2 A Continent of Villages to 1500 The First American SettlersThe Development of FarmingFarming in Early North AmericaCultural Regions of North America on the Eve of ColonizationConclusion
3 Painting of Cahokia Mounds, Collinsville, Illinois by Michael Hampshire. Painting of Cahokia Mounds, Collinsville, Illinois by Michael Hampshire. Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site.
4 A Continent of Villages What does the chapter title suggest about North American Indian societies before 1500?
5 Bust from the skull of “Kennewick Man” A forensic artist reconstructed this bust from the skull of “Kennewick Man,” whose skeletal remains were discovered along the Columbia River in Scientific testing suggested that the remains were more than 9,000 years old.
6 Chapter Focus Questions How were the Americas first settled?In what ways did native communities adapt to the distinct regions of North America?What were the consequences of the development of farming for native communities?
7 Chapter Focus Questions (cont'd) What was the nature of the Indian cultures in the three regions where Europeans first invaded and settled?
12 Clovis pointsThese Clovis points are typical of thousands that archaeologists have found at sites all over the continent, dating from a period about 12,000 years ago. When inserted in a spear shaft, these three- to six-inch fluted points made effective weapons for hunting mammoth and other big game. The ancient craftsmen who made these points often took advantage of the unique qualities of the stone they were working to enhance their aesthetic beauty.
13 Who Are the Indian People? “Indian”—Columbus’ believed he reached the Indies.Diverse group of people2,000 separate culturesSeveral hundred languagesMany varying physical characteristics
14 Who Are the Indian People? (cont'd) Theories of originDegenerate offspring from a superior Old World culture.Land bridge
15 MAP 1.1 Migration Routes from Asia to America During the Ice Age, Asia and North America were joined where the Bering Strait is today, forming a migration route for hunting peoples. Either by boat along the coast, or through a narrow corridor between the huge northern glaciers, these migrants began making their way to the heartland of the continent as much as 30,000 years ago.
16 Migration from Asia New genetic research links. Beringia land bridge. Glaciers lower sea levels, creating grasslands 750 miles wide from north to south.Three migrations from Asia beginning about 30,000 years agoTraveled by land (ice-free corridor) and along coast
17 Clovis: The First American Environmental Adaptation New and powerful technology.More sophisticated style of making fluted blades and lance points.Named for site of first discovery: Clovis, New MexicoMobile, foraging communities of interrelated families.Clovis bands migrated seasonally to the same hunting camps.
18 New Ways of Living on the Land As the last Ice Age ended 15,000 years ago, new climate patterns developed in North America.Between 10,000 and 2,500 years ago, the modern regions of the continent took shape and, with it, the distinct cultural regions of the Archaic Native American period.
19 Hunting Traditions Massive climate shift stressed big game animals Hunted bison (buffalo) with fast accurate weaponsFolsom traditionSpear-throwers
20 Hunting Traditions (cont'd) Hunting technique of stampeding bison over cliffs.Sophisticated division of labor and knowledge of food preservation techniques
21 Example of a projectile point embedded in the ribs of a long extinct species of bison When, in 1927, archaeologists at Folsom, New Mexico, uncovered this dramatic example of a projectile point embedded in the ribs of a long extinct species of bison, it was the first proof that Indians had been in North America for many thousands of years.SOURCE: Courtesy of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science.
22 MAP 1. 2 Native North American Culture Areas and Trade Networks, ca MAP 1.2 Native North American Culture Areas and Trade Networks, ca CEMAP 1.2 Native North American Culture Areas and Trade Networks, ca CEAll peoples must adjust their diet, shelter, and other material aspects of their lives to the physical conditions of the world around them. By considering the ways in which Indian peoples developed distinct cultures and adapted to their environments, anthropologists developed the concept of “culture areas.” They divide the continent into nine fundamental regions that have greatly influenced the history of North America over the past 10,000 years. Just as regions shaped the lifeways and history of Indian peoples, after the coming of the Europeans they nurtured the development of regional American cultures. By determining the origin of artifacts found at ancient sites, historians have devised a conjectural map of Indian trade networks. Among large regional centers and smaller local ones, trade connected Indian peoples of many different communities and regions.
23 Desert Culture Small-game hunting and intensified foraging seasonal routes of foragingSkillsfiber baskets for collecting;pitch-lined baskets for cooking;nets and traps;and stone tools.
24 Desert Culture (cont'd) Spread to Great Plains and SouthwestWest coast developed first permanently settled communities in North America
25 Forest Efficiency Eastern North America a vast forest Archaic developments:small-game hunting;gathering seeds, nuts, roots, and other plants;burning woodlands, prairies to stimulate growth of berries, fruits, and roots;burning created meadows to provide food that attracted grazing animals for hunting; and fishing.
26 Forest Efficiency (cont'd) Populations grew, permanent settlementsMen and women in different roles
28 Mesoamerican maize cultivation, as illustrated by an Aztec artist for the Florentine Codex Mesoamerican maize cultivation, as illustrated by an Aztec artist for the Florentine Codex, a book prepared several decades after the Spanish conquest. The peoples of Mesoamerica developed a greater variety of cultivated crops than those found in any othe region in the world, and their agricultural productivity helped sustain one of the world’s great civilizations.SOURCE: Image #1739-3, courtesy the Library, American Museum of Natural History.
29 Mexico First cultivated maize about 5,000 years ago Crops: potatoes, beans, squash, tomatoes, peppers, avocados, chocolate, and vanilla.Sedentary lifestyle and rise of large, urban complexesTeotihuacán—200,000 inhabitants.
30 Mexico (cont'd)Elite class of rulers and priests, monumental public works, and systems of mathematics and hieroglyphic writingToltecs and Aztecs succeeded Teotihuacán culture
31 Mexico (continued)Early 1500s, Tenochtitlán — a city of 200,000, larger than any in EuropeYucatanMaya flourished from 300 BCE to 900 CE, developing advanced writing and calendar systems and sophisticated mathematics.
32 Increasing Social Complexity Farming stimulated complexityClans bound people into tribeLed by clan leaders of chiefs and advised by councils of eldersChiefs were responsible for collection, storage, and distribution of food.Gender-divided laborMarriage ties generally weak
33 Increasing Social Complexity (cont'd) Growing populations required larger food surpluses, leading to war
34 The creation of man and woman depicted on a pot (dated about 1000 CE) The creation of man and woman depicted on a pot (dated about 1000 CE) from the ancient villages of the Mimbres River of southwestern New Mexico, the area of Mogollon culture. Mimbres pottery is renowned for its spirited artistry. Such artifacts were usually intended as grave goods to honor the dead.SOURCE: Mimbres black on white bowl, with painted representations of man and woman under a blanket. Grant County, New Mexico. Diam cm. Courtesy National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution, 24/3198.
35 The Resisted Revolution Change a gradual processCosts and benefits—farmers worked harder than foragers, less flexible, and more vulnerableRejection of farming: climate, abundant food sources, cultural values
36 The Resisted Revolution (cont'd) Foraging: provided varied diet, less influenced by climate, required less workFarmers: more disease and famine than foragersFavorable climate needed for farming.
38 Cliff Palace, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwest Colorado Cliff Palace, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwest Colorado, was created 900 years ago when the Anasazis left the mesa tops and moved into more secure and inaccessible cliff dwellings. Facing southwest, the building gained heat from the rays of the low afternoon sun in winter, and overhanging rock protected the structure from rain, snow, and the hot midday summer sun. The numerous round kivas, each covered with a flat roof originally, suggest that Cliff Palace may have had a ceremonial importance.
39 Farmers of the Southwest Farming emerged in southwest in first millennium B.C.EThe MogollonFirst in settled farming life: maize, beans, squashPit houses in permanent villages near streams
40 Farmers of the Southwest (cont'd) The HohokamMaize, beans, squash, tobacco, cottonVillages: floodplain of the Salt and Gila rivers (C.E. 300 to 1500)First irrigation systemShared traits with Mesoamerican civilization
41 The Anasazis Farming culture Plateau of Colorado River—Four Corners (Arizona, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico)Densely populated, multistoried apartment complexes (pueblos)High-yield maize in irrigated terraced fieldsHunting with bow and arrow25,000+ known communities
42 The Anasazis (cont'd) Farming culture Declined due to extended drought and arrival of Athapascan migrants
43 Farmers of the Eastern Woodlands Farming culture in eastern North America was dated from the first appearance of pottery about 3,000 years ago.Woodland culture combined hunting and gathering with farmingSunflowers, small grains, tobaccoDeveloped a complex social structure
44 Farmers of the Eastern Woodlands (cont'd) Adena culture occupied Ohio ValleyEstablished custom of large burial mounds for leaders
45 Mississippian Society Introduction of bow and arrow, development of Northern Flint maize, and switch from digging sticks to hoes were basis of Mississippian culture.Developed sophisticated maize farmingCentered around permanent villages on Mississippi River floodplain, with Cahokia as urban centerSites from Oklahoma to Arkansas to Alabama to Georgia have been excavated.
46 The Great Serpent Mound in southern Ohio The Great Serpent Mound in southern Ohio, the shape of an uncoiling snake more than 1,300 feet long, is the largest effigy earthwork in the world. Monumental public works like these suggest the high degree of social organization of the Mississippian people.
47 The Politics of Warfare and Violence River systems—trading partners and rivalsWarfare predated the colonial eraHunters led small raids on farming communities.Farming communities fought to gain land for cultivation.Highly organized tribal armiesBow and arrow—deadly weaponScalping—warring tribes.
48 The Politics of Warfare and Violence (cont'd) Warfare predated the colonial eraEventually, many cities collapsed and people scattered, forming small decentralized communities.
52 MAP 1.3 Population Density of Indian Societies in the Fifteenth Century Based on what is called the “carrying capacity” of different subsistence strategies— the population density they could support—historical demographers have mapped the hypothetical population density of Indian societies in the fifteenth century, before the era of European colonization. Populations were densest in farming societies or in coastal areas with marine resources and sparsest in extreme environments like the Great Basin.
53 The Population of Indian America 1600s—Western Hemisphere population 50 million or moreCultural regionsLargest populations were centered in Southwest, South, and Northeast—culture areas where first encounters with Europeans occurred.
54 ”The New Queen Being Taken to the King,” an engraving copied from a drawing by Jacques LeMoyne ”The New Queen Being Taken to the King,” an engraving copied from a drawing by Jacques LeMoyne, an early French colonist of Florida, and published by the German Theodor de Bry in The communities of Florida were hierarchical, with classes and hereditary chiefs, some of whom were women. Here, LeMoyne depicted a “queen” being carried on an ornamental litter by men of rank.SOURCE: Neg. No , Photographed by Rota, Engraving by DeBry. American Museum of Natural History Library.
55 MAP 1.4 Indian Groups in the Areas of First Contact The Southwest was populated by desert farmers like the Pimas, Tohono O’Odhams, Yumans, and Pueblos, as well as by nomadic hunters and raiders like the Apaches and Navajos. On the eve of colonization, the Indian societies of the South shared many traits of the complex Mississippian farming culture. The Indians of the Northeast were mostly village peoples. In the fifteenth century, five Iroquois groups—the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas—joined together to form the Iroquois Five Nation Confederacy.
56 The SouthwestAridity—though a number of rivers flow out of mountain plateausDry farming or irrigated agriculture, living in villages.Separate dispersed settlementsPueblos and communal village lifeYuman, Pimas, Pueblos, and, Athapascans who developed into Navajo and Apaches.
57 The Southwest (cont'd)Pueblos inhabit the oldest continuously occupied sites in the United States, persisting through Spanish occupation in the seventeenth century.
58 The SouthMild climate with short winters and long summers proved ideal for farming.Large populations lived in villages and towns, often ruled by chiefs.Region home to Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creeks, and Cherokees.Many groups decimated by disease following the arrival of Europeans resulted in poor documentation of history.
59 The South (cont'd) Mild moist climate for farming Natchez in floodplains of the lower Mississippi DeltaRanked society—powerful elitesUnstable chiefdoms—smaller decentralized communities
60 The South (cont'd)Post-Mississippians (Choctaws, Chickasaws and Creeks): centralized and stratified societiesShared traditions (agricultural festivals, stick and ball game)
61 Hiawatha wampum belt of the Haudenosaunee or Iroquois Five Nation Confederacy This Hiawatha wampum belt of the Haudenosaunee or Iroquois Five Nation Confederacy is exquisitely constructed of nearly 7,000 purple and white drilled shell beads, woven together with buckskin thongs and hemp thread. It is a ceremonial artifact, a symbol of the unity of the five Iroquoi nations. With the central tree or heart pointed up, the first two squares on the right represent the Mohawk and Oneida, the tree stands for the Onondaga, where the council met, and the third and fourth squares stand for the Cayuga and Seneca nations. The belt itself dates from the early eighteenth century, but the design is thought to have originated with the confederacy itself, perhaps in the twelfth century CE.
62 The NortheastColder with coastal plains, mountains, rivers, lakes, valleysThe Iroquois:Present-day Ontario, upstate New YorkCorn, beans, squash, sunflowersMatrilineal (longhouses)Formed confederacy to eliminate warfare
63 The Northeast (cont'd) The Algonquians: 50 distinct, patrilineal culturesBands with loose ethnic affiliation in northFarmed and lived in villages in south
65 Worlds Old and NewColumbus did not discover a New World; he brought together two old worlds.Europeans too often misunderstood or ignored the complexities of Native American cultures they encountered.