Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Center for Resource Development Studies Ltd

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Center for Resource Development Studies Ltd"— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome to the presentation On Pest risk analysis for citrus in Bangladesh

2 Center for Resource Development Studies Ltd
Contributors Dr. Hamiz Uddin Ahmed, Former Director Research, BARI Dr. Md. Abdul Latif, Former Additional Director, DAE Dr. Abu Taher Mia, Former CSO, P. Path., BRRI Prof. Dr. Md. Abdul Latif, Department of Entomology, SAU Prof. Dr. Shaker Ahmed, Dept. of Management Studies, University of Dhaka Center for Resource Development Studies Ltd

3 Objectives The Specific Objectives of the study are:
Listing of major and minor pests. Identification of pests likely to be associated with a pathway. Identification of potential for entry, establishment and spread. Identification of potential economic and environment impacts. Identification of control measures and potential impacts of such measure. Assessment of potential loss by the pests Preparation of report on risk analysis of the pests following the relevant ISPMs

4 Study Areas Serial District Upazila (60) Remarks 1. Sylhet
Golapganj, Gowainghat, Balagong, Bianibazar 10 Blocks/Upazila 10 farmers/Block 100 farmers/Upazila 6000 – total farmers 2. Moulvibazar Shrimangol, Kulaura, Juri, Barlekha. 3. Habigonj Chunarughat, Bahubal, Sadar. 4. Narsingdi Shibgong, Monohardi, Belabo, Raipura. 5. Gazipur Kaliganj, Kapasia. 6. Dhaka Savar, Dhamrai. 7. Manikganj Singair, Saturia. 8. Mymensingh Sadar, Gauripur, Ishwarganj, Haluaghat. 9. Tangail Shohipur, Modhupur, Dhanbari, Delduar. 10. Sherpur Sadar, Nalitabari. 11. Comilla Chabdina, Daudkandi, Burichang. 12. Chittagong Patiya, Sitakunda, Mirsharai. 13. Khahrashari Sadar, Dighinala, Pancharii, Mahalchari, Ramgarh, Matiranga. 14. Rangamati Kaptai, Langadu, Bagaichari. 15. Bandarban Sadar, Lama, Ruma. 16 Pabna Ishwardi, Atgharia. 17. Rajshahi Paba, Puthia. 18. Jessore Bagherpara, Jhikorgacha. 19 Chuadanga Sadar, Alamdanga. 20. Jhenidha Sadar, Kaliganj.

5 Field data included- Insect pests and diseases of citrus recorded during field survey Farmer’s profile Farmer’s information on economic loss due to insect pests and diseases Farmer’s information on new insect pests, diseases and weeds Information of DAE/Research personnel on citrus insect pests and diseases Farmers information on citrus insect pests and diseases The findings are presented in Appendix IV- X

6 Crops and Varieties of Citrus Grown in Bangladesh
SL. No. Local name Common name Scientific name Varieties 1 Elachi lebu Lemon Citrus limon BARI lebu-1, 2 & 3 BAU lebu-2, BAU lebu-3 2 Kagozi lebu Lime C. aurantifolia BAU Kagzi lebu-1 3 Batabi lebu Pummelo C. grandis BARI Batabi lebu-1, 2, 3 & 4 BAU Jambura-1 & 2 4 Kamola Mandarin C. reticulata BARI Kamola-1 Khashi, Nagpuri, Darjiling 5 Satkara C. macroptera BARI Satkara-1 6 Malta Sweet orange C. sinensis BARI Malta-1 7 Jamir Citrone C. medica Local variety 8 Ada lebu C. assamensis 9 Jara lebu C. pennivesiculata Local Variety

7 Area (ha)and Production (MT)of Citrus in Bangladesh (2010-11)
Region Orange Pummelo Lime and Lemon Other citrus fruits All Citrus Area Produc. Produc Bandarban 42 267 215 411 186 143 19 78 462 899 Chittagong 30 08 45 371 145 1101 - 781 220+ 2261 Comilla 6 194 1023 6+ 1217 Khagrachari 382 495 67 163 100 172 244 549+ 1074 Noakhali 534 1090 1624 Rangamati 154 493 39 236 181 972 31 735 405 2436 Sylhet 208 1005 35 209 960 2057 1203 3271 Dhaka 05 2 84 329 945 2223 2099 1073 4653 Faridpur 25 68 72 855 33 3044 130 3967 Jamalpur 11 362 11+ 407 Kishorgonj 04 168 17 968 02 622 23 1758 Mymensinghh 27 421 114 4113 196 149 4730 Tangail 96 773 175 96+ 248 Barisal 16 2097 2874 16+ 4971 Jessore 545 133 1356 12 532 190 2433 Khulna 74 153 165 1366 79 1106 318 2625 Kushtia 334 245 1448 275+ 2027 Patuakhali 3 77 266 87 2419 167 2691 Bogra 246 270 516 Dinajpur 32 22 1447 135 1184 206+ 2750 Pabna 81 1015 189 84+ 1220 Rajshahi 9 57 274 2037 283+ 2229 Rangpur 13 1354 03 1054 50 2421 Bangladesh 853 2998 746 59198 4083 54613 313 19947 5995 1, 36,756 Total Area 5,995 ha and Production 1, 36,756 M. tons Source: BBS. 2011

8 Map Showing the Major Citrus Growing Areas in Bangladesh

9 Map Showing the Selected 20 Districts of Citrus under Study

10 Methodology: Risk Analysis
Recorded citrus pests in Bangladesh through: - Field survey and primary data collection. - Secondary data collection. - Internet searching. Recorded citrus pests of the world. Identified quarantine pests for Bangladesh . Ascertain the potential hazard organisms associated with fresh fruit of Citrus species in the country of origin namely Bhutan, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Pakistan, South Africa and USA. Risk assessment and risk management.

11 Crop-wise Insect Pests of Citrus in Bangladesh
Sl. No. Name of Crops Name of insect pests Scientific name Status 01. Lemon (Citrus limon) (Elachi lebu, Colombo lebu) Lemon butterfly Papilio demoleus L. Major Papilio polytes L. Minor Citrus Leaf miner Phyllocnistis citrella St. Citrus red scale Aonidiella aurantii Maskel Citrus yellow scale Aonidiella citrina Coq. Citrus mealybug Pseudococcus filamentosus Cockrell Planococcus citri Risso Asian citrus psyllid Diaphornia citri Kuwayana Black citrus aphid Toxoptera aurantii Boyer de Fonscolombe Citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby Citrus whitefly Dialeurodes citri Ashmead Citrus leaf folder Psorosticha zizyphi Stainton Bark and stem borer Indarbela quadrinotata (Walker) Citrus stem borer Chelidonium cinctum Guerin-Meneville Citrus thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood Termite Odontotermes obesus Rambur Citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor)

12 Crop-wise Insect pest Cont’d
Sl. No. Name of Crops Name of insect pests Scientific name Status 02. Lime (Citrus aurantifolia) (Kagozi lebu) Lemon butterfly Papilio demoleus L. Major Papilio polytes L. Minor Citrus Leaf miner Phyllocnistis citrella St. Citrus red scale Aonidiella aurantii Maskel Citrus yellow scale Aonidiella citrina Coq. Citrus mealybug Pseudococcus filamentosus Cockrell Planococcus citri Risso Pseudococcus virgatus Cockrell Asian citrus psyllid Diaphornia citri Kuwayana Citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby Citrus Leaf folder Psorosticha zizyphi Stainton Bark and stem borer Indarbela quadrinotata (Walker) Citrus thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood Termite Odontotermes obesus Rambur Citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor)

13 Crop-wise Insect pest Cont’d
Sl. No. Name of Crops Name of insect pests Scientific name Status 03. Mandarin (Citrus raticulata) (Kamola) Lemon butterfly Papilio demoleus L. Minor Papilio polytes L. Citrus Leaf miner Phyllocnistis citrella St. Major Citrus red scale Aonidiella aurantii Maskell Citrus yellow scale Aonidiella citrina Coq. Citrus mealybug Pseudococcus filamentosus Cockrell Planococcus citri Risso Asian citrus psyllid Diaphornia citri Kuwayana Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel Black citrus aphid Toxoptera aurantii Boyer de Fonscolombe Citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby Citrus leaf folder Psorosticha zizyphi Stainton Citrus bug Rhynchocoris humeralis Thunberg Orange spined bug Biprorulus bibax Breddin Bark and stem borer Indarbela quadrinotata (Walker) Citrus stem borer Chelidonium cinctum Guerin-Meneville Citrus thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood Termite Odontotermes obesus Rambur Citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor)

14 Crop-wise Insect pest Cont’d
Sl. No. Name of Crops Name of insect pests Scientific name Status 04. Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) (Malta) Lemon butterfly Papilio demoleus L. Major Papilio polytes L. Minor Citrus Leaf miner Phyllocnistis citrella St. Citrus red scale Aonidiella aurantii Maskell Citrus yellow scale Aonidiella citrina Coq. Citrus mealybug Pseudococcus filamentosus Cockrell Planococcus citri Risso Asian citrus psyllid Diaphornia citri Kuwayana Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel Black citrus aphid Toxoptera aurantii Boyer de Fonscolombe Citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby Citrus leaf folder Psorosticha zizyphi Stainton Orange spined bug Biprorulus bibax Breddin Bark and stem borer Indarbela quadrinotata (Walker) Citrus stem borer Chelidonium cinctum Guerin-Meneville Citrus thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood Termite Odontotermes obesus Rambur Citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor)

15 Crop-wise Insect pest Cont’d
Sl. No. Name of Crops Name of insect pests Scientific name Status 05. Pummelo (Citrus maxima) (Batabi lebu) Lemon butterfly Papilio demoleus L. Major Papilio polytes L. Minor Citrus leaf miner Phyllocnistis citrella St. Citrus red scale Aonidiella aurantii Maskell Citrus yellow scale Aonidiella citrina Coq Citrus mealybug Pseudococcus filamentosus Cockrell Planococcus citri Risso Pseudococcus virgatus Cockrell Asian citrus psyllid Diaphornia citri Kuwayana Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel Citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby Citrus leaf folder Psorosticha zizyphi Stainton Bark and stem borer Indarbela quadrinotata (Walker) Citrus stem borer Chelidonium cinctum Guerin-Meneville Citrus thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood Termite Odontotermes obesus Rambur Citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor)

16 Crop-wise Insect pest Cont’d
Sl. No. Name of Crops Name of insect pests Scientific name Status 06. Citrone (Citrus jamhiri) (Jamir) Lemon butterfly Papilio demoleus L. Major P. polytes L. Minor Citrus leaf miner Phyllocnistis citrella St. Citrus red scale Aonidiella aurantii Maskel Citrus yellow scale Aonidiella citrina Coq. Citrus mealybug Pseudococcus filamentosus Cockrell Planococcus citri Risso Asian citrus psyllid Diaphornia citri Kuwayana Citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby Citrus leaf folder Psorosticha zizyphi Stainton Citrus thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood Citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor)

17 Crop-wise Insect pest Cont’d
Sl. No. Name of Crops Name of insect pests Scientific name Status 07. Satkara (Citrus macroptera) Lemon butterfly Papilio demoleus L. Major P. polytes L. Minor Citrus leaf miner Phyllocnistis citrella St. Citrus red scale Aonidiella aurantii Maskel Citrus yellow scale Aonidiella citrina Coq. Citrus mealybug Pseudococcus filamentosus Cockrell Asian citrus psyllid Diaphornia citri Kuwayana Citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby Citrus leaf folder Psorosticha zizyphi Stainton Citrus thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood Citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor)

18 Crop-wise Insect pest Cont’d
Sl. No. Name of Crops Name of insect pests Scientific name Status 08. Ada lebu (Citrus assamensis) Lemon butterfly Papilio demoleus L. Major P. polytes L. Minor Citrus leaf miner Phyllocnistis citrella St. Citrus red scale Aonidiella aurantii Maskel Citrus yellow scale Aonidiella citrina Coq. Citrus mealybug Pseudococcus filamentosus Cockrell Asian citrus psyllid Diaphornia citri Kuwayana Citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby Citrus leaf folder Psorosticha zizyphi Stainton Citrus thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood Citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) 09. Jara lebu (Citrus pennivesiculata)

19 Major Insect Pests of Citrus in Bangladesh
LBF Larva Infested leaves Leaf miner Infested leaves Infested fruit Nymphs and adult of Asian citrus psyllid Red scale insect Citrus mealybug lime fruits Fire ant nest and infested twig Oriental fruit fly Infested malta fruit

20 Crop-wise Diseases of Citrus with Causal Organisms in Bangladesh
SL. No. Crop Disease Causal Organism Status 1. Lemon (Citrus limon) Elachi lebu Die-back Colletotrichum gloeosporioide, Diplodia natalensis, Fusarium spp. Major Scab Elsinoe fawcetii Bitancourt and Jenk. Minor Canker Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin et al. Tristeza Citrus tristeza virus Psorosis Citrus psorosis virus Greening Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Blue/Green mold Penicillium sp. Damping-off Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani Sooty mold Capnodium citricola Melanose Diaporthe citri F.A. Wolf Nematode Tylenchus semepenitrans, Pratylenchus sp., Radopholus similis

21 Crop-wise diseases Cont’d
SL. No. Crop Disease Causal Organism Status 2. Lime (Citrus aurantifolia) Kagozi lebu Die-back Colletotrichum gloeosporioide, Diplodia natalensis, Fusarium spp. Major Gummosis Phytophthora citrophthora Minor Canker Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin et al. Greening Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Blue/Green mold Penicillium sp. Scab Elsinoe fawcettii Bitancourt and Jenk. Anthracnose Colletotrichum gloeosporioide Sooty mold Capnodium citricola Melanose Diaporthe citri F.A. Wolf Nematode Tylenchus semepenitrans, Pratylenchus sp., Radopholus similis

22 Crop-wise diseases Cont’d
SL. No. Crop Disease Causal Organism Status 3. Pummelo (Citrus maxima) Batabi lebu Gummosis Phytophthora citrophthora Major Die-back Colletotrichum gloeosporioide, Diplodia natalensis, Fusarium spp. Anthracnose Colletotrichum gloeosporioide Minor Greening Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Tristeza Citrus tristeza virus Psorosis Citrus psorosis virus Sooty mold Capnodium citricola Nematode Tylenchus semepenitrans, Pratylenchus sp., Radopholus similis

23 Crop-wise diseases Cont’d
Sl. No. Crop Disease Causal Organism Status 4. Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) Malta Die-back Colletotrichum gloeosporioide, Diplodia natalensis, Fusarium spp. Major Gummosis Phytophthora citrophthora Minor Sooty mold Capnodium citricola Canker Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin et al. Greening Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Scab Elsinoe fawcetii Bitancourt and Jenk. Blue/Green mold Penicillium sp. Pink disease Botrybasidium salmonicolor Nematode Tylenchus semepenitrans, Pratylenchus sp., Radopholus similis

24 Crop-wise diseases Cont’d
Sl. No. Crop Disease Causal Organism Status 5. Mandrin (Citrus reticulata) Kamola Die-back Colletotrichum gloeosporioide, Diplodia natalensis, Fusarium spp. Major Gummosis Phytophthora citrophthora Minor Canker Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin et al. Blue/Green mold Penicillium sp. Pink disease Botrybasidium salmonicolor Greening Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Melanose Diaporthe citri F.A. Wolf Scab Elsinoe fawcetii Bitancourt and Jenk. Damping-off Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani Foam disease Unknown Tristeza Citrus tristeza virus Psorosis Citrus psorosis virus Nematode Tylenchus semepenitrans, Pratylenchus sp., Radopholus similes

25 Crop-wise diseases Cont’d
Sl. No. Crop Disease Causal Organism Status 6. Citrone (Citrus jamhiri) Jamir Die-back Colletotrichum gloeosporioide, Diplodia natalensis, Fusarium spp. Minor Gummosis Phytophthora citrophthora Greening Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Scab Elsinoe fawcetii Bitancourt and Jenk. Sooty mold Capnodium citricola Canker Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin et al. Nematode Tylenchus semepenitrans, Pratylenchus sp., Radopholus similes 7. (Citrus macroptera) Satkara Major

26 Crop-wise diseases Cont’d
Sl. No. Crop Disease Causal Organism Status 8. Citrone (Citrus assamensis) Ada lebu Canker Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin et al. Major Scab Elsinoe fawcetii Bitancourt and Jenk. Gummosis Phytophthora citrophthora Minor Die-back Colletotrichum gloeosporioide, Diplodia natalensis, Fusarium spp. Greening Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Sooty mold Capnodium citricola Pink disease Botrybasidium salmonicolor Nematode Tylenchus semepenitrans, Pratylenchus sp., Radopholus similes

27 Crop-wise diseases Cont’d
Sl. No. Crop Disease Causal Organism Status 9. Citrone (Citrus pennivesiculata) Jara lebu Canker Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin et al. Major Die-back Colletotrichum gloeosporioide, Diplodia natalensis, Fusarium spp. Scab Elsinoe fawcetii Bitancourt and Jenk Greening Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Minor Sooty mold Capnodium citricola Gummosis Phytophthora citrophthora Pink disease Botrybasidium salmonicolor Nematode Tylenchus semepenitrans, Pratylenchus sp., Radopholus similes

28 Major diseases of Citrus in Bangladesh
Canker Scab Die-back Gummosis Tristeza

29 Why PRA is needed? Provides rationale for phytosanitary measures.
Helps identification of potential quarantine pests. Assess probability of entry, establishment, spread and consequences– economic, environmental and health. Overcome unnecessary barrier on international trade.

30 Steps in import risk analysis
Description of commodity and Import pathway . Hazard Identification. Risk Assessment of Potential Hazards. Assessment of Uncertainties. Analysis of Measures to Mitigate Biosecurity Risks. Risk Evaluation. Option evaluation. Review and Consultation.

31 Commodity Description
Genus description: Citrus Species description: Bangladesh is importing C. reticulata (orange, mandarin/tangerine) and C. sinensis (sweet orange, malta)

32 Description of Import pathways
Citrus fruits in orchard Field monitoring and treatment Harvesting, inspection, treatment Packing, transport to Bangladesh Cargo declaration

33 Import pathway of citrus (Cont’d)
Fruits be transported to Bangladesh through any of the two sea, three air, 21 land or one River ports. However, it should be specified in the import permit. Fruit inspection in boarder. Fruit released for marketing or Re-shipment or destroyed. Distributed throughout Bangladesh. Citrus fruits in orchard Field monitoring and treatment Harvesting, inspection, treatment Packing, transport to Bangladesh Cargo declaration Fruit inspection in boarder Fruit released for marketing Re-shipment or destroyed Distributed throughout Bangladesh

34 Hazard identification
Sixty-one organisms and pathogens are identified as potential hazards associated with citrus fruits in different citrus growing countries of the world. Of which 36 species were insects and mites and 25 species were pathogen. In Bangladesh 21 insect and mite pests and 14 diseases were recorded on citrus. Fifteen insect pests and six diseases (pathogen) were identified as quarantine pests for Bangladesh and grouped on the basis of taxonomy and biology.

35 Quarantine insect pests
Quarantine Insect Pests of Citrus for Bangladesh Sl. No. Quarantine insect pests Crops Common name Scientific name 01. Brwon citrus aphid Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy All Citrus spp. and their hybrids 02. California Citrus thrips Scirtothrips citri Moulton 03. South African citrus thrips Scirtothrips aurantii Faure 04. African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio) Lemon, lime, mandarin, pummelo, sweet orange, grape fruit 05. Citrus snow scale Unaspis citri (Comstock) lime, lemon, sour orange, pomelo, sweet orange, grapefruit 06. Cottony cushion scale Icerya purchasi Maskell all citrus and woody plants 07. Asian fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White Lemon, sweet orange, mandarin, pummelo, sour orange, grapefruit 08. Mediterranean fruit fly/ Medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) Lime, lemon, pomelo, sweet orange, sour orange, mandarin 09. Asian papaya fruit fly Bactrocera papayae Drew and Hancock Lime, lemon, pomelo, mandarin 10. Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) Lime, lemon, mandarin, rough lemon 11. Southern fire ant Solenopsis xyloni McCook 12. White spotted longicorn beetle Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) Pomelo, sour orange, sweet orange 13. Fruit sucking moth Ophideres materna Cramer Mandarin, lemon, orange 14. Citrus gall wasp Bruchophagus fellis (Girault) lemon, orange, , rough lemon 15. Lewis spider mite Eotetranychus lewisi (McGregor) Citrus spp.

36 Crops (Prohibited articles)
Quarantine Diseases of Citrus for Bangladesh Sl. No. Quarantine Diseases Crops (Prohibited articles) 01. Greening (African greening of citrus – Candidatus liberaribacter africanus (African form) Entire or any part of the following living plants (excluding flowers, fruits, and seeds): (1) Calodendrum capense (2) Catharanthus roseus (3) Citrus spp. (4) Fortunella spp. (5) Poncirus spp. 02. Stubborn (Spiroplasma citri) Entire or any part of living citrus plants, citrus fruit or cuttings 03. Black spot (Phyllosticta citricarpa Teleomorph: Guignardia citricarpa) Entire or any part of the following living plants (excluding flowers, fruits, and seeds):all citrus species 04. Mal Secco (Phoma tracheiphila) Entire or any part of living citrus plants (lemon, and citron (C. medica L.), lime (C. latifolia Tan.), and bergamot (C. bergamia Risso) 05. Leprosis (Citrus leprosis virus) Entire or any part of living citrus plants (Mexican lime, sour orange, rough lemon, Persian lime, lemon, citron, mandarins, mandarin hybrids, sweet oranges and grapefruits.) 06. Indian citrus ringspot (Indian citrus ringspot virus) Entire or any part of living citrus plants

37 Geography and Climate of country of origin
Collected information on geography and climate, relevant agricultural practices of the country of origin such as: Bhutan, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Pakistan and USA. Compared with climate in Bangladesh to determine the potentiality of establishment of the exotic hazard in Bangladesh.

38 Pest control and pre-export processing in the country of origin
Major insect pests and diseases of the seven countries and method of their control documented. Pre-export processing in the country of origin described. (This depends on the requirement of the importing country). Bangladesh should adopt similar policy and conditions for importing citrus fruits.

39 Organisms intercepted on citrus fruit
Bangladesh imports fresh fruits of malta (sweet orange), mandarin (orange/kamola) and kenu from India, Bhutan, China, Pakistan, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil and USA. So far no record of interception of hazardous insect or disease organism.

40 Other risk characteristics of the commodity
It is not possible to predict present risks that currently escape detection or future risk due to: - Occurrence of unlisted pests. - Carrying pathogen as symptomless microorganisms.

41 Assumptions and uncertainties
Hazard biology and identification Laboratory reared insects may differ in their responses to environmental stress compared with wild relatives. Uncertainty around the likelihood of an organism colonizing new hosts or the consequences of its establishment and spread on the natural environment. Uncertainty about the identity of an organism. Uncertainty around the efficacy of risk management measures.

42 Assumptions and uncertainties (Cont’d)
Assumption regarding transit time of fruit. Assumption and uncertainty around disposal of infested fruit. Assumption and uncertainty around risk management measures - checking in the border; - Assume that the consignment is homogenous which seldom occur. Level of sampling depends on the degree of heterogeneity; - Sample size may not enough of detecting the pest

43 Review of management options
Disinfestation treatments in the country of origin. - depends on commodity type, its tolerance to the treatment/s, biology of hazard organisms. Systems approach- implementation of multiple safeguard actions in the country of origin. - management in the field. - prevention of contamination after harvest. - culling of damaged and diseased fruits. - inspection and certification based on effective trace back procedures. - shipping using methods that prevent reinfestation.

44 Production and post-harvest measures
It is necessary to provide information about the production and post harvest handling Monitoring programs in production areas. In-field sanitation. Pest control measures. Washing and waxing fruits. Visual inspection and culling of imperfect fruit.

45 Risk assessment of potential hazards
Evaluation of the likelihood of entry, exposure and establishment of a potential hazard, and the environmental, economic, human and animal health consequences of the entry within Bangladesh. To identify hazards which present an unacceptable level of risk.

46 Risk Analyses Fifteen insect pests and six diseases were identified for risk analysis and included in the report. One example for insect pest and one for disease is selected here for presentation.

47 Risk Analyses: Insect pests
Common name: Mediterranean fruit fly. Scientific name: Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Synonyms: Ceratitis citriperda MacLea, Ceratitis hispanica Breme, Pardalaspis asparagi Bezzi, Tephritis capitata Wiedemann. Bangladesh status: Not known to be present in Bangladesh.

48 Biology Lay eggs below the skin of the host fruit.
Eggs hatch within 2-4 days (up to days in cool weather) and the larvae feed for another 6-11 days (at 13-28°C). Pupation is in the soil under the host plant, Adults emerge after 6-11 days (24-26°C; longer in cool conditions), After adult emergence, ovarian development at 25°C takes 5 days. The thermal constant for development from egg to adult is 260C.

49 Hosts Citrus hosts are Citrus aurantiifolia (lime), Citrus aurantium (sour orange), Citrus limetta (sweet lemon tree), Citrus limon (lemon), Citrus limonia (mandarin lime), Citrus maxima (pummelo), Citrus medica (citron), Citrus nobilis (tangor), Citrus reticulata (mandarin), Citrus paradisi (tangelo), Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). Besides there are many other hosts.

50 Distribution Africa: Almost all African countries
Asia: Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Yemen; Australia: Western Australia; Hawaii, Central American and Caribbean: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico; South American: Argentina, Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Europe: Albania, Azores, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Corsica, Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Maderia Islands, Portugal, southern Russia, Sardinia, Sicily, Slovenia, Spain, Yugoslavia.

51 Hazard Identification Conclusion
It is likely to have spread through international trade and should be able to establish and cause unwanted consequences in Bangladesh. Considered as potential hazard

52 Risk Assessment Entry assessment
The probability of entry of larvae inside the infested fruits in Bangladesh is high. However, it depends on the distance of the country of origin and mode of transportation. Exposure assessment The possibility of exposure in Bangladesh is high. Establishment assessment Hosts are readily available and environment is suitable, therefore, the probability of establishment is high

53 Consequence assessment
Economic impact C. capitata is highly polyphagous and causes damage to a very wide range of unrelated fruit crops. Damage to fruit crops is frequently high and may reach 100%. The domestic market would be adversely affected by costs for control and reduced yields. Environmental Impact No impact of C. capitata on the natural environment or on other species has been observed. Human Health Impact Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata is a potential vector of human pathogens (eg: Escherichia coli) to fruits.

54 Risk estimation The likelihood of entry, exposure and establishment Ceratitis capitata is high. If they enter and /or establish then the consequences would be high. The risk estimates for Ceratitis capitata is non negligible therefore these organisms are classified as hazards in citrus fruits and risk management measures can be justified.

55 Risk Management Field Sanitation.
Post Harvest Culling, Washing, Waxing and Visual Inspection. High Temperature Forced Air (HTFA) or Cold Disinfestation. Visual Inspection at the Border.

56 Risk Analyses: Disease
Disease: Citrus Black spot (CBS). Pathogen: Guignardia citricarpa Kiely. Anamorph: Phyllosticta citricarpa (McAlpine) Van der Aa (macroconidial state). Synonyms: Phoma citricarpa McAlpine. Phyllostictina citricarpa (McAlpine) Petrak. Taxonomic position: Fungi: Ascomycetes: Dothideales Common names: Black spot, hard spot, shot-hole, freckle spot, virulent spot, speckled blotch of citrus (English). Bangladesh Status: Not present in Bangladesh.

57 Biology of the pathogen
CBS caused by Phyllosticta state occurs on all the above ground parts of the plant. The teleomorph state, Guignardia citricarpa appears on fallen leaves & is the primary source of the disease. Ascocarps occur throughout the year on leaf litter. Optimum temperature for growth C. Macro-conidia remain viable from 1-5 months. Flower and fruits are susceptible from anthesis to 16 wks. Infection is usually followed by a long period of latency.

58 Hosts Geographical Distribution
CBS occurs on Citrus, Poncirus, Fortunella spp. and their hybrids. Except for sour orange and Tahiti limes, all commercially grown citrus species and cultivars are affected by the disease. Geographical Distribution Reported from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, United States (Florida), Indonesia, Japan, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Philippines, Sicily, Spain, South Africa, Taiwan, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Zimbabwe.

59 Hazard Identification Conclusion
Considering the facts that: Guignardia citricarpa is not known to be present in Bangladesh; is present in Brazil, China, and South Africa; and can be carried on Citrus fruit; Guignardia citricarpa is considered to be a potential hazard organism in this risk analysis.

60 Risk Assessment Entry assessment Exposure Assessment
Plant/ planting materials are not imported to Bangladesh so the possibility of entry with planting material is nil. Medium possibility of entering through leaves as contaminant. The possibility of entering this pathogen through infected fruit is high. Exposure Assessment In Bangladesh there is no disposing system of peels or damaged fruits. The market is extended to the remote villages. Therefore the likelihood of exposure is high. Establishment Assessment Considering the environmental requirement and availability of host plant the probability of establishment of this disease in Bangladesh is medium.

61 Consequence Assessment
Economic impact Unappealing lesions typically develop as fruit reach maturity or postharvest. Some yield losses due to fruit drop may occur. Control of CBS in the field involves very high cost. Introduction of G. citricarpa and subsequent CBS development in Bangladesh would lead to direct negative impacts on citrus industry in Bangladesh. Environmental impact The indirect negative impact on environment is that once the disease established it needs heavy sprays of chemicals to control it that leads to polluted environment and negative impact on human health.

62 Risk Estimation The likelihood of entry and exposure of CBS in Bangladesh is high and medium probability for establishment. This would bring negative economic and environmental impact. The risk estimate for CBS is non negligible therefore this organism is classified as a hazard in this commodity and risk management measures can be justified.

63 Risk Management Current disease management strategies employed to control and treat CBS disease in the field and packing house appear to be generally effective and encourages growers to employ but there is no guarantee that such programs are undertaken. If CBS disease management programs are undertaken, the pest risk potential rating will be lowered further. Disease management programs and commercial harvesting and packing practices reduce the prevalence of G. citricarpa infected or CBS affected fruit in commercial shipments of fruit thus further lowering the overall risk.

64 Thank You


Download ppt "Center for Resource Development Studies Ltd"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google