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Ever Changing Earth.

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Presentation on theme: "Ever Changing Earth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ever Changing Earth

2 Warm Up Welcome back! In your notebook, describe what the electromagnetic spectrum is. How is it organized? What part of it can we see? Answer in at least three complete sentences!

3 Reading Read pages EE 10 – EE 11 in your Ever Changing Earth Book. Take notes and be prepared to discuss on Java, Indonesia.

4 Warm Up 1.7 Read EE 12 & EE 13 on the Baja Peninsula. Take notes while reading and be prepared to discuss what you learned.

5 Java, Indonesia Facts Location : Southeast Asia
13th largest island in the world, 5th largest in Indonesia Population: 141 million Almost entirely volcanic origin, contains 45 active volcanoes Natural environment: tropical rainforest Highest Elevation: 12,060 feet Most recent eruption: February 14th, 2014

6 Vocabulary Volcano: A vent in the surface of earth through which magma and associated gases and ash erupt Earthquake: a sudden motion or trembling in Earth caused by the abrupt release of slowly accumulated strain Geology: The study of planet Earth: the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and all its forms since its origin. Earth structure: a definable shape formed by geologic activity Geologist a person who is trained in and works in any of the geologic sciences.

7 Think about the structure of the Earth
Get started: With a partner, you will be assigned one of the geologic events pictured on pages 61 & 62 and answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper to turn in. What changes occurred in the area you selected? Changes might be large or small. You might notice the size, shape or position of parts of the area may have changed. Describe each of these changes What evidence do you see in the photographs that might indicate earth’s surface is not one continuous piece? ** You and your partner will be graded on your answers so you must be VERY DETAILED!

8 Conference Now meet with other people who observed the same picture as you do. Share what you observed. Take notes on your group discussion on the sheet of paper to be turned in.

9 Warm Up 1.8 Read pages EE14-EE15 on the Hawaiian Islands. Take notes while reading and be prepared to share facts that you learned about Hawaii in a discussion!

10 Hawaiian Island facts Location: Southwest United States, made up of 8 islands 50th of all the states Natural environment: Tropical Population: million Highest elevation: 13,796 ft Number of volcanos: 12 but there are many others in the ocean Most recent eruption: March 5th, 2011 Home to Mt. Kilauea , the largest volcano on earth which rises 25 miles above sea level

11 Stop and Think Read Benny’s letter on page EE65 and answer the stop and think questions 1-5 on page EE 66. Answer in complete sentences Finish with reading ‘What’s the point?’

12 Warm Up 1.9 Read pages EE16-EE17 on Iceland. Take notes while reading and be prepared to share facts that you learned about Iceland in a discussion!

13 Iceland Facts Location: South of the Arctic Circle, near Europe
Population: 322,000 people Natural Environment: sub polar oceanic, highly volcanic 34 Volcanoes, some active, some inactive Most recent eruption was January 3rd, Bardarbunga

14 Earth’s Layers

15 Warm Up 1.12 Read pages EE 18 & EE 19 on Mount Everest. Take notes and be prepared to share what you learned in the class discussion.

16 2.2 Vocabulary Crust: the outermost layer of earth, composed of rock.
Plates: sheets of rock that include part of Earth’s crust Plate tectonics: the theory that Earth’s crust is divided into a number of plates, and the study of how the plates move and interact with one another Mantle: the zone of earth beneath the crust and above the core. It is divided into the upper mantle and the lower mantle Core: the central part of Earth made of iron and nickel. It consists of a liquid outer core and solid inner core.

17 Warm Up 1.13 Read pages EE 20 & EE 21 on Mount Fuji. Take notes and be prepared to share what you learned in the class discussion.

18 Japan Facts Location: Island nation in East Asia
Population: 126,659,000 people 118 Volcanoes, makes up 10% of the worlds volcanoes Belongs to the Pacific Ring of Fire Most recent explosion: March 11th, 2014

19 Vocabulary 2.4 Composition: The parts, ingredients or elements that form a whole Density: the mass of quantity of a substance per unit volume Seismology: The study of earth quakes and the structure of the earth, using information from seismic waves Seismic wave: a general term for waves produced by earthquakes or artificially through explosions

20 Brainstorm Think of a better way to represent the Earth’s structure than Benny’s Egg model. Be descriptive and explain what each layer would be. Write a letter back to Benny describing the earth layers in your model.

21 Warm Up 1.14 Read Pages EE 22 – EE 23 on Argentina. Take notes and be prepared to share during a class discussion.

22 Density Lab You will be placed in groups of 4-6 students. Follow all directions for the lab and wear safety goggles while working on the activity. Fill out your density lab worksheet and answer questions 1-6 on the back to be turned in for a class grade. Each member of the group will have one job title. If anyone does not follow these guidelines, they will be asked not to participate. Group Manager Reader Supplies gatherer Safety coordinator Cleanup (Everyone)

23 Plate Boundaries the area along the edges of earth’s plates
Some of the most geologically active parts of earth’s surface Most earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain formations occur near plate boundaries

24 2.4 Vocabulary continued Fault: a fracture (break or crack) through rock, along which the masses of rock on either side of the fracture move Fold: a bend in rocks Fault block mountain: mountains that form when one side of a fault is lifted above the other side

25 Crust Oceanic Continental:
The part of earth’s crust that are under the ocean These parts are the thinnest Density of 3.0 g/cm3 Continental: The part of earth’s crust that form the continents Thicker than oceanic crust Less dense than oceanic crust Density of 2.7 g/cm3


27 Warm Up 1.15 Read Pages EE 24 – EE 25 on Puebla, Mexico. Take notes and be prepared to share during a class discussion.

28 Stop and Think Pg 79 Answer the questions on page 79 in your notebook.

29 2.4 Vocabulary Continued Lithosphere: the right outer layer of earth, made of the crust and the solid, uppermost part of the mantle Asthenosphere: a region of earth’s interior immediately below the lithosphere where mantle rocks are hot enough and under enough pressure to deform, change shape, and flow Outer core: the outer layer of earth’s core made of melted, liquid metal. Molten: made liquid by heat Inner core: the inner layer of earth’s core believed to be made of solid iron and nickel

30 Warm Up 1.16 Read Pages EE 26 – EE 27 on Tanzania. Take notes and be prepared to share during a class discussion.

31 Tanzania Facts A country in East Africa Population: 44 million people
Has 9 volcanoes in Tanzania, Mt. Kilamanjaro being the largest March 11, 2008 (Ol Doinyo Lengai) Is a part of the Great African Rift Valley

32 Warm Up 3.17 & 3.18 Explain why you think the Earth’s plates move and cause geologic activity? Answer in 2-3 COMPLETE sentences.

33 Lab Questions Finish answering questions 1-6 on pages 81 & 82 on your density lab. We will go over these in class. You will be turning in your lab worksheet for class grade so make sure they are complete sentences!

34 Earth Systems Atmosphere: the part of Earth’s system made of the mixture of gases that surround Earth. Biosphere: The part of Earth’s system that includes all living organisms (animals and plants) and also dead and decaying plant matter. Includes parts of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. Hydrosphere: the part of Earth’s system that includes all of the plant’s water, including oceans, lakes, rivers, ground water, ice and water vapor. Geosphere: The part of earth’s system that includes the crust, mantle, and inner and outer core.

35 Cracking Up Read the article ‘Cracking Up’ and answer the questions on the worksheet for a grade.

36 Reminder All late work and retakes must be done by March 26th in order to be considered for a grade for 3rd quarter. Notebook checks will be next week! Make sure everything is glued or taped in!

37 Warm up 3.19 & 3.20 Give one example of something that would be in each of the earth’s systems. Describe how they all interact with one another. Must answer in complete sentences!

38 Cracking Up If you have not finished the ‘Cracking up’ reading and worksheet you have fifteen minutes to do so now. It must be turned in by the end of the class. It counts as a classwork grade.

39 Lab Activity You will work in partners with the person sitting next to you at your desk. You MUST follow the Procedure for this lab on page 93. You will be given a worksheet to fill out while doing this lab. When you have finished cleaning up after the lab answer REFLECT questions 1-3 on page 95. You can answer those questions on the back of the worksheet.

40 Learning Set 3 Vocab Tsunami: a series of huge ocean waves often triggered by an underwater earthquake. Stress: a force that squeezes rocks together, stretches or pulls them apart or pushes them in different directions Focus: the point where part of the crust breaks loose and moves suddenly, causing an earthquake Vibrations: back and forth motions that carry energy from one place to another Epicenter: the point on the surface of the earth directly above the focus of an earthquake, often where the most damage from an earthquake occurs

41 Warm Up 3.21 & 3.24 What is the importance of knowing where plate boundaries are?

42 Stop and Think Pg 99 & 100 Pg 99 Stop and Think Pg 100 Stop and Think
What determines the strength of an earthquake? How are faults related to earthquakes? Pg 100 Stop and Think What happens at the focus at the onset of an earthquake? How is the focus related to the epicenter of the earthquake?

43 Learning Set 3.2 cont’d Body waves: seismic waves that travel through earth. Surface waves: seismic waves that travel along the surface of the earth. P-waves (primary): longitudinal seismic waves that can travel through solids, liquids, or gases, and are the fastest type of seismic waves. S-waves (secondary): transverse seismic waves that can travel only through solids and are slower than P waves.

44 Longitudinal wave: a type of wave that travels through Earth in a push-pull pattern.
Transverse wave: a type of wave in which particle displacement is perpendicular to the direction of the wave.

45 How do scientists collect and evaluate data from earthquakes?
Read pages and fill in and answer the reading guide.

46 Warm Up 3.25 & 3.26 What is the difference between P-waves & S-waves. How do they travel? Explain in 2-3 complete sentences.

47 Reading Guide Finish 3.3 Reading Guide from pages You will be called up to have your notebook checked. Work quietly.

48 Quiz You will have a quiz next class on learning set three. Make sure you know how seismic waves travel.

49 Warm Up 3.28 & 4.1 Why can’t you judge an earthquake based upon it’s intensity? When you are done with the warm up start studying for your quiz on 3.2 material.

50 Convection lab You will be placed in four groups to do the convection lab. While doing the lab make sure to consider these questions…. How is this like earth’s mantle? What are the driving forces behind the convection current?

51 Vocabulary Convection current: the cycle of movement when warm, less-dense fluids rise and cool and more dense fluids sink due to differences in temperature Plume: a hot, rising, column of mantle material. Mid-ocean ridge: a continuous range through the oceans, which is subject to earthquakes Lava: fluid rock that comes from a volcano; becomes solid by cooling

52 Vocabulary cont’d Ocean-floor spreading: a process by which new ocean floor is created in the area where two plates are moving apart. Ridge push: the push of older crust away from a plate boundary Slab pull: the movement of older crust down toward the center of earth.

53 Warm Up 3.31 & 4.3 How is earth’s mantle similar to a pot of boiling water on a stove top?

54 Read 4.3 Read Pages with your partner. On page 163 answer the ‘Stop and Think’ questions 1-3. Follow the directions below for question #2. How do changes in heat energy affect the density of Earth’s mantle material? Write a short story detailing the journey of a cubic centimeter (cm3) of mantle material through a convection current beginning at the core. Be sure to include information about what happens to its molecules. Support your story with sketches. Write a short story as if you are the cubic center of mantle traveling through the convection current. Draw a cartoon or pictures for a visual interpretation of this story Each group will read and present their stories. This will count as a class project grade so do a good job! Draw a cross section of Earth, showing the core, mantle, and crust. Draw arrows to represent a convection current in Earth’s mantle.

55 Read 4.3 When you are done continue reading section 4.3 on pages Answer the reflect questions 1-4 on page 166 in your notebook.

56 Warm up 4.2 & 4.7 Describe two factors that drive plate motion and discuss how they work together to move Earth’s plates. Answer in 2-3 complete sentences.

57 Volcano Vocabulary Volcano – Any place in Earth’s crust where mantle material and other substances reach the surface OR an Earth structure formed by the accumulation of lava and other volcanic materials. Volcano fields – clusters of volcanoes Active volcano – currently erupting or expecting to erupt Dormant volcano – currently not erupting, erupted in past, likely to erupt again Extinct volcano – not active and not likely to erupt

58 Cinder Volcanoes A cone-shaped hill made of ash and rock particles around the vent of a volcano.

59 Shield Volcano A gently-sloping volcano formed when runny lava spreads out over a large area.

60 Stratovolcano A steep-sided, cone-shaped volcano made of alternating layers of ash and lava.

61 Volcanoes Cone – a cone shaped hill made of ash and rock particles around the vent of a volcano Shield – a gently- slopping volcano formed when runny lava spreads out over a large area Stratovolcano – a steep-sided, cone-shaped volcano made of alternating layers of ash and lava

62 Parts of a volcano

63 /search?Ntt=stratovolcanoes
Volcano Video /search?Ntt=stratovolcanoes

64 Warm Up 4.4 & 4.9 Describe the process of ocean-floor spreading. How does this relate to the convection current? Answer in 2-3 complete sentences.

65 5.3 Read Read pages Answer the ‘Stop and Think’ Questions on pages 191, 192, 194, & 197. This ten questions in all. Each question is worth ten points. You must have this completed by the end of the class. All questions must be answered in COMPLETE sentences.

66 Warm up 4.8 & 4.11 Compare and contrast the three different types of volcanoes that we discussed last class.

67 Vocabulary Igneous Rock: a rock that has solidified from molten or partly molten materials (magma) Sediment: particles of solid material that have moved from their place of origin by wind, moving water, or glacier ice and deposited on a surface Sedimentary rock: rock formed from small particles of rock or pieces of once-living things. Fossils: the remains or traces of once living things Metamorphic rock: rock formed by heat and pressure from another kind of rock.

68 The rock cycle Rock cycle: the way in which rocks are continuously recycled over time


70 The Rock Cycle Rock Type How Its Formed Examples Sedimentary
Small particles worn away, deposited, and cemented together Sandstone Conglomerate Igneous Formed from the cooling of molten magma Basalt Pumice Obsidian Metamorphic Formed from heat and pressure from another kind of rock Marble (parent rock = limestone) Slate (parent rock = shale)

71 Sedimentary Rock Conglomerate Sandstone

72 Igneous Rock Basalt Pumice Obsidian

73 Metamorphic Rocks Marble (parent rock = limestone)
Slate (Parent rock = shale)

74 nMDNyE8
The Rock Cycle Video nMDNyE8

75 Soil Loose covering of rock particles and organic matter at Earth’s surface. Layered into horizons.

76 Threats to Soil Quality
Sealing (permanent coverings such as roads and buildings) Compaction (pushing rock particles closer together). Causes pore size to decrease. Erosion (by wind and water) Contamination Change in biodiversity Waste to land contamination (fertililizers)

77 Soil Video CurrentPage=1&No=20&N=0&Ne=&Ntt=soil&Ns=&Nr=&browseFilter=&indexVer sion=&Ntk=

78 Warm Up 4.10 & 4.11 How is the Rock Cycle an ever changing cycle? Be specific and give details.

79 Vocabulary - Boundaries
Convergent Boundary: a plate boundary where two plates are moving toward each other Divergent Boundary: a boundary where two plates are moving away from each other Transform Boundary: A boundary where two plates are moving sideways along each other’s edge.

80 Vocabulary - Zones Subduction Zones: an area where the edge of one plate moves under another plate at a convergent boundary Buckling Zone: an area where plates push against each other making a large fold Rift Zone: a valley that is caused as two continental plates diverge

81 Procedure Page and fill out the chart on the different types of plate boundaries. You will have 25 minutes to work on this worksheet then we will go over it.

82 Group work You will be notified who your group members are going to be and what topic your group will be working on. You will have 15 minutes to brainstorm with your group members about your plan for working on the project when we return from spring break. You will have the opportunity to look at the grading rubric to understand what is expected of you.

83 Have a good Spring Break!!!

84 April 21st/22nd Sit in a block of tables with your group members. Get out your project sheets and begin working on your project. All supplies are at the front of the room.

85 Warm Up 4.23 & 4.24 How do you think the convection current shapes our own region in North Carolina? What are some examples?

86 Presentations You will have 5 minutes to meet with your group before presentations begin.

87 Open Book Quiz You will work on an open book quiz covering chapters 5 & 6 in our Earth book. Answer the questions on a SEPARATE sheet of paper.

88 Warm Up 4.24 & 4.28 What are some of the negatives about living in California? Be specific about geologic activity.

89 Open Book Quiz Finish the open book quiz from last class. When everyone is finished, students will exchange quizzes and go over the quiz. Students will grade the quiz.

90 Make Up Date If you have missed a quiz or assignment you will now have the opportunity to make up these assignments. The rest of the class will watch a video on the San Andreas Fault and fill out the listening guide.

91 Quietly sit down and get a pen or pencil
Quietly sit down and get a pen or pencil. I will hand back your quiz papers so you can start to finish them. When I see you are working hard I will dismiss you to go to your locker and restrooms.

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