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Standards Certification Education & Training Publishing Conferences & Exhibits Ethernet I/O Brad S. Carlberg, P.E. Jim McConahay.

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Presentation on theme: "Standards Certification Education & Training Publishing Conferences & Exhibits Ethernet I/O Brad S. Carlberg, P.E. Jim McConahay."— Presentation transcript:

1 Standards Certification Education & Training Publishing Conferences & Exhibits Ethernet I/O Brad S. Carlberg, P.E. Jim McConahay

2 Co-Presenter: Brad S. Carlberg Brad S. Carlberg, P.E. is a Consulting Engineer in Richland, Washington. He is a Registered Professional Control Systems Engineer in the states of Alabama and Washington with over twenty- five years experience in industrial automation and Process Control Engineering. Specifically he has experience with Distributed Control Systems and Programmable Logic Controllers combining extensive experience with both Hardware and Software Design, Programming, Implementation and Startup. Brad received his Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from Washington State University in Pullman, Washington in 1984. Brad is a Senior Member of ISA who has been a conference program committee member since 1997. 2 BSC Engineering

3 3 Co-Presenter: Jim McConahay Jim McConahay, P.E. is an ISA member and holds a BSEE and MBA from Cal Poly University, Pomona California. Has 30+ years design and installation experience in Production and Automation equipment. Jim is a Sr. Field Application Engineer for Moore Industries-International, Inc. concentrating on process control instruments, SCADA, SIS (Safety Instrumented Systems), fieldbus, data concentrators and communications links.

4 4 Agenda Physical Layers of Ethernet Protocol Medley Migration From Cabinet to the Plant Floor Enhanced Features of Ethernet I/O Architecture Considerations Security Examples of Ethernet Communications Agenda

5 5 Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) Model “Ethernet” IEEE 802.3x only applies here UTP, STP, Fiber, Coax, etc. 10/100/1000/10G speeds 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 OSI Model

6 6 MODBUS, OPC, HTTP, Etc. TCP IP Ethernet Protocols run on top of Ethernet Addressing and Handshaking Protocols UTP, STP, Fiber, Coax, etc. What “language” are you talking?? Protocol Presentation Session 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 OSI Model

7 7 Ensure that your Ethernet I/O supports open standards for connectivity: OPC, MODBUS/TCP, Ethernet/IP, HTTP, HSE etc. HMI, PC, DCS, PLC HTTP MODBUS/TCP Ethernet/IP FF HSE CIP OPC Open Standards

8 8 Ethernet vs. Twisted Pair HMI, PC, DCS, PLC Speed Multiple Protocols over same cable Plant wiring infrastructure Non-Proprietary hardware available (lower cost) Switch advancements have improved determinism Power over Ethernet Communications Media

9 9 What if the protocols don’t match? Is there a solution? HMI, PC, DCS,PLC Gateway (Protocol Converter) Ethernet to Ethernet Ethernet to Serial Wireless to Serial/Ethernet Protocol Gateway

10 10 Protocol Converters and Gateways The term “gateway” has many meanings. One common definition is a protocol converter. Sometimes host and legacy systems can only communicate via one particular protocol. Or, instruments may support one protocol but not the one that the host system supports. Gateways can be very effective solutions that connect these two devices. Since Ethernet is “open” gateways are becoming more and more common. Sometimes people refer to “drivers” as gateways. A driver is essentially a protocol or language translator. Protocol Gateway

11 11 Simplified Gateway Example HART Master MODBUS Slave mapping HART Data MapMODBUS Data Map 68.6 HART Device is polled Internal Mapping Takes Place MODBUS Data Map MODBUS Master gets new data Gateway Gateway Internal Mem.

12 12 Moving from the Cabinet to the Field Temperature Considerations 55C vs. 85C operating Temp’s. Channel-to-channel, and input-to-output signal isolation eliminates unpredictable ground loops RFI/EMI protection protects against plant noise Accuracy, long term stability, and Input/output resolution of transmitters

13 13 Common I/O Multiplexer A/D Converter mP Signal Inputs/Outputs Signal Input Signal Input Signal Input Signal Input A/D mP Transmitter Like Design -isolation -flexibility of input type Typical I/O Card Design -single point of failure -isolation Enhanced I/O Design Isolated Channels

14 14 Power and Flexibility of PLC’s Plant Floor “Industrialized” Ethernet I/O Resolution, Accuracy, and Spec’s of Field Transmitters (Cabinet Mounted) (Field Mounted) Isolated Channels

15 15 “Hardened” Plant Floor Switches High Temp -40 to 85C vs. commercial ~45C High Vibration Tolerance RFI/EMI Rejection Surge Protection Dual Power Supply Options for UPS Systems

16 16 Switch Features for the Plant Floor QoS (Quality of Service) -Packet Prioritization SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) SMTP Client (Emails about network warnings/breaks) MAC Layer Filtering IP Layer Filtering

17 17 Programming should be easy and intuitive; i.e. web based Set-Ups

18 18 Do you need more than I/O gathering? Ethernet I/O systems are smarter and more powerful than ever. Many times PLC’s are used to perform simple control, math and logic functions. Questions to ask your Ethernet I/O vendor 1.Does your Ethernet I/O have the ability to perform control and math? 2.Is the control programming language proprietary? 3.… More…

19 19 Is the programming language 61131-3 compliant? Function Block Diagram (FBD) Example Compliant Language

20 20 Know your design needs before choosing your Ethernet I/O system 1.Peer-to-Host—Star Topology; Bus Topology 2.Peer-to-Peer 3.Hybrid—Peer-to-peer and Peer-to-Host 4.Wireless/Fiber/Copper Topology

21 21 Dispersed Monitoring & Control Devices Ethernet I/O System Additional NET Concentrator System Stations or Uplink to Other Hubs or Switches Ethernet Switch or Hub Temperature Pressure Level Direct TransmitterTemperature Sensors RTD Thermocouple Analog Valve On/Off Proportional Positioners Contact Closure Relay On/Off Devices DCS, PLC or PC with HMI/SCADA (with NET Concentrator System OPC Server) Peer-to-Host System

22 22 (cost savings with traditional I/O cards) Ethernet/Fiber Network Ethernet I/O System PAIR 1 Ethernet I/O System PAIR 2 Ethernet I/O System PAIR 3 Peer-to-Peer System

23 23 Wireless Peer-to-Peer/Host Systems 900Mhz or 2.4Ghz – License Free or Licensed Ethernet I/O System PAIR 1 Ethernet I/O System PAIR 2 Add Wireless…

24 24 Security Concerns Firewalls NAT Routers Virus Protection Physical Security (personnel and Internet Connection) “Line speed” packet encryption systems

25 25 Network Architecture Considerations- “Connected” Front Office Network Process Control Network Router/Firewall Most Convenient but Potentially Vulnerable Outside Internet Connections Typical VPN Networking

26 26 Network Architecture Considerations- “Disconnected” Front Office Network Process Control Network No Physical Connection Safer but Inconvenient Outside Internet Connections Typical VPN Networking

27 Case Study #1 One communication loop, multiple bus Problem: PAC – Programmable Automation Controller Ethernet card in PAC backplane – Ethernet TCP/IP HMI Ethernet IP and Ethernet TCP/IP Flow, valves, level sensors / FF FF FIM; H1 to HSE link – Ethernet IP (not TCP/IP) Ethernet protocol conflict between FIM and PAC 27

28 Solution: Add MODBUS TCP to Ethernet IP Protocol Converter –Two way FF protocol conversion with PAC 28 Case Study #1 One communication loop, two bus

29 Optimized equipment for each part of the system Used protocol converter to make compatible –Lowest cost item in the system –Far less cost than compromise performance of a single vendor solution 29 Case Study #1 One communication loop, two bus

30 Case Study #2 Remote ESD for Oil Platform in Gulf 30 Problem: Maintenance Boat and Oil Rig Platform pipeline repairs Repairs involve heavy equipment above seafloor pipelines If accident event, need system to shut down Production ESD (Emergency Shutdown Device) Automatic Reliable Two-way verification of link Off shore Portable, distance >100 km Beyond radio links

31 31 Case Study #2 Remote ESD for Oil Platform in Gulf Considerations: No hard line communication links No ESD = No Drilling ($$$) Is existing Emails, Internet and VoIP to shore facilities –Satellite link is reliable on platform –Satellite link is reliable on Maintenance ship Maintenance ship is very mobile –Easy installation –Transferrable to new ship –Simple, intuitive to operate

32 Solution: Data concentrator on Maintenance boat –Ethernet Communications module –Discrete input/output module –Packaging with switch plus display lamp tree Data concentrator of Oil Platform –Ethernet Communications module –Discrete input/output module –Packaging with switch, klaxon, plus display lamp tree –Connection to control panel Expansion –Add SCADA to ESD at negligible cost 32 Case Study #2 Remote ESD for Oil Platform in Gulf

33 Things at the surface can drop onto sea floor pipelines 33 Case Study #2 Remote ESD for Oil Platform in Gulf

34 Success –Operational upon initial installation, continuous operation –Simple to operate, intuitive. –Reliable. Now hard-wired to control panel circuits. –Satellite signal limited by extreme weather. Expansion –Can add I/O modules for telemetry on both ends of links; negligible cost. 34 Case Study #2 Remote ESD for Oil Platform in Gulf

35 Problem: Expansion, low budget, needs more 4-20mA channels –Requires more 4-20mA channels now –No budget to replace existing 4-20mA lengthy cable run –Will require still more channels later –Discrete contact requirement arising Ethernet cable upgrade –Available in the future, not now –Does not want to waste investment in temporary data concentrator when Ethernet cable becomes available in the future 35 Case Study #3 Expansion of 4-20mA loops

36 Solution Data Concentrator –MODBUS RTU communications at module each site –AIM each output; AOM each output –DIM each discrete input; ROM each discrete output –Increase number of I/O modules, as desired –Increase pairs of data concentrators Use existing twisted pair cable –Use one twisted pair to carry ‘all’ channels between data concentrators 36 Case Study #3 Expansion of 4-20 loops

37 Data Concentrator on a Peer-to-Peer network –Originally MODBUS Communications Link –Currently Ethernet Communications Link 37 Case Study #3 Expansion of 4-20mA loops

38 Success Use data concentrators to collect all 4-20mA loops and convert to digital communications. –Increased number of analog channels, and also easily adds discrete channels –Only one twisted pair required –Recreate signal at distant site with no degrading of analog signal (since communication is digital) Low cost Ethernet upgrade –Swap only the MIM for an EIM communications module –All other modules are same 38 Case Study #3 Expansion of 4-20mA loops

39 Problem: Multiple tasks, need to optimize –Tank farm, Wireless HART; multiple sensors, cable expenses –Closed loop room; add sensors, valves plus data concentrator –Host control room—long distance communication link Different communications media and protocol –Wireless Hart; radio –Data concentrator; analog/discrete I/O; programming –MODBUS Need protocol converters –Wireless Hart to MODBUS RTU slave –MODBUS RTU master; control loop; MODBUS TCP slave 39 Case Study #4 Wireless HART, MODBUS RTU & TCP/IP

40 40 Case Study #4 Wireless HART, MODBUS RTU & TCP/IP

41 41 “Our View” - Market Trend with Ethernet 1.MODBUS/TCP - MODBUS packets encapsulated in TCP/IP frames Reason: Everyone knows MODBUS, open protocol, and already supported worldwide 2.Ethernet/IP - “Industrial Protocol”, Rockwell released to ODVA (Open DeviceNet Vendor Association) Reason: Open, supports common publisher/subscriber method of comm., section of protocol already supported in open DeviceNet. Uses CIP (Common Industrial Protocol) for real time control. 3.OPC -OLE for Process Control. Uses Microsoft’s COM/DCOM/.NET standards for open comm. Reason: OPC can run over any physical medium and is an open, free of charge protocol that both hardware vendors and software vendors have access to. Many supported development tools. Strong backing by OPC Foundation. Summary

42 42 Market Trend with Ethernet Cont’d 4.HSE - High Speed Ethernet Foundation Fieldbus protocol over Ethernet. Reason: Open protocol, and large organized support base by Foundation Fieldbus vendors and FF org. 5.Profinet - Profibus Trade Organization’s answer to open communications. It is NOT Profibus over Ethernet!!! Reason: Strong backing by PTO. Can use 802.3 layer but not restricted to this layer. Can run over modems, WAN’s, VPN’s, as long as it uses TCP/IP addressing. 6.CIP - Common Industrial Protocol is being promoted by ODVA (Open Device Vendors Association). Uses a Producer consumer network philosophy for real time control applications. Summary

43 43 Thank You! BSC Engineering Questions?

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