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Entropy Extraction in Metastability-based TRNG Presented by Cheng Chung Wang & Hsi Shou Wu 1

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Outline Background Motivation Implementation and analysis Conclusion Discussion 2

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Background TRNG : True Random Number Generators Entropy : Natural Sources – Cosmic rays – Stray electromagnetics waves – Thermal noise 3

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Background cont’d Process variation and operating condition will impact the output of TRNG circuits TRNG 1 0 Temperature Fabrication defect Operating voltage 4

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Background cont’d Bias Removal Techniques – Post-processing techniques – Calibration techniques 5

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Background cont’d Post-processing techniques – XOR – Von Neumann corrector (entropy extractor) 6

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Background cont’d Calibration – Phase of clock signal – Charge injection 7

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Motivation Several proposed biased removal circuit. Which one is the best solution? “Action speaks louder than words” 8

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Implementation and analysis TRNG without correction Advanced technology 9

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Implementation and analysis With XOR Depend on the max entropy one 10

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Implementation and analysis Drawback: 1. not generate at const rate! 2. Effective bit rate decrease with technology scaling With Von Neumann corrector Enhance entropy a lot 11

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Implementation and analysis TRNG with calibration 12

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Implementation and analysis TRNG with calibration Increase entropy but remain const output rate Less energy overhead 13

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Implementation and analysis TRNG with calibration Tradeoff between number of bits entropy and energy consumption 14

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Conclusion 1. Modern security systems need on-chip true random number generators. 2. Conventional post-processing techniques are not efficient for simple TRNG – Physical calibration techniques are required. – provide a greater flexibility for trading off entropy for energy 15

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Discussion 1.Is the referenced model (dual inverter) representative? 2.Will the results change if we also run Monte Carlo simulation in other parameters (temperature or voltage drop)? 3.Would the area overhead be a huge issue? 4.As technology scaled down, dose the experiment result still make sense? 5.Is bit generation rate a more important issue? 16

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