Presentation on theme: "Securing Independence, Defining Nationhood,"— Presentation transcript:
1Securing Independence, Defining Nationhood, 1776-1788 CHAPTER 6Securing Independence, Defining Nationhood,1. What factors enabled the Americans to defeat the British in the American Revolution?2. How did the Revolution affect relationships among Americans of different classes, races, and genders?3. What political concerns were reflected in the first state constitutions and Articles of Confederation?4. What were the principal issues dividing proponents and opponents of the new federal Constitution?
2Loyalists and Other British Sympathizers The Prospects of WarLoyalists and Other British SympathizersLoyalists/Tories: Patriots/Whigs:20% %Slaves: Slaves:20,000 to the British 5,000 fought for the patriotsIndians: Indians:Most sided with the A few sided with theBritish patriots
3The Prospects of War The Opposing Sides BRITAIN 11 million people Had to pay for it allLargest navy in the world Had to transport it allExceptional army Over doubled the debt to people already paying record taxesHessians and Loyalists Had to defeat the colonists5. No formidable allies
4The Prospects of War The Opposing Sides COLONIES “Home Field” advantage million people (1/ were slaves or loyalists)220,000 troops (to the British Untrained army/militia162,0003. European allies (later) Most Indians fought with the BritishThey didn’t have to win the Inexperienced officers war – just outlast the British (except for George Washington)5. Short-term service
5Shifting Fortunes in the North, 1776-1778 War and Peace,Shifting Fortunes in the North,Things were going fairly well for the Brits until…October, 1777 – The Battle of SaratogaConvinced the French that the colonists couldwin and they declared war against BritainSpain joined in 1779Netherlands joined in 1780Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben whipped the ContinentalArmy into a formidable fighting forceVon Steuben Day parades are held every year. Ferris Beullerwent to the one in Chicago on his “day off”.
6War and Peace, 1776-1783 The War in the West, 1776-1782 The colonists and the Native Americanspretty much continued their skirmishes frombefore the warNothing too memorable for AP purposesexcept that many Indians were killed, makingit that much easier for the whites to conquerthem later
7War and Peace, 1776-1783 Victory in the South, 1778-1781 October 19, 1781 – British General Cornwallis surrendered after being trapped by G. Washington from the North and the French from the sea. This all but ended the war.So, in summary…
8War and Peace, 1776-1783 Peace at Last, 1782-1783 Treaty of Paris (again) of 1783Britain recognized American independenceBritain promised to remove all troopsAmerican got all land east of the MississippiSpain received FloridaIndians weren’t mentioned in the treatyBoth sides didn’t follow the treaty:British didn’t remove troops/forts or return slavesAmericans didn’t repay British creditors, compensate loyalistsMany loyalists and slaves fled to Canada, Britain, or the West Indies
9The Revolution and Social Change Egalitarianism Among White MenAfter the Revolution, white men withproperty began to treat each otherwith a more-mutual respect
10The Revolution and Social Change White Women in WartimeAlthough during the war women were awesome and essential to winning the war by taking over the “men’s work”…after the war it was back to thestatus quo“All men are created equal”apparently didn’t apply towomen… of any color
11The Revolution and Social Change A Revolution for African-AmericansGradual emancipation started to take place in the NorthHowever, free blacks were still very much second-class citizens without much chance of real success“All men are created equal” and slavery didn’t sit well with a lot of Americans, so slavery actually looked as if it was going to fade away, but… (stay tuned for more in the next few chapters)
12The Revolution and Social Change Native Americans and the RevolutionNative Americans sufferedmore than any other groupafter the warMany of them were eitherkilled or their land wastaken from themA few assimilated into whiteAmerican culture
13Forging New Governments, 1776-1787 From Colonies to StatesState governments usually kept a bicameral system and property requirements to voteThe new state constitutions werewritten down and included billsof rightsAt first the legislative branch had more power and the executive branch had less, but the rich folks saw to it that that didn’t last for more than a couple of decades
14Forging New Governments, 1776-1787 Formalizing a Confederation,The Articles of Confederation – written in 1776 – finally ratified in 1781It was purposely written to create a weak national government (with the power going to the states)One branch (legislative) with each state getting one voteNo national armyNo required taxesNo chief executiveNo judicial systemNeeded 9/13 states tocreate a lawNeeded 13/13 states tocreate an amendment
15Forging New Governments, 1776-1787 Finance, Trade, and the Economy,The Revolutionary War cost $160 millionThe US couldn’t raise that money via taxes(thanks to the rules stated in the Articles ofConfederation)The US currency (The Continental)depreciated by 98%
16Forging New Governments, 1776-1787 The Confederation and the WestThe Land Ordinance of 1785This laid out howland would besurveyed into 36sectionsThis was one ofthe two ‘successes’of the Articles ofConfederation
17Forging New Governments, 1776-1787 The Confederation and the WestThe Northwest Ordinance of 1787This laid out how new stateswould be created in the landcalled the NW TerritoryNo slaves in new territoriesBritain still had forts in the NWTerritory and helped Indiansharass the AmericansSpain closed off New Orleans tothe Americans
18Toward a New Constitution, 1786-1788 Shays’s RebellionIn Daniel Shays led some angry farmers to raid a federal arsenal in Springfield, MA. They were upset with the MA government’s severe taxes. The rebellion itself isn’t what youshould focus on…the real significance is what it led to…The rebellion showed that we needed amuch stronger national government and sothe Philadelphia Convention happens (aftermeeting in Annapolis) – we create theConstitution – all because of someticked-off farmers!
19Toward a New Constitution, 1786-1788 The Philadelphia Convention, 1787May 25, 1787 – September 17, 178755 Delegates from all states but Rhode IslandBiggest hurdle = how to represent states in Congress
20Toward a New Constitution, 1786-1788 The Philadelphia Convention, 1787The national government got a lot more powerful while the states lost a lot of power to the new “supreme law of the land”However, theseparation of powers,checks and balances,and federalism alllimit the government
21Toward a New Constitution, 1786-1788 The Philadelphia Convention, 1787The Preamble to the Constitution
22Toward a New Constitution, 1786-1788 The Philadelphia Convention, 1787Slavery and the ConstitutionCan’t interfere with the international slave trade for 20 years (until 1808)Can’t prevent escaped slaves from being returned to their ownersSlaves count as 3/5 of a person for representation purposesEvery 30,000 citizens = 1 representativeSo, every 50,000 slaves = 1 representative
23Toward a New Constitution, 1786-1788 The Struggle Over Ratification,Constitution written: 1787Constitution ratified: 1788Government commencedoperations under theConstitution: