Presentation on theme: "Texas Radiation Protection Program Outcomes Robert Emery, DrPH, CHP, CIH, CSP, RBP, CHMM, CPP, ARM Vice President for Safety, Health, Environment & Risk."— Presentation transcript:
Texas Radiation Protection Program Outcomes Robert Emery, DrPH, CHP, CIH, CSP, RBP, CHMM, CPP, ARM Vice President for Safety, Health, Environment & Risk Management The University of Texas Heath Science Center at Houston Associate Professor of Occupational Health The University of Texas School of Public Health 1851 Crosspoint Drive OCB Houston, Texas (713)
Radiation Protection Program Outcomes Ideally, a public health regulatory control program would rely on health outcome data as its “systemic” outcome measure of performance But since acute radiation injuries are rare, and latent illnesses possibly not recognized as radiation-related, other “organic” outcome indicators must be relied upon, such as: Inspection results (violations) Reported incidents Reported complaints Specific events Misadministration/dose irregularities Overexposures Stolen sources
Scope of Texas Operations Approximately 15,000 registrants of radiation producing devices Approximately 1,500 licensees of radioactive materials All permit holders are inspected on a pre-determined schedule
Outcome Data DSHS maintains extensive records on Violations Incidents, complaints UTHSCH students accessed this data from as far back as 1956 Format varied from paper, floppy disk, CD Entered into standardized electronic format Represents the most comprehensive radiation protection outcome dataset in the nation What can we learn from the data….
Licensees: Top Ten Violations Procedures 11% Absent surveys 10% Leak testing 8% Personnel monitoring 7% Instrument calibration 7% Inventories 6% Transfer records 6% Disposal records 4% Main program 4% Training 2% Total † 65% Total † 65% † Annual Top Ten Varied from 55% to 75% of all NOVs
Licensee Top Ten Violations By Year
Licensee Violations Severity Level Distribution
Registrants: Top Ten Violations OS&P NC/NA 20% Time/temp chart 11% No QC 10% Alignment 7% Annual PE tests 6% Technique chart 5% Reg not current 4% Dosimetry 4% Timer 3% “Other x-ray” 3% Total † 73% Total † 73% † Annual Top Ten Varied from 61% to 78% of all NOVs
Registrants: Top Ten Violations By Year
Registrant Violations Severity Level Distribution
Active Radioactive Materials Licenses In Texas, 1970 to Year Number of Licenses
Reported overexposure events compared to the number of radioactive licenses issued in Texas, 1970 to 2000
Total overexposures in Texas, 1970 to 2002 Radiographer training requirement Regulatory dose limit change
Overexposure Incidents in Texas By Source (n=2,066)
Overexposure Incidents in Texas by Dose Rate (n = 2,066)
Overexposure Incidents in Texas by Total Dose, (n = 2,066)
Rig count in Texas, 1970 to 2004
Rig count 1970 to 2004 and Total overexposures 1970 to 2002, in Texas
Radiographer training requirement Regulatory does limit change
Rig count 1970 to 2007 and Total overexposures 1970 to 2002, in Texas
79% exceeded quarterly 1.25 rem dose limit 17% exceeded annual 5 rem limit Occupational Overexposure Incidents in Texas by Dose Rate (n = 1,983) Classic Heinrich’s ratio – for every 1 major accident, there were likely 30 minor events and perhaps 300 unsafe acts. An especially useful concept for rare events, by monitoring for the precursors to the major accident. The problem is…..
17% exceeded annual 5 rem limit Occupational Overexposure Incidents in Texas by Dose Rate (n = 1,983) The baseline surveillance indicator of “unsafe acts” for radiation doses is now missing!
Misadministrations & Dose Irregularities
Stolen Source Events Fig. 5 Characteristics associated with reported stolen source events in Texas, (n=113)
Reported Stolen Source Events in Texas, 1956 to 2000 by transporter (n=64)
Summary Observations The collective performance of the radiation safety profession (inclusive of regulators and permitted community) has been very good, and should be considered a model for other public health efforts. The ultimate outcome, overexposures, has dramatically decreased as a rate over time. Longitudinal data analysis affords the identification of some interesting trends and commonalties that can be used to further improve the process
Putting Radiation Risks Into Perspective: The Public Health Significance of Workplace Safety In 2007 there were: 5,657 workplace fatalities That’s 15 people per day that left for work and didn’t come home 4,002,700 recordable workplace injuries or illnesses That’s a workplace injury or illness being recorded every 10 seconds Fires, which are only one of many property “perils", resulting in $14,639,000,000 in direct property loss Sources bls.gov, nfpa.org
Special UT SPH Student Acknowledgment Special thanks goes to the students who collectively worked on the assembly of this data for the benefit of their academic pursuits and the State of Texas
References Emery, R.J., Pollock, J., Charlton, M., "Notices of Violation Issued to Texas Radioactive Material Licensees Inspected in 1995", Health Physics, 73(4): , Emery, R.J., Charlton, M.A., Goodman, G.R., “Texas Radiation Safety Program Outcomes as Indicated by Regulatory Compliance Activities from 1988 to 1997” Health Physics, 78(3): , Emery, R.J., Charlton, M.A., Mathis, J.L, "Estimating the Administrative Cost of Regulatory Noncompliance: A Pilot Method for Quantifying the Value of Prevention", Health Physics 78(Supplement 2): S40-S47, Emery, R.J., Charlton, M.A., Orders, A. B., Hernandez, M. "Using Fault Tree Analysis to Identify Causes of Non-Compliance: Enhancing Violation Outcome Data for the Purposes of Education and Prevention" Health Physics, 80(Supplement 1): S16-S21, Charlton, M.A., Emery, R.J., "Radioisotope Misadministration and Dose Irregularity Trends in Texas" Health Physics, 81(5): ; Emery, R.J., Orders, A.O., Charlton, M.A. "Piloting a New Radiation Protection Program Strategy: Rewarding Compliance Rather Than Sanctioning Non-compliance "Health Physics, 82(Supplement 1):S18-S22; 2002.
References Emery, R.J., Orders, A.B., McCrary, J.R., Charlton, M.A. "An Evaluation and Comparison of Compliance Inspection Outcome Data for Radiation Protection Programs in Maine and Texas" Health Physics, 82(3): , Emery, R.J., Orders, A.O., Charlton, M.A., "Texas Dental X-ray Compliance: An Analysis of Trends for the Purposes of Education and Prevention" Texas Dental Journal, 119(9) , Maness, K., Emery, R.J., Casserly, D., “An Analysis of 45 Years of Reported Overexposure Incidents in Texas, 1956 to 2001” Health Physics Journal, 86(2): , Brown, B.J., Emery, R.J., Stock, T., Lee, E.S., “Radiation Protection Program Outcomes as Assessed by the Results of Compliance Inspections in Washington, as Compared to the States of Texas and Maine”. Health Physics Journal, 86(3): ; Emery, R.J., Valizadeh, F., Kennedy, V., Shelton, A. “An Analysis of Variables Influencing the Number of Radiation Overexposure Events in Texas from 1970 to 2000” Health Physics Journal, in press. Korshukin, M., Emery, R.J., “An Analysis of Reported Events of Stolen Sources of Radioactivity in Texas from 1956 to 2000 “ Health Physics Journal, in publication.