FBA Interviewing for the new Milennium: A presentation prepared by Mike Cummings & Eileen Lyons August 13, 2008
Learning Objectives for the Session Explain the benefits of the school psychologist as the primary consultant on the FBA/BIP team and the common barriers attributed to this role. Best practice procedures to set-up and conduct FBA interviews. Explain the purpose/ importance of the functional assessment interview. (More than establishing function.) Become familiar with a variety of FBA interviews to use with students, parents, and teachers. Identify and link critical interview information to the intervention plan. (intervention process, since the BIP is done collaboratively)
ACTIVITY: Turn to a friend and discuss the question that best applies to you: What is the primary reason you resist or fear becoming involved in the FBA/BIP process? Or, if you have engaged in the FBA/BIP process, how did you overcome your fear or resistance and get started?
Moving On…… Let’s talk about the consultant and the interview process…
Interviewing: Best Practice Procedures Small group activity: Establish a group with two other people. Assign one person to the responsibility of “recorder.” Given 5 minutes, all group members brainstorm effective interviewing characteristics skills of a consultant (e.g., listening) The recorder will write these down on the “Think Sheet.” PRIZES WILL BE AWARDED TO THE TWO GROUPS WITH THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE LISTS. GOOD LUCK!
Characteristics of an Effective Interviewer/Consultant Establish Rapport Ability to Accurately Receive Information Ability to Facilitate Communication Ability to Critically Analyze and Synthesize the Information Received Ability to Regulate one’s own verbal and nonverbal behavior Basics
Rapport Eye Contact Attentive Posture Non-Judgmental Don’t Interrupt Speak Slowly and Calmly
Techniques Use Appropriate Vocabulary Distinguish Between Acceptance & Endorsement Use Reflection and Feedback Clarify Interviewee’s Terms
Questions Avoid Yes/No Questions Avoid Long Multiple Questions Broad Questions Discover: “Tell me about your family.” Values Perspectives Perception of Facts
Narrow Questions “What subject does your son like in School?” Elicit Specific Information
Discussion Questions Does anyone have another “best practice” interviewing behavior that was not listed? Why are interviewing skills so important? What could happen if you did not engage in one or more of these behaviors? How can you remind yourself to adhere to these best practice procedures?
General Information Regarding the Functional Behavior Interview
The Components of a Functional Assessment Indirect Assessment R: Record Reviews I: Interviews of Parents, Teachers, Support Personnel and Students Direct Assessment O: Observations T: Test for cause-effect relationships using experimental procedures to modify the environment and investigate outcomes
The Inverse Relationship between the Frequency of an Interview Strategies Use and its Reliability Frequency Reliability (data are fabricated for illustration purposes)
FBA Interviews: The Pros Involves minimal to no risk for the client/student It is a structured method for gathering needed information and the interview can guide the assessment process. Allows you to generate a hypothesis(es) for the function(s) of the behavior It is an opportunity to assess/learn about:: The context in which the behavior occurs Existing classroom management strategies Interventions in place and/or attempted Level of frustration and/or resistance (from teacher(s), parent(s), and/or student) Level of receptiveness to the intervention process Support plans for persons with limited receptiveness to FBA/BIP process Relevant home/community history and current functioning when interviewing parents The student’s perception of the problem(s)
FBA Interviews: The Pros (cont.) It is an opportunity to start formulating suggestions for the Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) Some perceive interviews as “easier” to implement than other components of the FBA.
FBA Interviews: The Cons Data are highly subjective The strategy has limited reliability Insufficient information for intervention development Recency effects, Perception Errors, Response bias / Faking “good”
Desired Outcomes of a Student FBA Interview The consultant will have a good understanding of the student’s perceived: Areas of strength Behavior challenges (from own or other’s perspective) Academic functioning Common triggers for the problem behavior(s). Consequences for the problem behavior(s). Social activities and community functioning Ideas for changes needed (e.g., intervention suggestions) Understanding of the cause-effect relationship for his/her behavior.
Tips for the Student FBA Interview Selecting the interviewer Setting up a time / location Initially engage in friendly dialogue Establish purpose of the interview Duration of the interview Responding to noncompliance Diffusing externalizing comments Preparing for difficult disclosures (consultant role vs. counselor role).
Desired Outcomes of a Teacher and Parent FBA Interview 1. Identify and define target behaviors (FDI, OM) 2. Identify potential setting events. 3. Define immediate antecedent events (predictors) for occurrences and nonoccurrences of the problem behavior. 4. Identify the consequences or outcomes of the undesirable behaviors that may be maintaining them. 5. Define the efficiency of the undesirable behavior 6. Identify functional alternative behaviors the person already knows.
Desired Outcomes of a parent / teacher FBA Interview (cont.) 7. Identify primary communication strategies. 8. List things that help prevent problems and things that “set-off” problems. 9. Establish a list of things the person likes (tangible, social, edible, independent activities, etc.) 10. Review previous and/or ongoing interventions 11. Develop summary statements for each major predictor and/or consequence.
Example Interview Tools Student-Assisted Functional Assessment Interview (Heartland AEA 11 Program Manual, 1998) – Handout B Student-Directed Functional Assessment Interview Form (O’Neill et. al., 1997) Brief Functional Assessment Interview (Heartland AEA 11 Program Manual, 1998) – Handout C Functional Assessment Interview Form (Heartland AEA 11, 1998) – Handout D Functional Assessment Screening Tool (FAST, Iwata, ____) Test: Retest Reliability was 66.9 - Handout E Functional Assessment Interview (FAI,O’Neill et. al., 1997) Functional Assessment Informant Record-Teachers (Edwards, 2002) – Also See BPV Consequence Variables Assessment Form (Watson & Steege, 2003) – Also See BPV
BUT – MUST ALSO CONDUCT DIRECT ASSESSMENTS – INTERVIEWS ALONE ARE NOT ENOUGH AND DO NOT MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE LAW Fantastic FBA Team Assessment Tool - Best Practices 5, Volume 2, p. 347 Rating Scale (with no name yet) – created by Steege and Watson (in press)
Putting the Interview into Action!! Mike and Eileen will now perform for you! Directions for Activity
Activity: Let’s Practice Select a partner and identify a recorder. STUDENT INTERVIEW: ACT ONE Quietly observe the role-play down front (Mike and Eileen) Activity: Identify at least 3 ways the consultant compromised the interview process STUDENT INTERVIEW: ACT TWO Quietly observe the role-play down front (Mike and Eileen) Activity: Identify at least 5 ways the consultant engaged in best practices during the interview process Brainstorm at least 3 areas you want to gather additional data to validate the consultee’s statements Brainstorm at least 2 ideas for the FBA/BIP team to consider as intervention possibilities.
Activity: Let’s Practice Select a partner and identify a recorder. TEACHER INTERVIEW: ACT ONE Quietly observe the role-play Activity: Identify at least 3 ways the consultant compromised the interview process TEACHER INTERVIEW: ACT TWO Quietly observe the role-play Activity: Identify at least 3 ways the consultant engaged in best practices during the interview process Brainstorm at least 3 areas you want to gather additional data to validate the consultee’s statements Brainstorm at least 2 ideas for the FBA/BIP team to consider as intervention possibilities.
Activity: Let’s Practice Select a partner and identify a recorder. PARENT INTERVIEW: ACT ONE Quietly observe the role-play Activity: Identify at least 5 ways the consultant compromised the interview process PARENT INTERVIEW: ACT TWO Quietly observe the role-play Activity: Identify at least 5 ways the consultant engaged in best practices during the interview process Brainstorm at least 3 areas you want to gather additional data to validate the consultee’s statements Brainstorm at least 2 ideas for the FBA/BIP team to consider as intervention possibilities.
Competing Behavior Pathway Setting Event(s) ADHD Low Rdg Ability Consequences/ Function Escape Triggering Antecedents Give nonpreferred task Problem Behavior(s) Noncompliance / Disruption Alternative Behavior(s) Ask for a Break Desired Behavior(s) Completes Assignment Maintaining Consequences Obtain a “desirable” event (e.g, receive praise and good grade
Competing Behavior Pathway Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Desired Behavior(s) Problem Behavior(s) Alternative Behavior(s) Maintaining Consequences Consequences/Function
Competing Behavior Pathway for Mike C., 5 th Grader Setting Event(s) Low Academic Performance Limited parent contact Consequences/ Function Adult Attention Triggering Antecedents Verbal Redirection / Requests Teacher complimenting peers Problem Behavior(s) Noncompliance / Verbal Aggression Alternative Behavior(s) Follow direction with two or fewer prompts. Express feelings of anger using “I feel” messages
Final Activity As a team, complete the Competing Pathways and Behavior Support Planning Sheet in your handout given the information from the “model” interviews. After 10 minutes, volunteers will be selected to share information for each category. Teams will be awarded…..
Questions Possibly some accurate answers Definitely an opportunity to investigate this topic further. Thank you for your time and attention!!