Presentation on theme: "INTONATION Pitch Accents: sudden and steep rises and falls in pitch."— Presentation transcript:
INTONATION Pitch Accents: sudden and steep rises and falls in pitch
He ought to have asked me first The four important movements (not in the book) Step up on ought and me: me also has a move down, which increases its prominence Step down on did: I didn’t say that that has a move up, which makes the utterance a little apologetic
Four types of movement - step up: accent - step down: accent - move up: attitude, non-finality, question, hesitation, modesty -move down: finality Dividing line between “step” and “move” is vague.
He’s not in the least intelligent Step down on not and step up on least, followed by a move down (“high fall”) Four ways of saying “He didn’t” Step up Step down (6) He didn’t (5) He didn’t Example (4) (9) He didn’t (or move up?) (10)He didn’t
Three ways of saying “didn’t he go?” step down + move up (7)Didn’t he go? (8)Didn’t he go? (11) Didn’t he go?
NUCLEAR TONES Nucleus = last pitch accent A nuclear tone is the way an utterance ends (usually the final accent) Examples of the various combinations of the four important pitch movements as they are given on pp of PPP
1. High fall = step up + move down: strong accent (16) going away (20) John (38) for three hours 2. Low fall = just a move down: no accent (17) going away (21) John (39) for three hours 3. Low rise = move down + move up: weak or no accent (18) going away (22) John (53) are you going? (48) Are you coming to the meeting tonight? 4. High rise = just a step up: accent (questions) (19) going away (23) John (52) are you going? 5. Fall-rise = step up + move down + move up: strong accent (24) I go there usually (27) but I didn’t fail the exam 6. Rise-fall = move up + move down: moderate accent (25) He got a distinction (41) Did he. At Cambridge. Too. (43) You damned well ought to (44) always empty