Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 6 Securing Independence, Defining Nationhood, 1776-1788 1.What factors enabled the Americans to defeat the British in the American Revolution?"— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 6 Securing Independence, Defining Nationhood, What factors enabled the Americans to defeat the British in the American Revolution? 2.How did the Revolution affect relationships among Americans of different classes, races, and genders? 3.What political concerns were reflected in the first state constitutions and Articles of Confederation? 4.What were the principal issues dividing proponents and opponents of the new federal Constitution?
The Prospects of War Loyalists and Other British Sympathizers Loyalists/Tories:Patriots/Whigs: 20% 80% Slaves:Slaves: 20,000 to the British5,000 fought for the patriots Indians:Indians: Most sided with theA few sided with the Britishpatriots
The Prospects of War The Opposing Sides BRITAIN 1.11 million people1. Had to pay for it all 2.Largest navy in the world2. Had to transport it all 3.Exceptional army3. Over doubled the debt to people already paying record taxes 4.Hessians and Loyalists4. Had to defeat the colonists 5. No formidable allies
The Prospects of War The Opposing Sides COLONIES 1.“Home Field” advantage million people (1/3 were slaves or loyalists) 2.220,000 troops (to the British2. Untrained army/militia 162,000 3.European allies (later)3. Most Indians fought with the British 4.They didn’t have to win the4. Inexperienced officers war – just outlast the British (except for George Washington) 5. Short-term service
War and Peace, Shifting Fortunes in the North, Things were going fairly well for the Brits until… October, 1777 – The Battle of Saratoga Convinced the French that the colonists could win and they declared war against Britain Spain joined in 1779 Netherlands joined in 1780 Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben whipped the Continental Army into a formidable fighting force Von Steuben Day parades are held every year. Ferris Beuller went to the one in Chicago on his “day off”.
War and Peace, The War in the West, The colonists and the Native Americans pretty much continued their skirmishes from before the war Nothing too memorable for AP purposes except that many Indians were killed, making it that much easier for the whites to conquer them later
War and Peace, Victory in the South, October 19, 1781 – British General Cornwallis surrendered after being trapped by G. Washington from the North and the French from the sea. This all but ended the war. So, in summary…
War and Peace, Peace at Last, Treaty of Paris (again) of 1783 Britain recognized American independence Britain promised to remove all troops American got all land east of the Mississippi Spain received Florida Indians weren’t mentioned in the treaty Both sides didn’t follow the treaty: British didn’t remove troops/forts or return slaves Americans didn’t repay British creditors, compensate loyalists Many loyalists and slaves fled to Canada, Britain, or the West Indies
The Revolution and Social Change Egalitarianism Among White Men After the Revolution, white men with property began to treat each other with a more-mutual respect
The Revolution and Social Change White Women in Wartime Although during the war women were awesome and essential to winning the war by taking over the “men’s work”… after the war it was back to the status quo “All men are created equal” apparently didn’t apply to women… of any color
The Revolution and Social Change A Revolution for African-Americans Gradual emancipation started to take place in the North However, free blacks were still very much second-class citizens without much chance of real success “All men are created equal” and slavery didn’t sit well with a lot of Americans, so slavery actually looked as if it was going to fade away, but… (stay tuned for more in the next few chapters)
The Revolution and Social Change Native Americans and the Revolution Native Americans suffered more than any other group after the war Many of them were either killed or their land was taken from them A few assimilated into white American culture
Forging New Governments, From Colonies to States State governments usually kept a bicameral system and property requirements to vote The new state constitutions were written down and included bills of rights At first the legislative branch had more power and the executive branch had less, but the rich folks saw to it that that didn’t last for more than a couple of decades
Forging New Governments, Formalizing a Confederation, The Articles of Confederation – written in 1776 – finally ratified in 1781 It was purposely written to create a weak national government (with the power going to the states) One branch (legislative) with each state getting one vote No national army No required taxes No chief executive No judicial system Needed 9/13 states to create a law Needed 13/13 states to create an amendment
Forging New Governments, Finance, Trade, and the Economy, The Revolutionary War cost $160 million The US couldn’t raise that money via taxes (thanks to the rules stated in the Articles of Confederation) The US currency (The Continental) depreciated by 98%
Forging New Governments, The Confederation and the West The Land Ordinance of 1785 This laid out how land would be surveyed into 36 sections This was one of the two ‘successes’ of the Articles of Confederation
Forging New Governments, The Confederation and the West The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 This laid out how new states would be created in the land called the NW Territory No slaves in new territories Britain still had forts in the NW Territory and helped Indians harass the Americans Spain closed off New Orleans to the Americans
Toward a New Constitution, Shays’s Rebellion In Daniel Shays led some angry farmers to raid a federal arsenal in Springfield, MA. They were upset with the MA government’s severe taxes. The rebellion itself isn’t what you should focus on… the real significance is what it led to… The rebellion showed that we needed a much stronger national government and so the Philadelphia Convention happens (after meeting in Annapolis) – we create the Constitution – all because of some ticked-off farmers!
Toward a New Constitution, The Philadelphia Convention, 1787 May 25, 1787 – September 17, Delegates from all states but Rhode Island Biggest hurdle = how to represent states in Congress
Toward a New Constitution, The Philadelphia Convention, 1787 The national government got a lot more powerful while the states lost a lot of power to the new “supreme law of the land” However, the separation of powers, checks and balances, and federalism all limit the government
Toward a New Constitution, The Philadelphia Convention, 1787 The Preamble to the Constitution
Toward a New Constitution, The Philadelphia Convention, 1787 Slavery and the Constitution Can’t interfere with the international slave trade for 20 years (until 1808) Can’t prevent escaped slaves from being returned to their owners Slaves count as 3/5 of a person for representation purposes Every 30,000 citizens = 1 representative So, every 50,000 slaves = 1 representative
Toward a New Constitution, The Struggle Over Ratification, Constitution written:1787 Constitution ratified:1788 Government commenced operations under the Constitution:1789