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SUB-REGIONAL TRAINING OF TRAINERS PROGRAM: IP ASSET MANAGEMENT BY SMEs, 26-28 November 2014, Harare, Zimbabwe By J. NOBLE-NKURUMAH MIP STUDENT AFRICA UNIVERSITY.

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Presentation on theme: "SUB-REGIONAL TRAINING OF TRAINERS PROGRAM: IP ASSET MANAGEMENT BY SMEs, 26-28 November 2014, Harare, Zimbabwe By J. NOBLE-NKURUMAH MIP STUDENT AFRICA UNIVERSITY."— Presentation transcript:

1 SUB-REGIONAL TRAINING OF TRAINERS PROGRAM: IP ASSET MANAGEMENT BY SMEs, November 2014, Harare, Zimbabwe By J. NOBLE-NKURUMAH MIP STUDENT AFRICA UNIVERSITY

2 1. Definition 2. Main differences between utility models and patents 3. Utility models in international agreements and multilateral agreements 4. Domestic legislation in Ghana 5. SUAME Magazine 6. Training 7. Stages of development of SUAME Magazine 8. Observations 9. Way forward

3  An utility model is an exclusive right granted for an invention, which allows the right holder to prevent others from commercially using the protected invention without his authorization, for a limited period of time  Basic definition may differ from country to country  Similar to a patent and sometimes referred to as petty patents or innovation patents

4  Requirements for acquiring utility models less stringent than for patents  Novelty is always to be met  Inventive step or non-obviousness may be absent or much lower altogether  Protection granted for innovations of a rather incremental character, which may not meet patentability criteria  Shorter term of protection for utility models  Examination of utility model applications not as to substance consequently registration process is simpler and faster

5 PARIS CONVENTION  Recognizes Ums as industrial property  does not define it,  accords it a right of priority and national treatment THE TRIPS AGREEMENT  Establishes the minimum substantive standards for each of the major IP regimes but fails to mention in clear terms utility model protection.

6  Reference to Art 2(1), TRIPS Agreement, the relevant provisions of the Paris Convention (including Art1(2) ) are extended to all WTO countries. PATENT COOPERATION TREATY  Aimed at facilitating patent applications in more than one country via a simplified and cheaper process  This facilitated means for patents covers Ums as well  References to an application there includes applications for patents for inventions, inventors certificates,utility certificates, utility models etc

7 Patent Act, 2003, Act 657  Part II sections  New and industrially applicable  Granted for 7 years without possibility of renewal  Grounds for invalidation

8  One of Africa's largest informal engineering clusters  Populated with over 100,000 technical artisans, auto mechanics and dealers in related supplies  Cluster begun about 1935 during British colonization on the site of an old military magazine

9  No formal training  System of apprenticeship to master craftsmen  Duration 4-5years for auto mechanics and about 3years for the metalworking sector  No formal education beyond primary, master craftsmen inclusive

10 BASIC TOOL STAGE: Solely vehicle repair  British training in the 1930s  Upon return some were employed by the colonial government  Some set up private mechanical shops and offered training as well  Post independence Ghanaians begun to acquire vehicles from abroad  Servicing/repair mainly by British motor companies( UAC, John Holt Bartholomew, RT Briscoe etc)

11  Mid 70s economic decline forced many vehicle owners to employ local artisans for repairs  Scarcity of imported goods and parts  Necessity led to innovation  Entrepreneurial artisans replaced imported components with their own inventions

12  Mechanics begun more intensive repairs from unwinding and cleaning wire coils inside motors to grinding down engine shafts to fit in a different automobile (Powel,1986)  Increase in business led to explosion in population in the magazine and the gathering of more experience and innovation MACHINING TOOLS STAGE: Introduction of manufacturing  ERP import tariffs relaxed international trade encouraged  Led to major decline of national industry and a sudden collapse of the informal sector

13  Flood of cheap foreign goods, low cost vehicles and slightly used spare parts.  Diminished need for extensive repairs  Major businesses e.g. timber in catchment area Kumasi also fell on hard times and could not send their fleets for repair  KNUST/ITTU

14 Intermediate Technology Transfer Center set up by Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology  To provide technology based and knowledge based support  To encourage a shift toward manufacturing  Provided on hire purchase terms some of the first electric machining tools to the artisans  Had classrooms and workshops for training of apprentices and leading workshops.  Introduced new methods and technologies e.g. the capstan lathe, 10x faster and more reliable than the center lathe, then in use

15 Introduction of metal fabrication tools (lathe, drill press, milling machine etc)  Led to manufacture of agric processing tools, engine reboring, customized gears etc  Enabled customized manufacturing of auto parts and machines  Enhanced safety of repairs by providing appropriate vehicle parts  Introduced manufacturing as a process  Made locally made equipment available and introduced business in these equipment  Introduction of small scale iron foundries and aluminum spinning led to the manufacture of bolts and nuts, tools, millstones etc

16  Made available locally made equipment and introduced the scrap metal and foundry business  Local production of steel bolts and nuts, gears and chain sprockets put vehicle repair in a new age of vehicle repair.  There was also the local production of palm oil extractors, soap boiling tanks,cornmills, carpenters benches, donkey carts  A new era had dawned

17 COMPUTARISED TECHNOLOGY STAGE: Potential for advanced innovation and manufacture  Computer technology so pervasive  Current knowledge base far cry from demands of modern ICT and what it portends.  Suame falls behind in terms manufacturing capabilities and repair of computerized vehicles  Ban on importation of overage vehicles.  Compelled to work on work on computerized vehicles, fiber glass bodies etc

18  Economic crises in the 70s(stage one)  Necessity led to innovation  Replacement of imported components with own inventions  More intensive repairs  Role by ITTU (stage two)  Economic benefits to the artisan, consumers, and the nation as a whole.  IP component???

19 Push factors  Necessity  Training  Beneath these is pure talent and creativity MOVING FORWARD  Need to sharpen technological capabilities by introduction of computerized technology  Need to infuse IP as part of training

20  Walderman-Brown,A, Obeng,G,Y, Adu-Gyamfi,Y : Innovation And Stagnation Among Ghana’s Technical Artisans

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