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Warm-up Answer the following questions: 1. What was 1 political problem that America faced at the turn of the century? 2. Give 1 problem with business.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm-up Answer the following questions: 1. What was 1 political problem that America faced at the turn of the century? 2. Give 1 problem with business."— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm-up Answer the following questions: 1. What was 1 political problem that America faced at the turn of the century? 2. Give 1 problem with business practices at this time 3. What problems were there in factories? 4. What other issues did cities face during the turn of the century? Answer the following questions: 1. What was 1 political problem that America faced at the turn of the century? 2. Give 1 problem with business practices at this time 3. What problems were there in factories? 4. What other issues did cities face during the turn of the century?

2 Happy Tuesday!!! I need to do a couple things before we get started: I need to check your study guides from the test last class I need to collect your Industrialization stamp sheets Did you know: There is more real lemon juice in Lemon Pledge furniture polish than in Country Time Lemonade I need to do a couple things before we get started: I need to check your study guides from the test last class I need to collect your Industrialization stamp sheets Did you know: There is more real lemon juice in Lemon Pledge furniture polish than in Country Time Lemonade

3 Progressivism Muckrakers and Woman Suffrage

4 Problems at the Turn of the Century Politically: Political Machines Business practices: trusts, monopolies Working conditions: child labor, low pay, long hours Other stuff: drugs, gangs, drinking, women still can’t vote Politically: Political Machines Business practices: trusts, monopolies Working conditions: child labor, low pay, long hours Other stuff: drugs, gangs, drinking, women still can’t vote

5 Enter Progressivism Progressivism: movement to improve American life in politics, society and the workplace. Progressives were optimistic and forward looking and accepted the changes industrialization brought forth Wanted to limit the power of big business, improve democracy and strengthen social justices Progressivism: movement to improve American life in politics, society and the workplace. Progressives were optimistic and forward looking and accepted the changes industrialization brought forth Wanted to limit the power of big business, improve democracy and strengthen social justices

6 Where did the movement come from? New political groups- populists and socialists Farmers- gained ideas from populists, hurt by the railroads Labor-unions Religion- to be a better person YMCA, YWCA, Salvation Army to improve lives of the poor Muckrakers- writers, mostly magazines, who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life People wont change society unless they know about the conditions and get angry about it Many magazines started at this time: Cosmo, McClures New political groups- populists and socialists Farmers- gained ideas from populists, hurt by the railroads Labor-unions Religion- to be a better person YMCA, YWCA, Salvation Army to improve lives of the poor Muckrakers- writers, mostly magazines, who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life People wont change society unless they know about the conditions and get angry about it Many magazines started at this time: Cosmo, McClures

7 Muckrakers Ida M. Tarbell- wrote “The History of the Standard Oil Company” Exposed the company’s cutthroat methods of eliminating competition Upton Sinclair- wrote “The Jungle” about stockyard workers and meat packing industry Jacob Riis, Lincoln Steffens Ida M. Tarbell- wrote “The History of the Standard Oil Company” Exposed the company’s cutthroat methods of eliminating competition Upton Sinclair- wrote “The Jungle” about stockyard workers and meat packing industry Jacob Riis, Lincoln Steffens

8 Local Reforms Cities faced some of the most obvious social problems 1900, Galveston, TX adopted the “commission” idea as a form of government after a botched hurricane relief Commission is a group of experts-each takes charge of a different city department 1913, Dayton, OH- adopted the council- manager form of gov’t People elect a city council to make laws Cities faced some of the most obvious social problems 1900, Galveston, TX adopted the “commission” idea as a form of government after a botched hurricane relief Commission is a group of experts-each takes charge of a different city department 1913, Dayton, OH- adopted the council- manager form of gov’t People elect a city council to make laws

9 State Reforms Gov. Robert M. LaFollette- Rep. Wisconsin Targeted RR industry- regulated rates, and forbade free passes Progressives worked to regulate child labor Keating-Owen Act 1916- prohibited the transportation across state likes of goods produced with child labor (eventually deemed unconstitutional) Made efforts to limit working hours and workers compensation Gov. Robert M. LaFollette- Rep. Wisconsin Targeted RR industry- regulated rates, and forbade free passes Progressives worked to regulate child labor Keating-Owen Act 1916- prohibited the transportation across state likes of goods produced with child labor (eventually deemed unconstitutional) Made efforts to limit working hours and workers compensation

10 Election Reform Adoption of the secret ballot (aka Australian ballot) Initiatives and referendums- gave citizens the power to create laws Citizens could petition to place an initiative (a bill originated by the people) on the ballot Voters instead of legislatures accepted or rejected the initiative by referendum (vote on initiative) Adoption of the secret ballot (aka Australian ballot) Initiatives and referendums- gave citizens the power to create laws Citizens could petition to place an initiative (a bill originated by the people) on the ballot Voters instead of legislatures accepted or rejected the initiative by referendum (vote on initiative)

11 Election Reform cont. The recall enabled voters to remove public officials from elected positions by forcing them to face another election before the end of their term 17 th Amendment- Direct election of Senators Started with the primary election Forced Senators to focus more on the people not businesses The recall enabled voters to remove public officials from elected positions by forcing them to face another election before the end of their term 17 th Amendment- Direct election of Senators Started with the primary election Forced Senators to focus more on the people not businesses

12 Women’s Role At the turn of the century, 1 in 5 women held jobs (25% in manufacturing) Faced dangerous conditions 1911 fire in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Women’s clubs popped up and grew into reform groups that addressed issues like temperance and child labor Women began going to college- separate from men At the turn of the century, 1 in 5 women held jobs (25% in manufacturing) Faced dangerous conditions 1911 fire in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Women’s clubs popped up and grew into reform groups that addressed issues like temperance and child labor Women began going to college- separate from men

13 Women in Reform 1896, African-American women founded the NACW (National Assoc. of Colored Women) led by Josephine Ruffin Susan B. Anthony led a campaign for woman suffrage (right to vote) Founded the National Women Suffrage Assoc. (NWSA) 1896, African-American women founded the NACW (National Assoc. of Colored Women) led by Josephine Ruffin Susan B. Anthony led a campaign for woman suffrage (right to vote) Founded the National Women Suffrage Assoc. (NWSA)

14 Strategy for Suffrage Tried 3 approaches to achieve objective Tried to convince state legislatures to grant women the right to vote Won in Wyoming, Utah, Colorado and Idaho Women pursued court cases to test the 14th Amendment- women citizens too! Supreme Court ruled in 1875 that women were citizens but that that didn’t mean they had the right to vote Women pushed for a national constitutional amendment to grant women the right to vote Amendment introduced in CA but it was killed later For 41 years, women lobbied to have it reintroduced but it continued to be voted down Tried 3 approaches to achieve objective Tried to convince state legislatures to grant women the right to vote Won in Wyoming, Utah, Colorado and Idaho Women pursued court cases to test the 14th Amendment- women citizens too! Supreme Court ruled in 1875 that women were citizens but that that didn’t mean they had the right to vote Women pushed for a national constitutional amendment to grant women the right to vote Amendment introduced in CA but it was killed later For 41 years, women lobbied to have it reintroduced but it continued to be voted down

15 Happy Wednesday!! Take out your jungle worksheet so I can check it and we can talk about it! Did you know: In Utah, birds have the right of way on all highways Take out your jungle worksheet so I can check it and we can talk about it! Did you know: In Utah, birds have the right of way on all highways

16 Progressivism Progressive Presidents

17 Political Leaders Teddy Roosevelt- Republican William H. Taft- Republican Woodrow Wilson- Democrat PROGRESSIVES CAME FROM BOTH PARTIES!!! MOVEMENT WAS BIPARTISAN! Teddy Roosevelt- Republican William H. Taft- Republican Woodrow Wilson- Democrat PROGRESSIVES CAME FROM BOTH PARTIES!!! MOVEMENT WAS BIPARTISAN!

18 Teddy Roosevelt Roosevelt took office after President McKinley was assassinated Was the youngest president ever (42 years old) Saw the presidency as a “bully pit” from which he could influence the news media and shape legislation Believed the American people deserve a “square deal” from government Term was used to describe the progressive reforms sponsored by his administration Roosevelt took office after President McKinley was assassinated Was the youngest president ever (42 years old) Saw the presidency as a “bully pit” from which he could influence the news media and shape legislation Believed the American people deserve a “square deal” from government Term was used to describe the progressive reforms sponsored by his administration

19 Trust Busting By 1900, trusts (legal bodies created to hold stock in many companies) controlled about 4/5 of the industries in the US Sherman Antitrust Act wasn’t working TR didn’t believe all trusts were harmful, he didn’t want to “bust the trusts” just regulate them Believed in the 3 C’s: Controlling corporations Consumer protection Conservation By 1900, trusts (legal bodies created to hold stock in many companies) controlled about 4/5 of the industries in the US Sherman Antitrust Act wasn’t working TR didn’t believe all trusts were harmful, he didn’t want to “bust the trusts” just regulate them Believed in the 3 C’s: Controlling corporations Consumer protection Conservation

20 TR’s Square Deal Included 6 items: 1. Increase Federal Power: to keep society running well and to get rid of corruption the gov’t needed to be more involved Fed. Gov’t needed to get involved in state problems 2. Mediating Strikes: before TR, the gov’t sided with business not strikers TR didn’t want to totally change to ALWAYS siding with labor but he believed that gov’t needs to step in when strikes effect the common people EX: Coal strike in PA 1902- workers want an 8 hr work day, higher wages, workers/owners didn’t agree for months, winter came and people needed coal for heat. TR threatens to seize the mines if a decision isnt made, TR sends the gov’t in to mediate TR establishes a precedent of saying gov’t can intervene in strikes if the public welfare is involved Included 6 items: 1. Increase Federal Power: to keep society running well and to get rid of corruption the gov’t needed to be more involved Fed. Gov’t needed to get involved in state problems 2. Mediating Strikes: before TR, the gov’t sided with business not strikers TR didn’t want to totally change to ALWAYS siding with labor but he believed that gov’t needs to step in when strikes effect the common people EX: Coal strike in PA 1902- workers want an 8 hr work day, higher wages, workers/owners didn’t agree for months, winter came and people needed coal for heat. TR threatens to seize the mines if a decision isnt made, TR sends the gov’t in to mediate TR establishes a precedent of saying gov’t can intervene in strikes if the public welfare is involved

21 TR’s Square Deal cont. 3. Regulate Trusts: tries to regulate businesses if they were oppressive to the people Sometimes the businesses were destroyed, others were guided towards better business practices Sued the companies 4. Regulating Transportation (mainly RR) Elkins Act 1902: cant change rates w/o notifying the public Hepburn Act 1906: Interstate Commerce Commission now sets RR rates 3. Regulate Trusts: tries to regulate businesses if they were oppressive to the people Sometimes the businesses were destroyed, others were guided towards better business practices Sued the companies 4. Regulating Transportation (mainly RR) Elkins Act 1902: cant change rates w/o notifying the public Hepburn Act 1906: Interstate Commerce Commission now sets RR rates

22 TR’s Square Deal cont. 5. Protecting Health: influenced by “The Jungle” Pure Food and Drug Act 1906: must put ingredients on the label Meat Inspection Act 1906 6. Conserving Natural Resources: set up state parks, wildlife sanctuaries, national forests; first to recognize the issue of pollution 5. Protecting Health: influenced by “The Jungle” Pure Food and Drug Act 1906: must put ingredients on the label Meat Inspection Act 1906 6. Conserving Natural Resources: set up state parks, wildlife sanctuaries, national forests; first to recognize the issue of pollution

23 Progressivism Under Taft TR hand picks William H. Taft (R) as his successor Taft pursued a cautious progressive agenda Sought to consolidate rather than expand TR’s reforms Was able to bust 90 trusts in a 4 year term Taft runs into a great deal of problems in his presidency TR hand picks William H. Taft (R) as his successor Taft pursued a cautious progressive agenda Sought to consolidate rather than expand TR’s reforms Was able to bust 90 trusts in a 4 year term Taft runs into a great deal of problems in his presidency

24 Payne-Aldrich Tariff Taft campaigned on a platform of lowering tariffs He tries to get the Payne-Aldrich tariff passed, which, when it entered the House was lower. But the Senate, under pressure from big business, actually increased tariffs Taft signed it thinking it was the initial bill and angered progressives Taft campaigned on a platform of lowering tariffs He tries to get the Payne-Aldrich tariff passed, which, when it entered the House was lower. But the Senate, under pressure from big business, actually increased tariffs Taft signed it thinking it was the initial bill and angered progressives

25 Conservation Does some good things- Appalachians added to national forests, set aside federal oil lands BUT…he causes problems: Begins selling off some land/water conservation areas Places Richard A. Ballinger as Sec. Of Interior He starts selling land set aside for parks to corporate developers Does some good things- Appalachians added to national forests, set aside federal oil lands BUT…he causes problems: Begins selling off some land/water conservation areas Places Richard A. Ballinger as Sec. Of Interior He starts selling land set aside for parks to corporate developers

26 Problems in the Republican Party Taft Supported the political boss, “Uncle Joe” Cannon As Chairman of the House Rules Committee, Cannon often ignored progressive bills Stripped him of his power TR returns from Africa promoting “New Nationalism” in which the fed. gov’t exerted its power for the welfare of the people TR ran for a 3 rd term in a new (progressive) party: The Bull Moose Party Platform called for the direct election of senators and the adoption in all states of the initiative, referendum and recall. The split gave the Democrats their first chance at the White House since 1892…Woodrow Wilson wins in 1912 Taft Supported the political boss, “Uncle Joe” Cannon As Chairman of the House Rules Committee, Cannon often ignored progressive bills Stripped him of his power TR returns from Africa promoting “New Nationalism” in which the fed. gov’t exerted its power for the welfare of the people TR ran for a 3 rd term in a new (progressive) party: The Bull Moose Party Platform called for the direct election of senators and the adoption in all states of the initiative, referendum and recall. The split gave the Democrats their first chance at the White House since 1892…Woodrow Wilson wins in 1912

27 Wilson’s New Freedom From Staunton, VA, was the president of Princeton and the polit. machine wanted a candidate they could control Says that he will attack the Triple Wall of Privilege: tariffs, banks and trusts Felt as TR did that the President had to play an active role in obtaining change in the country From Staunton, VA, was the president of Princeton and the polit. machine wanted a candidate they could control Says that he will attack the Triple Wall of Privilege: tariffs, banks and trusts Felt as TR did that the President had to play an active role in obtaining change in the country

28 Breaking down the Triple Wall of Privilege: Tariff Reform Underwood- Simmons Tariff 1913: lowered tariffs down to 29-41% Did this by telling the people to hold their Congressmen accountable Changed the revenue of the Fed. Gov’t US no longer gets the majority of its revenue from tariffs 16 th Amendment: INCOME TAX!! This is how the US makes up the difference Underwood- Simmons Tariff 1913: lowered tariffs down to 29-41% Did this by telling the people to hold their Congressmen accountable Changed the revenue of the Fed. Gov’t US no longer gets the majority of its revenue from tariffs 16 th Amendment: INCOME TAX!! This is how the US makes up the difference

29 Breaking Down the Triple Wall of Privilege: Banking Reform Need the gov’t to oversee the actions of the banking industry more Set up the Federal Reserve Board Decentralizes the private banking system Need the gov’t to oversee the actions of the banking industry more Set up the Federal Reserve Board Decentralizes the private banking system

30 Breaking Down the Triple Wall of Privilege: Trusts Establishes the Federal Trade Commission Act: 5 member committee that had the power to investigate unfair business (trade) practices including unlawful competition, fake advertising, mislabeling, bribery If found unlawful, the commission will tell them to “cease and desist” and turn them over to the courts Clayton Anti-trust Act: designed to strengthen the Sherman Anti-trust Act Declared more business practices illegal (Ex: cant but stocks in another company if it will eventually give you a monopoly) Helped laborers: legal to strike, peacefully picket, boycott and collect strike benefits Establishes the Federal Trade Commission Act: 5 member committee that had the power to investigate unfair business (trade) practices including unlawful competition, fake advertising, mislabeling, bribery If found unlawful, the commission will tell them to “cease and desist” and turn them over to the courts Clayton Anti-trust Act: designed to strengthen the Sherman Anti-trust Act Declared more business practices illegal (Ex: cant but stocks in another company if it will eventually give you a monopoly) Helped laborers: legal to strike, peacefully picket, boycott and collect strike benefits

31 Other Wilson Acts LaFollette Seaman’s Act (1915): improves working conditions on American merchant ships Adamson Act (1916): 8 hr. work day for RR Federal Farm Loan Act (1916): low interest loans for farmers Warehouse Act (1916): loans on the security of staple crops Workingman’s Compensation Act (1916) grant assistance to federal civil service employees during disability LaFollette Seaman’s Act (1915): improves working conditions on American merchant ships Adamson Act (1916): 8 hr. work day for RR Federal Farm Loan Act (1916): low interest loans for farmers Warehouse Act (1916): loans on the security of staple crops Workingman’s Compensation Act (1916) grant assistance to federal civil service employees during disability

32 Woman Suffrage and African Americans The movement gained strength with college- educated women Carrie Chapman Catt took over the NAWSA The efforts of women in WWI led to the passage of the 19 th Amendment granting women the right to vote Wilson didn’t make any progressive moves concerning African Americans due to his southern roots The movement gained strength with college- educated women Carrie Chapman Catt took over the NAWSA The efforts of women in WWI led to the passage of the 19 th Amendment granting women the right to vote Wilson didn’t make any progressive moves concerning African Americans due to his southern roots


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