2Warm UpWelcome back! In your notebook, describe what the electromagnetic spectrum is. How is it organized? What part of it can we see? Answer in at least three complete sentences!
3ReadingRead pages EE 10 – EE 11 in your Ever Changing Earth Book. Take notes and be prepared to discuss on Java, Indonesia.
4Warm Up 1.7Read EE 12 & EE 13 on the Baja Peninsula. Take notes while reading and be prepared to discuss what you learned.
5Java, Indonesia Facts Location : Southeast Asia 13th largest island in the world, 5th largest in IndonesiaPopulation: 141 millionAlmost entirely volcanic origin, contains 45 active volcanoesNatural environment: tropical rainforestHighest Elevation: 12,060 feetMost recent eruption: February 14th, 2014
6VocabularyVolcano: A vent in the surface of earth through which magma and associated gases and ash eruptEarthquake: a sudden motion or trembling in Earth caused by the abrupt release of slowly accumulated strainGeology: The study of planet Earth: the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and all its forms since its origin.Earth structure: a definable shape formed by geologic activityGeologist a person who is trained in and works in any of the geologic sciences.
7Think about the structure of the Earth Get started:With a partner, you will be assigned one of the geologic events pictured on pages 61 & 62 and answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper to turn in.What changes occurred in the area you selected? Changes might be large or small. You might notice the size, shape or position of parts of the area may have changed. Describe each of these changesWhat evidence do you see in the photographs that might indicate earth’s surface is not one continuous piece?** You and your partner will be graded on your answers so you must be VERY DETAILED!
8ConferenceNow meet with other people who observed the same picture as you do. Share what you observed.Take notes on your group discussion on the sheet of paper to be turned in.
9Warm Up 1.8Read pages EE14-EE15 on the Hawaiian Islands. Take notes while reading and be prepared to share facts that you learned about Hawaii in a discussion!
10Hawaiian Island factsLocation: Southwest United States, made up of 8 islands50th of all the statesNatural environment: TropicalPopulation: millionHighest elevation: 13,796 ftNumber of volcanos: 12 but there are many others in the oceanMost recent eruption: March 5th, 2011Home to Mt. Kilauea , the largest volcano on earth which rises 25 miles above sea level
11Stop and ThinkRead Benny’s letter on page EE65 and answer the stop and think questions 1-5 on page EE 66.Answer in complete sentencesFinish with reading ‘What’s the point?’
12Warm Up 1.9Read pages EE16-EE17 on Iceland. Take notes while reading and be prepared to share facts that you learned about Iceland in a discussion!
13Iceland Facts Location: South of the Arctic Circle, near Europe Population: 322,000 peopleNatural Environment: sub polar oceanic, highly volcanic34 Volcanoes, some active, some inactiveMost recent eruption was January 3rd, Bardarbunga
15Warm Up 1.12Read pages EE 18 & EE 19 on Mount Everest. Take notes and be prepared to share what you learned in the class discussion.
162.2 Vocabulary Crust: the outermost layer of earth, composed of rock. Plates: sheets of rock that include part of Earth’s crustPlate tectonics: the theory that Earth’s crust is divided into a number of plates, and the study of how the plates move and interact with one anotherMantle: the zone of earth beneath the crust and above the core. It is divided into the upper mantle and the lower mantleCore: the central part of Earth made of iron and nickel. It consists of a liquid outer core and solid inner core.
17Warm Up 1.13Read pages EE 20 & EE 21 on Mount Fuji. Take notes and be prepared to share what you learned in the class discussion.
18Japan Facts Location: Island nation in East Asia Population: 126,659,000 people118 Volcanoes, makes up 10% of the worlds volcanoesBelongs to the Pacific Ring of FireMost recent explosion: March 11th, 2014
19Vocabulary 2.4Composition: The parts, ingredients or elements that form a wholeDensity: the mass of quantity of a substance per unit volumeSeismology: The study of earth quakes and the structure of the earth, using information from seismic wavesSeismic wave: a general term for waves produced by earthquakes or artificially through explosions
20BrainstormThink of a better way to represent the Earth’s structure than Benny’s Egg model. Be descriptive and explain what each layer would be.Write a letter back to Benny describing the earth layers in your model.
21Warm Up 1.14Read Pages EE 22 – EE 23 on Argentina. Take notes and be prepared to share during a class discussion.
22Density LabYou will be placed in groups of 4-6 students. Follow all directions for the lab and wear safety goggles while working on the activity. Fill out your density lab worksheet and answer questions 1-6 on the back to be turned in for a class grade. Each member of the group will have one job title. If anyone does not follow these guidelines, they will be asked not to participate.Group ManagerReaderSupplies gathererSafety coordinatorCleanup (Everyone)
23Plate Boundaries the area along the edges of earth’s plates Some of the most geologically active parts of earth’s surfaceMost earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain formations occur near plate boundaries
242.4 Vocabulary continuedFault: a fracture (break or crack) through rock, along which the masses of rock on either side of the fracture moveFold: a bend in rocksFault block mountain: mountains that form when one side of a fault is lifted above the other side
25Crust Oceanic Continental: The part of earth’s crust that are under the oceanThese parts are the thinnestDensity of 3.0 g/cm3Continental:The part of earth’s crust that form the continentsThicker than oceanic crustLess dense than oceanic crustDensity of 2.7 g/cm3
27Warm Up 1.15Read Pages EE 24 – EE 25 on Puebla, Mexico. Take notes and be prepared to share during a class discussion.
28Stop and Think Pg 79Answer the questions on page 79 in your notebook.
292.4 Vocabulary ContinuedLithosphere: the right outer layer of earth, made of the crust and the solid, uppermost part of the mantleAsthenosphere: a region of earth’s interior immediately below the lithosphere where mantle rocks are hot enough and under enough pressure to deform, change shape, and flowOuter core: the outer layer of earth’s core made of melted, liquid metal.Molten: made liquid by heatInner core: the inner layer of earth’s core believed to be made of solid iron and nickel
30Warm Up 1.16Read Pages EE 26 – EE 27 on Tanzania. Take notes and be prepared to share during a class discussion.
31Tanzania Facts A country in East Africa Population: 44 million people Has 9 volcanoes in Tanzania, Mt. Kilamanjaro being the largestMarch 11, 2008 (Ol Doinyo Lengai)Is a part of the Great African Rift Valley
32Warm Up 3.17 & 3.18Explain why you think the Earth’s plates move and cause geologic activity? Answer in 2-3 COMPLETE sentences.
33Lab QuestionsFinish answering questions 1-6 on pages 81 & 82 on your density lab. We will go over these in class. You will be turning in your lab worksheet for class grade so make sure they are complete sentences!
34Earth SystemsAtmosphere: the part of Earth’s system made of the mixture of gases that surround Earth.Biosphere: The part of Earth’s system that includes all living organisms (animals and plants) and also dead and decaying plant matter.Includes parts of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.Hydrosphere: the part of Earth’s system that includes all of the plant’s water, including oceans, lakes, rivers, ground water, ice and water vapor.Geosphere: The part of earth’s system that includes the crust, mantle, and inner and outer core.
35Cracking UpRead the article ‘Cracking Up’ and answer the questions on the worksheet for a grade.
36ReminderAll late work and retakes must be done by March 26th in order to be considered for a grade for 3rd quarter. Notebook checks will be next week! Make sure everything is glued or taped in!
37Warm up 3.19 & 3.20Give one example of something that would be in each of the earth’s systems. Describe how they all interact with one another. Must answer in complete sentences!
38Cracking UpIf you have not finished the ‘Cracking up’ reading and worksheet you have fifteen minutes to do so now. It must be turned in by the end of the class. It counts as a classwork grade.
39Lab ActivityYou will work in partners with the person sitting next to you at your desk. You MUST follow the Procedure for this lab on page 93. You will be given a worksheet to fill out while doing this lab. When you have finished cleaning up after the lab answer REFLECT questions 1-3 on page 95. You can answer those questions on the back of the worksheet.
40Learning Set 3 VocabTsunami: a series of huge ocean waves often triggered by an underwater earthquake.Stress: a force that squeezes rocks together, stretches or pulls them apart or pushes them in different directionsFocus: the point where part of the crust breaks loose and moves suddenly, causing an earthquakeVibrations: back and forth motions that carry energy from one place to anotherEpicenter: the point on the surface of the earth directly above the focus of an earthquake, often where the most damage from an earthquake occurs
41Warm Up 3.21 & 3.24What is the importance of knowing where plate boundaries are?
42Stop and Think Pg 99 & 100 Pg 99 Stop and Think Pg 100 Stop and Think What determines the strength of an earthquake?How are faults related to earthquakes?Pg 100 Stop and ThinkWhat happens at the focus at the onset of an earthquake?How is the focus related to the epicenter of the earthquake?
43Learning Set 3.2 cont’dBody waves: seismic waves that travel through earth.Surface waves: seismic waves that travel along the surface of the earth.P-waves (primary): longitudinal seismic waves that can travel through solids, liquids, or gases, and are the fastest type of seismic waves.S-waves (secondary): transverse seismic waves that can travel only through solids and are slower than P waves.
44Longitudinal wave: a type of wave that travels through Earth in a push-pull pattern. Transverse wave: a type of wave in which particle displacement is perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
45How do scientists collect and evaluate data from earthquakes? Read pages and fill in and answer the reading guide.
46Warm Up 3.25 & 3.26What is the difference between P-waves & S-waves. How do they travel? Explain in 2-3 complete sentences.
47Reading GuideFinish 3.3 Reading Guide from pages You will be called up to have your notebook checked. Work quietly.
48QuizYou will have a quiz next class on learning set three. Make sure you know how seismic waves travel.
49Warm Up 3.28 & 4.1Why can’t you judge an earthquake based upon it’s intensity?When you are done with the warm up start studying for your quiz on 3.2 material.
50Convection labYou will be placed in four groups to do the convection lab. While doing the lab make sure to consider these questions….How is this like earth’s mantle?What are the driving forces behind the convection current?
51VocabularyConvection current: the cycle of movement when warm, less-dense fluids rise and cool and more dense fluids sink due to differences in temperaturePlume: a hot, rising, column of mantle material.Mid-ocean ridge: a continuous range through the oceans, which is subject to earthquakesLava: fluid rock that comes from a volcano; becomes solid by cooling
52Vocabulary cont’dOcean-floor spreading: a process by which new ocean floor is created in the area where two plates are moving apart.Ridge push: the push of older crust away from a plate boundarySlab pull: the movement of older crust down toward the center of earth.
53Warm Up 3.31 & 4.3How is earth’s mantle similar to a pot of boiling water on a stove top?
54Read 4.3Read Pages with your partner. On page 163 answer the ‘Stop and Think’ questions 1-3. Follow the directions below for question #2.How do changes in heat energy affect the density of Earth’s mantle material?Write a short story detailing the journey of a cubic centimeter (cm3) of mantle material through a convection current beginning at the core. Be sure to include information about what happens to its molecules. Support your story with sketches.Write a short story as if you are the cubic center of mantle traveling through the convection current.Draw a cartoon or pictures for a visual interpretation of this storyEach group will read and present their stories.This will count as a class project grade so do a good job!Draw a cross section of Earth, showing the core, mantle, and crust. Draw arrows to represent a convection current in Earth’s mantle.
55Read 4.3When you are done continue reading section 4.3 on pages Answer the reflect questions 1-4 on page 166 in your notebook.
56Warm up 4.2 & 4.7Describe two factors that drive plate motion and discuss how they work together to move Earth’s plates. Answer in 2-3 complete sentences.
57Volcano VocabularyVolcano – Any place in Earth’s crust where mantle material and other substances reach the surface OR an Earth structure formed by the accumulation of lava and other volcanic materials.Volcano fields – clusters of volcanoesActive volcano – currently erupting or expecting to eruptDormant volcano – currently not erupting, erupted in past, likely to erupt againExtinct volcano – not active and not likely to erupt
58Cinder VolcanoesA cone-shaped hill made of ash and rock particles around the vent of a volcano.
59Shield VolcanoA gently-sloping volcano formed when runny lava spreads out over a large area.
60StratovolcanoA steep-sided, cone-shaped volcano made of alternating layers of ash and lava.
61VolcanoesCone – a cone shaped hill made of ash and rock particles around the vent of a volcanoShield – a gently- slopping volcano formed when runny lava spreads out over a large areaStratovolcano – a steep-sided, cone-shaped volcano made of alternating layers of ash and lava
64Warm Up 4.4 & 4.9Describe the process of ocean-floor spreading. How does this relate to the convection current? Answer in 2-3 complete sentences.
655.3 ReadRead pages Answer the ‘Stop and Think’ Questions on pages 191, 192, 194, & 197. This ten questions in all. Each question is worth ten points. You must have this completed by the end of the class. All questions must be answered in COMPLETE sentences.
66Warm up 4.8 & 4.11Compare and contrast the three different types of volcanoes that we discussed last class.
67VocabularyIgneous Rock: a rock that has solidified from molten or partly molten materials (magma)Sediment: particles of solid material that have moved from their place of origin by wind, moving water, or glacier ice and deposited on a surfaceSedimentary rock: rock formed from small particles of rock or pieces of once-living things.Fossils: the remains or traces of once living thingsMetamorphic rock: rock formed by heat and pressure from another kind of rock.
68The rock cycleRock cycle: the way in which rocks are continuously recycled over time
70The Rock Cycle Rock Type How Its Formed Examples Sedimentary Small particles worn away, deposited, and cemented togetherSandstoneConglomerateIgneousFormed from the cooling of molten magmaBasaltPumiceObsidianMetamorphicFormed from heat and pressure from another kind of rockMarble (parent rock = limestone)Slate (parent rock = shale)
73Metamorphic Rocks Marble (parent rock = limestone) Slate (Parent rock = shale)
74http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRaI nMDNyE8 The Rock Cycle VideonMDNyE8
75SoilLoose covering of rock particles and organic matter at Earth’s surface.Layered into horizons.
76Threats to Soil Quality Sealing (permanent coverings such as roads and buildings)Compaction (pushing rock particles closer together). Causes pore size to decrease.Erosion (by wind and water)ContaminationChange in biodiversityWaste to land contamination(fertililizers)
78Warm Up 4.10 & 4.11How is the Rock Cycle an ever changing cycle? Be specific and give details.
79Vocabulary - Boundaries Convergent Boundary: a plate boundary where two plates are moving toward each otherDivergent Boundary: a boundary where two plates are moving away from each otherTransform Boundary: A boundary where two plates are moving sideways along each other’s edge.
80Vocabulary - ZonesSubduction Zones: an area where the edge of one plate moves under another plate at a convergent boundaryBuckling Zone: an area where plates push against each other making a large foldRift Zone: a valley that is caused as two continental plates diverge
81ProcedurePage and fill out the chart on the different types of plate boundaries.You will have 25 minutes to work on this worksheet then we will go over it.
82Group workYou will be notified who your group members are going to be and what topic your group will be working on. You will have 15 minutes to brainstorm with your group members about your plan for working on the project when we return from spring break.You will have the opportunity to look at the grading rubric to understand what is expected of you.
84April 21st/22ndSit in a block of tables with your group members. Get out your project sheets and begin working on your project. All supplies are at the front of the room.
85Warm Up 4.23 & 4.24How do you think the convection current shapes our own region in North Carolina? What are some examples?
86PresentationsYou will have 5 minutes to meet with your group before presentations begin.
87Open Book QuizYou will work on an open book quiz covering chapters 5 & 6 in our Earth book. Answer the questions on a SEPARATE sheet of paper.
88Warm Up 4.24 & 4.28What are some of the negatives about living in California? Be specific about geologic activity.
89Open Book QuizFinish the open book quiz from last class. When everyone is finished, students will exchange quizzes and go over the quiz. Students will grade the quiz.
90Make Up DateIf you have missed a quiz or assignment you will now have the opportunity to make up these assignments.The rest of the class will watch a video on the San Andreas Fault and fill out the listening guide.
91Quietly sit down and get a pen or pencil Quietly sit down and get a pen or pencil. I will hand back your quiz papers so you can start to finish them. When I see you are working hard I will dismiss you to go to your locker and restrooms.