Presentation on theme: "1 We’ve got problems in both Argentina and Brazil. 2 We’d just found a joint venture partner and then they went bankrupt! 3 I had no idea that they were."— Presentation transcript:
1 We’ve got problems in both Argentina and Brazil. 2 We’d just found a joint venture partner and then they went bankrupt! 3 I had no idea that they were selling on the black market for $10 each. Not onlyNo soonerOn no accountLittle NeverOnly Not only do we have problems in Argentina, but also in Brazil. No sooner had we found a joint venture partner than they went bankrupt. Little did I know that they were selling on the black market for $10 each.
4 We can reduce the features, but there’s no way we’re going to compromise on quality. 5 I’ve never experienced such a dramatic rise and fall in a company’s fortunes. 6 We can only sell our products in markets where English is spoken. Not onlyNo soonerOn no accountLittle NeverOnly We can reduce the features, but on no account are we going to compromise on quality. Never have I experienced such a dramatic rise and fall in a company’s fortunes. Only in markets where English is spoken can we sell our products.
Mixed conditional I t is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to different times, and the resulting sentence is a “mixed conditional” sentence. There are two types of mixed conditional sentence. 1) PRESENT RESULT OF A PAST CONDITION FORM In this type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the “if” clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional (would + infinitive).
EXAMPLES If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now. If we had looked at the map we wouldn't be lost. FUNCTION This type of mixed conditional refers to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. These sentences express a situation which is contrary to reality both in the past and in the present. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time is the past in the “if” clause and in the present in the main clause.
EXAMPLES If I had studied I would have my driving license. (but I didn't study and now I don't have my license) I would (could)be a millionaire now if I had taken that job. (but I didn't take the job and I'm not a millionaire) If you had spent all your money, you wouldn't buy this jacket. (but you didn't spend all your money and now you can buy this jacket)
2) PAST RESULT OF PRESENT OR CONTINUING CONDITION FORM In this second type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the “if” clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional. If we didn't trust him we would have sacked him months ago. If I were not in the middle of another meeting, I would have been happy to help you.
FUNCTION These mixed conditional sentences refer to an unreal present situation and its probable (but unreal) past result. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time in the “if” clause is now or always and the time in the main clause is before now.
For example, in the sentence If she wasn't afraid of flying, she wouldn’t have travelled by boat. “If she wasn't afraid of flying” is contrary to present reality. She is afraid of flying. “she wouldn’t have travelled by boat" is contrary to past reality. She travelled by boat. If I were a good cook, I would have invited them to lunch (but I am not a good cook, so I didn’t invite them to lunch).
She wasn’t born in the United States and she does need a visa now to work here. But _____________________________________________ 2. I’m not currently rich and that is why I didn’t buy the newest laptop yesterday. But _____________________________________________ 3. She didn’t win the lottery in the past and she isn’t rich now. But _____________________________________________ if she had been born in the US, she wouldn’t need a visa to work here. if I were rich, I would have bought the newest laptop yesterday. if she had won the lottery, she would be rich.
Sam doesn’t speak Russian and that is why he didn’t translate the letter. But ___________________________________________ 5. Our colleague is not creative and the company won’t send her to New York to work on the new campaign. But ___________________________________________ if Sam spoke Russian, he would have translated the letter. if our colleague were creative, the company would send her to NY to work on the new campaign.
1. MERCOSUR was originated in 1988 as a free trade pact between Brazil ______________ 2. and Argentina. The modest reductions in tariffs and quotas accompanying ___________ 3. this pact reportedly help bring about an 80 percent increase in trade _________________ 4. between the two countries in the late 1980s. Encouraged by this success, ______________ 5. the pact be expanded in March 1990 to include Paraguay and Uruguay. ______________ 6. The initial aim was to established a full free trade area by the end of 1994 _____________ 7. and a common market sometime thereafter. The four countries of ___________________ was helped √ was establish √ √
7. and a common market sometime thereafter. The four countries of ___________________ 8. MERCOSUR have a combined population of 200 millions. With a market _____________ 9. of this size, MERCOSUR could has a significant impact on the economic _____________ 10. growth rate of the four economies. On December 1995, MERCOSUR’s ______________ 11. members agreed to a five-years program under which they hoped to ________________ 12. perfect their free trade area and moved toward a full customs union. ________________ √ have In year move million
No other attempt regional economic integration comes close to the EU in its boldness or its potential implications the world economy, but regional economic integration is the rise the Americas. The most significant attempt is the North American Free Trade Agreement. Addition to NAFTA, several other trade blocs are the offing the Americas, the most significant which appear to be the Andean Group and MERCOSUR. One big issue now confronting NAFTA is that enlargement. AT FOR INON IN OFIN OF
A number of other Latin American countries have indicated their desire eventually join NAFTA. The governments both Canada and the United States are adopting a wait-and- see attitude regard most countries. TO OF TOWITH /IN