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Chapter 2 Sec 2 English Colonies in America

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1 Chapter 2 Sec 2 English Colonies in America

2 North American Exploration

3 English Exploration John Cabot No colonization for 80 years May 1497
Nova Scotia Disappeared 2nd voyage No colonization for 80 years Lack of $ No real reason Allied w/Spain against France

4 What drove people from England to America?
I. Religion Protestant Reformation-1517 Martin Luther John Calvin** (congregations choose own elders and ministers) Impacted England and later America King Henry VIII had just created the Anglican Church (broke from Catholic Church)

5 Differing views on the Anglican Church
Puritans Wanted to purify the church Influenced by Calvin Clashed with James I who did not want changes

6 What drove people from England to America?
II. The economy The Enclosure Movement Wool demand increased English landowners could make more money raising sheep than renting out land Converted their lands to sheep farms Many tenant farmers homeless and jobless Better chance at life by leaving England

7 Economy Cont’d Wool supply outgrew demand-1550 Looking for new markets
Formed Joint-stock companies Pooled money of investors Raised more $ for big projects Eng merchants could trade with & colonize other parts of world independently of government

8 What drove people from England to America?
III. Politics Growing rivalry with Spain England leading Protestant power Netherlands(Dutch)-Protestant Spanish tried to suppress Protestants in Nether. Queen Eliz sent privateers to attach Spanish ships - Spain leading Catholic power England needed outposts to support naval operations against Spain

9 Roanoke Mystery Sr. Walter Raleigh set up the first Eng. colony in the Americas Near current NC/VA Roanoke He named the land “Virginia” in honor of the “Virgin Queen” Elizabeth

10 Roanoke Mystery Cont’d
1585 1st group Raleigh sent 100 men Hard winter-left 1587 2nd group 91 men, 17 women, 9 children Gov.John White ret’d to England for supplies-return delayed Eng/Spain war

11 Roanoke Mystery Cont’d
Gov White returns 1590 Colony is gone No bodies Empty houses “CRO” carved on post Still a mystery

12 Jamestown Settled1606 by a charter from King James 1
The Virginia Company John Smith leader 3 ships & 144 men Settled on banks of river James River & Jamestown Named after king Swampy/mosquitoes

13 Jamestown Troubles Environment Lack of survival knowledge Politics
Swampy/mosquitoes/disease Lack of survival knowledge Did not know about living in woods and how to fish and raise livestock Lack of food Politics Upperclass “gentleman” refused to work Arguing in government Lawlessness

14 Jamestown Troubles Cont’d
200 new settlers in 1608 53 still alive by end of year John Smith/Chief Powhatan heroes Smith traded with Powhatan Confederacy (Native Americans) Kept settlers alive more settlers in August Not enough food before winter Stole from N. Americans who attacked

15 Jamestown Troubles Cont’d
“The Starving Time” Winter Ate dogs, rats, snakes, toadstools, horsehides A few-cannibalism Dug up graves & at people Jamestown never thrived

16 Tobacco Saves the Colony
The colony lasted, mostly thanks to John Rolfe and his cultivation of tobacco Rolfe developed new curing method

17 The First Assembly Virginia governed by House of Burgesses
1st representative government in the colonies Representatives called burgesses After an attack by N. Americans in 1622 on Jamestown, James I revoked Charter-Royal Colony (Gov. appt by King)    Patrick Henry before the House of Burgesses in an 1851 painting by Peter F. Rothermel

18 Settling the Land Settlers lured by “headrights” First Africans arrive
Bought share in company or paid for passage – got 50 acres of land First Africans arrive 1619 Settlers purchased 20 Africans as “Christian servants”

19 Other Colonies and Their Founders
1. Virginia – (see previous notes) 2.Maryland – Lord Baltimore, for Catholics to have freedom to worship 3.Massachusetts – John Winthrop, a refuge for Puritans 4.Rhode Island – Roger Williams, for government with no authority in religious matters, he was a separatist

20 Other Colonies Cont’d 5.Connecticut – Thomas Hooker, they adopted the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, the first written constitution in the colonies 6.New Hampshire – was started by a royal charter due to overcrowding in Massachusetts. Maine was as well but later was bought back by Massachusetts

21 Other Colonies Cont’d 7&8. New York and New Jersey – originally founded by Henry Hudson for the Dutch but King Charles sent his brother James to take it for England 9&10Pennsylvania and Delaware– William Penn, refuge for Quakers, love and pacifism for all

22 Other Colonies Cont’d 11&12. North and South Carolina – King Charles gave this land to his political allies, mostly for farming 13.Georgia – James Oglethorpe, a place for poor English debtors to start over

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