Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 1826-1835 The Road to Revolution Dictionary.com Tranquility – a state of peace and quiet Commotion - civil disturbance; disorder Anarchy -"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter The Road to Revolution
Dictionary.com Tranquility – a state of peace and quiet Commotion - civil disturbance; disorder Anarchy - political disorder and confusion Hostilities - acts of war; overt warfare Lamented - to regret deeply
What do you know? What comes to mind when you hear the word revolution? Do you think of military battles? Or do you see revolution as a form of change or movement? You are probably familiar with several different kinds of revolutions.
OBJECTIVES Explain why tensions arose between the Mexican government and the Texas settlers. Identify the events that led to the passage of the Law of April 6, Describe the effect that the Law of April 6, 1830, had on Texas colonists. 1
Tensions Mount Between Mexico and Texas Not long after colonization began in Texas, conflicts erupted between the Mexican government and the colonists. Even though Mexican officials attempted to control the conflicts, their efforts served to anger and unify the colonists.
Differences Arise Settlers from the United States had to agree to adopt the laws and government of New Spain. –convert to Catholic faith –pledge loyalty to the Spanish king and queen Some colonists were willing to change their way of life and live as the Mexican government wanted them to. But, many colonists did not really want to become loyal citizens of Mexico.
A Question of States’ Rights As in the United States of America, Mexico was divided into various states. Mexico’s Constitution of 1824 gave each of those states certain rights. A states’ rights government is where the states have most of the political power. Before the Constitution of 1824 most of the power was in the hands of the federal government.
Constitution of 1824 Established a states rights government –Texans LOVED this Constitution. –The Mexican government was afraid that this would give the Texans too much power.
A Question of States’ Right Some leaders of the Mexican government did not approve of the states’ having so much power under the Constitution of They felt that the power should belong to the national government. These Mexican nationalists were concerned that too many settlers from the United States were moving to Texas.
States’ Rights Issue Centralists/NationalistsAnti-Centralists Supported removing some powers from the states and giving more powers to the national government. The federal government should hold most of the power. Wanted important political powers to remain with the states. The states should hold most of the power. President BustamanteConstitution of 1824
A Question of States’ Rights Texas was in the state of Coahuila y Tejas. Since the state of Coahuila y Tejas was on the border with the United States many American colonists settled there. The Mexican government worried about too many American colonists coming to Texas because they might have wanted to make Texas a part of America.
HADEN EDWARDS empresario was given a land grant around Nacogdoches. went to his land and found Cherokees and Mexicans living there. hung signs stating that if they couldn’t prove they legally owned their land, they MUST leave.
SHOW PROOF OF LAND OWNERSHIP OR LEAVE!
Competing Land Claims Edwards’ response to the squatters angered Stephen F. Austin and other settlers in Texas. Austin wrote a letter to Edwards which called his behavior, “imprudent and improper” and “calculated to ruin yourself and materially injure all the American settlements”. Other settlers wrote complaint letters to the Mexican government.
HADEN EDWARDS An election for alcalde was held on Edward’s land. Norris won the election but Edwards said his son-in-law won. Many were angry! Governor Blanco reversed the election decision and ordered the Edwards brothers to LEAVE TEXAS!
FREDONIAN REBELLION Edwards, Cherokee leaders, and a few others formed the Mexican authorities heard this and were afraid this group would take over Texas. Colonel Ahumada and Stephen F. Austin went to suppress the rebellion. The conflict ended quickly. The Edwards brothers ran off to Louisiana.
An Attempt to Purchase Texas In 1826 the president of the United States was John Quincy Adams. People in America at that time wanted to move westward where there was more land and opportunity. Adams wanted to win the support of the American people so he sent Joel R. Poinsett to Mexico with an offer to buy Texas for $1 million dollars. The Mexican government was offended that anyone would think they would consider selling part of their country.
The Mier y Teran Report Mexican officials became suspicious of the colonization in Texas because they worried that if too many settlers came from the United States they would lose control of the area. General Manuel Mier y Teran was sent to investigate Texas and write a report about what was going on there.
The Mier y Teran Report Mier y Teran’s report claimed that there were many more American settlers then Mexican settlers in Texas. He said that the United States had a strong influence on those living in Texas and that these settlers were trading with the U.S. Mier y Teran’s suggestion was to keep slavery illegal in Mexico so that Texas would be a less desirable place for colonists to settle.
The Law of April 6, 1830 outlawed immigration from the United States to Texas canceled all empresarial grants People were no longer allowed to come from the United States and settle in Texas. However, people from Mexico and Europe WERE allowed to settle in Texas.
The Law of April 6, 1830 There were other provisions in the law that were meant to slow or stop Anglo American immigration. Slaves could no longer be brought into Mexico. New forts and presidios were built. Customs duties were put on all goods entering Texas from the United States.
The Law of April 6, 1830 Anglo Texans were alarmed! Since they could no longer bring slaves into Texas they had trouble farming their cotton. The new taxes hurt the economy of Texans. Texans were upset that their friends and relatives from the United States could not join them in Texas.
The Law of April 6, 1830 This law not only made Texans mad, it also raised serious political questions within Mexico. Under the Constitution of 1824, this law should have been a state issue. Instead, the Law of April 6, 1830 came from the national government. This law didn’t resolve the crisis in Texas, instead it made the tension worse between Texans and the Mexican government.
MAIN IDEA Not long after colonization began in Texas, conflicts erupted between the Mexican government and the colonists. Even though Mexican officials attempted to control the conflicts, their efforts served to anger and unify the colonists. WHY IT MATTERS NOW The issue of immigration continues to cause conflict today between the United States and Mexico. 1
CRITICAL THINKING What did nationalist leaders in Mexico infer from the Fredonian Rebellion? What developments in Texas alarmed the Mexican government? What actions by the Mexican government alarmed Texans? Summarize the provisions of the Law of April 6, 1830, and describe Texans’ reactions to it. 1
A Bitter Division Evolves Early battles and the Conventions of 1832 and 1833 established the foundations of an independent Texas.
OBJECTIVES Describe the controversy surrounding the Constitution of Explain the significance of the Turtle Bayou Resolutions. Identify the events that led to the arrest of Stephen F. Austin. 2
Unrest in Texas Under the Law of April 6, 1830 Texans had to pay a customs duty on everything that came from the United States. In order to collect these new taxes, the Mexican government sent soldiers to Texas. Texans didn’t like having soldiers hanging around or having to pay new taxes to Mexico.
Santa Anna’s Rise to Power The president of Mexico, Anatasio Bustamante, had ignored the Constitution of 1824 by creating a strong national government. Under the Constitution of 1824 the states were given local control, so when President Bustamante took that power away, Mexican citizens were angry.
Santa Anna’s Rise to Power Santa Anna was in the Spanish military. He served on the mission to defeat the Gutierrez-Magee expedition. He shifted his allegiance from Spain to Mexico during the Mexican war for independence. He claimed to be opposed to the centralists. In 1832 he launched a revolution against President Bustamante.
Santa Anna’s Rise to Power Santa Anna was supported by many Texans in his revolution against President Bustamante because they did not like Mexico’s strong central government (they wanted to be able to make decisions for themselves). Stephen F. Austin helped convince Texans to support Santa Anna’s effort to preserve the states’ rights constitution.
was appointed by Mexican government to collect customs duties and stop the smuggling ordered all ships to report to customs house and receive clearance papers for the goods they were bringing into Texas. Most shippers ignored the orders of Fisher, especially the smugglers.
Conflict at Galveston George Fisher had a hard time collecting the taxes and stopping the smuggling because shippers didn’t like paying customs duties and they didn’t want the Mexican government telling them they had to stop smuggling goods into Texas. Fisher required all ships to receive clearance papers from the customs house at Anahuac on Galveston Bay. Shippers who were going somewhere else still had to go through Galveston which made them angry.
ANAHUAC – William T. Logan came to Anahuac searching for his slaves that had run away. Colonel Bradburn, a Mexican official who was suppose to enforce the laws of Mexico, was hiding Logan’s slaves.
Logan hired William Barret Travis (a lawyer) to represent him and help him get his slaves back. Travis embarrassed Bradburn. Bradburn had Travis arrested. –Patrick Jack (Travis’s law partner) was also arrested. 150 settlers went to Anahuac to protest. Bradburn said he would release Travis and Jack, if the settlers would leave. The settlers left and camped near Turtle Bayou. ANAHUAC – 1832
TURTLE BAYOU RESOLUTIONS Colonists sent John Austin to Brazoria get a cannon. While they waited for John Austin’s return, they drafted a statement known as the Turtle Bayou Resolutions. –Pledged their loyalty to Mexico –Stated they supported Santa Anna (who appeared to be on the same side as the Texans) Before Austin returned with the cannon, Mexican Colonel Piedras ordered Travis and Jack to be released. He also dismissed Bradburn from his command.
BATTLE OF VELASCO John Austin loaded the cannon on his ship and headed down the Brazos River toward Anahuac. In Velasco, Mexican Colonel Ugartechea would not let them pass with the cannon. Fighting broke out. The Mexican soldiers were forced to surrender when they ran out of ammunition.
The Convention of 1832 About 56 delegates met in San Felipe to draft a set of resolutions. Stephen F. Austin elected president of convention. Texans wanted: –Repeal of Law of April 6, 1830 –Allow immigration from U.S. to Texas –Exemption from customs duties (taxes) –Requested better protection from the Native Americans –Creations of public schools –State of Coahuila y Tejas be divided so each territory could have its own government. Officials in San Antonio refused to send the Texan requests to officials in Mexico City.
The Convention of 1833 While Stephen F. Austin was in San Antonio gaining support of the Tejano community, another convention was held. William Wharton elected president of convention. They asked for the same items as the Convention of 1832 except they drafted a constitution for the new Mexican state of Texas. Developing this constitution and holding these conventions made the Texans look defiant to the Mexican government.
After the Convention of 1833, Stephen F. Austin traveled to Mexico City to deliver the Texans’ resolutions to the Mexican official, Gómez Farías (fah- REE-ahs). While Farías was slow to address the Texans’ problems, Austin wrote a letter to the Texans suggesting they establish a new state government that would make Texas separate from Coahuila y Tejas but still a part of the Mexican Union.
Austin met with Santa Anna the next month, who agreed to most of the Texans requests…except the request for a separate statehood for Texas. On February 10, 1834, Austin was returning home to Texas. He was arrested in Saltillo, after Farías intercepted Austin’s letter to the Texans. –Farías thought Austin was challenging the authority of the Mexican government. Austin was thrown in jail. Austin was released on December 25, 1835.
MAIN IDEA Clashes between Texas colonists and Mexican leaders over states’ rights led Texans to petition for a separate state. Early battles and the Conventions of 1832 and 1833 established the foundations of an independent Texas. WHY IT MATTERS NOW 2
SANTA ANNA’S TRUE COLORS Texans quickly found out that Santa Anna did not share their views on government. Once in power, Santa Anna dismissed the Mexican Congress. Santa Anna had a new constitution written which gave him ALL the power. Santa Anna sent his brother-in-law, General Cos, to Texas to enforce Santa Anna’s laws and put down any rebellion.
Trouble in Anahuac AGAIN Cos sent Captain Tenorio to Anahuac to watch the Texans and continue collecting Taxes from the Texan colonists. Two Texans were arrested for not showing respect to Tenorio. The Texans decided to force Tenorio and his men out of Texas, so they assembled 25 men and headed to Anahuac. –William B. Travis was the group’s leader. The Texans fired one shot to announce their arrival. Tenorio and his men surrendered and agreed to leave Texas.
WAR PARTY Wanted to “wait-and- see” Did not want war PEACE PARTY Thought that war was inevitable for Texas’s independence When Stephen F. Austin was released from prison, the Texans looked to him as to how to handle this situation.
Battle of Gonzales Mexican patrol (Cos included) wanted the cannon they had let the Texans borrow for protection against the Native Americans. Gonzalez Alcalde Ponton refused to give up the cannon without written orders. While the Mexican soldiers fled the area, the Texans buried the cannon.
The Texans heard that the Mexican soldiers were planning on returning to take the cannon. 160 soldiers joined up on the Texans side and elected J. H. Moore as their leader. 100 Mexican soldiers went to Gonzalez to take the cannon. The Mexican soldiers saw that the Texans were armed. The Texans fired the cannon at the Mexican soldiers. The Mexican soldiers retreated to San Antonio. This battle showed that the Texans were not afraid to use military force if necessary.
The Army of the People Texans who heard about the Battle of Gonzales began to volunteer in the fight for Texas’ independence. They marched to San Antonio to try to drive the Mexican soldiers out of Texas. As General Cos marched to San Antonio he sent 30 soldiers to Goliad so that they could protect the fort there.
The Army of the People George Collingsworth led about 50 Texans to attack the 30 Mexican soldiers who were protecting the Goliad fort. There was a short fight and the Mexican soldiers surrendered. This battle proved two things to the Texans: –They believed the Mexican army would be easy to defeat. –They believed they could cut off the Mexican army from their supply route.
The Army of the People The volunteers who had joined up to drive the Mexican soldiers from San Antonio organized themselves into the Army of the People. They elected Stephen F. Austin to lead them. These volunteers began a month-long siege of San Antonio.
The Consultation a meeting in San Felipe delegates were deciding what action Texans should take war party and peace party delegates were there Delegates voted to declare Texas’ independence on November 6, 1835 and the next day they adopted the “Declaration of the People in Texas in General Convention Assembled”. They pledged to remain loyal citizens of Mexico who supported the Constitution of They also encouraged other Mexicans to join them.
The delegates set up a provisional government. They elected Henry Smith as their governor. They sent Stephen F. Austin (and others) on a mission to raise money and troops in the United States. Sam Houston was chosen to lead the volunteer army. The Consultation
The Attack on San Antonio The Texans decided to attack San Antonio when they learned that General Cos’ troops were low on supplies. Ben Milam led 300 men on December 5 th to begin the attack on San Antonio. The fight lasted five days and Milam was one of the first men killed. General Cos eventually surrendered to the Texans and gave them all of the money and supplies that were in San Antonio. Cos also pledged to never again oppose the Constitution of 1824.
Vocabulary Check Faction A group of people who share a viewpoint on an issue Seige A lengthy military attack on a fortified place Provisional government A group of people who make laws and provide services on a temporary basis
MAIN IDEA When Santa Anna gained control of the Mexican government, he sent Mexican troops into Texas once again. His actions convinced many Texans that independence was the solution. Clashes between the colonists and the Mexican soldiers led to the beginning of the Texas Revolution. WHY IT MATTERS NOW 3
The Fredonian Rebellion erupts Mexico passes Law of April 6, Colonists and Mexican troops clash at Anahuac Stephen F. Austin imprisoned The Battle of Gonzales fought Texans and Mexican troops face off at Battle of San Antonio The Road to Revolution