Why Did They Come? They found lots of furs in the Red River area. They set up a trading camp to bring the furs to England and make lots of money. They were the first group of people to live by the Red River, who were not aboriginal.
Settling Down They built their homes south of Selkirk/East Selkirk. Today this would be Winnipeg and Southern St. Clements. Many of these European settlers married and had families with the aboriginal peoples. These people were called the Métis.
Who Was Lord Selkirk? Lord Selkirk was a Scottish nobleman. Lord Selkirk was a Scottish nobleman. His full name was Thomas Douglas, the Fifth Earl of Selkirk. His full name was Thomas Douglas, the Fifth Earl of Selkirk. Lord Selkirk
The Selkirk Settlers In the early 1800’s, Scottish peasants were in trouble. In the early 1800’s, Scottish peasants were in trouble. People were starting to raise sheep. They needed large fields for the sheep to live on. People were starting to raise sheep. They needed large fields for the sheep to live on. The peasants that used to live on the fields were cleared off and didn’t have a home anymore. The peasants that used to live on the fields were cleared off and didn’t have a home anymore. Lord Selkirk saw this happening and didn’t like it. He wanted to help them. Lord Selkirk saw this happening and didn’t like it. He wanted to help them.
Where Did They Go? There was no land for the peasants to live on in Scotland so Lord Selkirk had to send them somewhere else. There was no land for the peasants to live on in Scotland so Lord Selkirk had to send them somewhere else. Lord Selkirk decided to send them to North America. Lord Selkirk decided to send them to North America. The Hudson’s Bay Company gave Lord Selkirk a lot of land near the Red River. The Hudson’s Bay Company gave Lord Selkirk a lot of land near the Red River. The first group of the Selkirk settlers arrived in The first group of the Selkirk settlers arrived in 1812.
Arguments The town they built grew quickly. The town they built grew quickly. The Métis people were still living in the same area between Selkirk and Winnipeg when the Selkirk settlers arrived. The Métis people were still living in the same area between Selkirk and Winnipeg when the Selkirk settlers arrived. There were a lot of arguments between them because the Métis didn’t like the Selkirk settlers living on their land. There were a lot of arguments between them because the Métis didn’t like the Selkirk settlers living on their land. A big fight even happened called the Seven Oaks Massacre. A big fight even happened called the Seven Oaks Massacre. The fighting stopped when Lord Selkirk sent some soldiers from Scotland. The fighting stopped when Lord Selkirk sent some soldiers from Scotland.
Moving After a while, the children of the Selkirk settlers wanted to move. After a while, the children of the Selkirk settlers wanted to move. The land they lived on kept flooding, and they didn’t like that. The land they lived on kept flooding, and they didn’t like that. They moved to the Selkirk area in St. Clements because it didn’t flood here. They moved to the Selkirk area in St. Clements because it didn’t flood here.
East Selkirk Roundhouse/ Immigration Shed The Selkirk settlers built the East Selkirk Roundhouse/Immigration Shed. It was originally supposed to fix train engines but never did. Instead people moving here from other countries used it as a first house.
Arriving in St. Clements The Selkirk Settlers created a town. The Selkirk Settlers created a town. They named the town Selkirk after Lord Selkirk. They named the town Selkirk after Lord Selkirk.
Background Information: Thomas Douglas “Lord Selkirk”- philanthropist and HBC shareholder Purchased Assiniboia- 300,000 km2 in Southern Manitoba & North Dakota from the HBC Renamed “Selkirk Settlement” Brought farmers from Scotland Arrived each fall between Food issues as a result of late arrival and early winters Events precipitated the Bloody Seven Oaks Massacre!
Lord Selkirk's Land Grant- “Selkirk Settlement”:
The Players- Selkirk Settlers: displaced farmers from Scotland Displaced because of Industrial Revolution Arrived in fall and could not plant crops No or little food available during winter- relied on pemmican Presence disrupted traditional farming and hunting practises of the Metis and aboriginals and added pressure on an already limited food source
The Players- The Metis: Of mixed French-First Nation's background Historic claim to Red River through Cree, Blackfoot, and Algonquin heritage Majority of population lived in Red River Settlement Hunted buffalo, made pemmican, and farmed Were threatened by Selkirk Settlers presence as it disrupted their way of life
The Players- Nor-Westers (NWC): Traded furs and competed with the HBC Direct trade fur route to Fort William (thunder bay) went through the Red River Settlement and extended through the waterways of Western Canada Established good relations with Metis and First Nations Wintered at Red River Were Voyageurs and Courers de Bois (“runners of the woods”) Relied on pemmican as winter food Aggressive trading practises were a threat to the HBC
The Players- HBC: Pemmican Proclamation, all pemmican to stay within the colony for local consumption Seven Oaks Massacre, Cuthbert Grant (Metis leader) vs. Governor Robert Semple over Pemmican Proclamation- 20 settlers, 1 Metis, and Governor- killed! Joining of HBC and NWC in 1821 and end of fur trade rivalry Decline in fur trade
Your Task: Group of 4 Each person represents 1 of 4 “players” Each person presents concerns to the group Each group comes up with a non-violent solution to the problems at Red River Complete “Problem-Solving Solution” handout Group to present solution to the class Presentations next class 1 page written reflection outlining your group's solution due class after presentation- 20 marks!
History of the Fur Trade:
Phase 1: The Early Fur Trade : Early fur trade began because of the cod fishery Partnership was forged between Europeans and First Nations because the Europeans had need to replenish their supplies Impact of economic competition introduced new goods for trade as the Europeans and First Nations begin to understand why trade was important to lying a foundation of mutual benefit From the First Nations point of view, the early fur trade built relationships of peace and friendship e&sub=furtrade_basics_explorers&lang=En
The Beaver- “Le Castor”- & Products:
Phase 2: Expansion Inland : French government identified that the fur trade was essential for the growth of New France Quebec and Montreal became shipping centrs for furs to Europe Tension rose between the French and the Haudenosaunee, a truce was established in 1701 after a long bloody war that incited old tribal revelries Ouendat – the Fur trade middle man were pushed out the the fur trade by the First Nations people
Hudson Bay & North-West Company Trade Routes:
Phase 2: Expansion Inland : Jesuit Missions were established with the goal of converting First Nations to Christianity. Many First nations people accept, but continue to practice their own religion. Coureurs de Bois – Independent traders, who replaced the Ouendat, they were accepted at first but made illegal when trading post became established.
Hudson Bay & North-West Company Trade Routes:
Phase 3: Rival Nations – : The English fur trade is established with the Hudson’s Bay Company trading post in 1670 Britain offered a group of merchants a monopoly on trade in an area unclaimed called Rupert’s Land The HBC did not look to colonize the land due to the harsh climate in the Northwest The HBC used the Anishinabe and the Couriers de Bois as their middleman trade&sub=furtrade_hudson_ &lang=En
Hudson Bay & North-West Company trading Posts:
Phase 3: Rival Nations – : During this phase that the Voyageurs emerged They maintain the vital link between New France and the post on the great lakes A voyageur would work as a hired man to make the long canoe trip up the St. Lawrence Many marriages happened between the French and the First Nations, they called the children of these families Métis or mixed.
Hudson Bay & North-West Company Logos:
Phase 4: The Drive West : The North West Company traders took over the French trade network running the St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes This but pressure on the Fur Trade from the east and the north (HBC) and pushed the fur trade further to the West New France became a British Colony in 1763 The Fur Trade faced an economic shift when the British began to establish more settlement and less trapping
Phase 4: The Drive West : A trade in pemmican developed and helped secure the lines of trade Territorial expansion occurred in the west and so did the movement of people Communities of business and trade occurred The Métis people develop a distinct culture at Red River They were key to the fur trade as iterpreters, guides, traders, provisionary and carters. furtrade_basics_explorers&lang=En
Phase 5 Monopoly in the West : The HBC and NWC merged in 1821 under the name of HBC The HBC began to lose control of the monopoly when independent Métis Traders challenged the HBC for economic control using the fear of the America to force its hand This lead to a decline of the Fur Trade in the west. The buffalo began to disappear, beaver became scares and European demands for fur began to decline