The First American Settlers The Development of Farming Farming in Early North America Cultural Regions of North America on the Eve of ColonizationCultural Regions of North America on the Eve of Colonization Conclusion
Painting of Cahokia Mounds, Collinsville, Illinois by Michael Hampshire.
A Continent of Villages What does the chapter title suggest about North American Indian societies before 1500?
Bust from the skull of “Kennewick Man”
Chapter Focus Questions How were the Americas first settled? In what ways did native communities adapt to the distinct regions of North America? What were the consequences of the development of farming for native communities?
Chapter Focus Questions (cont'd) What was the nature of the Indian cultures in the three regions where Europeans first invaded and settled?
American Communities: Cahokia Tenth through fourteenth-century urban complex on Mississippi 20,000-30,000 people by mid-1200 Highly productive cultivation techniques Goods for continent-wide trade
American Communities: Cahokia Center of long-distance trading City-state—tribute and taxation Monument mounds Priests and governors Huge temple — wealth and power Mystery well into the 19th century
The First American Settlers
Who Are the Indian People? “Indian”—Columbus’ believed he reached the Indies. Diverse group of people 2,000 separate cultures Several hundred languages Many varying physical characteristics
Who Are the Indian People? (cont'd) Theories of origin Degenerate offspring from a superior Old World culture. Land bridge
MAP 1.1 Migration Routes from Asia to America
Migration from Asia New genetic research links. Beringia land bridge. Glaciers lower sea levels, creating grasslands 750 miles wide from north to south. Three migrations from Asia beginning about 30,000 years ago Traveled by land (ice-free corridor) and along coast
Clovis: The First American Environmental Adaptation New and powerful technology. More sophisticated style of making fluted blades and lance points. Named for site of first discovery: Clovis, New Mexico Mobile, foraging communities of interrelated families. Clovis bands migrated seasonally to the same hunting camps.
New Ways of Living on the Land As the last Ice Age ended 15,000 years ago, new climate patterns developed in North America. Between 10,000 and 2,500 years ago, the modern regions of the continent took shape and, with it, the distinct cultural regions of the Archaic Native American period.
Hunting Traditions Massive climate shift stressed big game animals Hunted bison (buffalo) with fast accurate weapons Folsom tradition Spear-throwers
Hunting Traditions (cont'd) Hunting technique of stampeding bison over cliffs. Sophisticated division of labor and knowledge of food preservation techniques
Example of a projectile point embedded in the ribs of a long extinct species of bison
MAP 1.2 Native North American Culture Areas and Trade Networks, ca. 1400 CE
Desert Culture Small-game hunting and intensified foraging seasonal routes of foraging Skills fiber baskets for collecting; pitch-lined baskets for cooking; nets and traps; and stone tools.
Desert Culture (cont'd) Spread to Great Plains and Southwest West coast developed first permanently settled communities in North America
Forest Efficiency Eastern North America a vast forest Archaic developments: small-game hunting; gathering seeds, nuts, roots, and other plants; burning woodlands, prairies to stimulate growth of berries, fruits, and roots; burning created meadows to provide food that attracted grazing animals for hunting; and fishing.
Forest Efficiency (cont'd) Populations grew, permanent settlements Men and women in different roles
The Development of Farming
Mesoamerican maize cultivation, as illustrated by an Aztec artist for the Florentine Codex
Mexico First cultivated maize about 5,000 years ago Crops: potatoes, beans, squash, tomatoes, peppers, avocados, chocolate, and vanilla. Sedentary lifestyle and rise of large, urban complexes Teotihuacán—200,000 inhabitants.
Mexico (cont'd) Elite class of rulers and priests, monumental public works, and systems of mathematics and hieroglyphic writing Toltecs and Aztecs succeeded Teotihuacán culture
Mexico (continued) Early 1500s, Tenochtitlán — a city of 200,000, larger than any in Europe Yucatan Maya flourished from 300 BCE to 900 CE, developing advanced writing and calendar systems and sophisticated mathematics.
Increasing Social Complexity Farming stimulated complexity Clans bound people into tribe Led by clan leaders of chiefs and advised by councils of elders Chiefs were responsible for collection, storage, and distribution of food. Gender-divided labor Marriage ties generally weak
Increasing Social Complexity (cont'd) Growing populations required larger food surpluses, leading to war
The creation of man and woman depicted on a pot (dated about 1000 CE)
The Resisted Revolution Change a gradual process Costs and benefits—farmers worked harder than foragers, less flexible, and more vulnerable Rejection of farming: climate, abundant food sources, cultural values
The Resisted Revolution (cont'd) Foraging: provided varied diet, less influenced by climate, required less work Farmers: more disease and famine than foragers Favorable climate needed for farming.
Farming in Early North America
Cliff Palace, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwest Colorado
Farmers of the Southwest Farming emerged in southwest in first millennium B.C.E The Mogollon First in settled farming life: maize, beans, squash Pit houses in permanent villages near streams
Farmers of the Southwest (cont'd) The Hohokam Maize, beans, squash, tobacco, cotton Villages: floodplain of the Salt and Gila rivers (C.E. 300 to 1500) First irrigation system Shared traits with Mesoamerican civilization
The Anasazis Farming culture Plateau of Colorado River—Four Corners (Arizona, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico) Densely populated, multistoried apartment complexes (pueblos) High-yield maize in irrigated terraced fields Hunting with bow and arrow 25,000+ known communities
The Anasazis (cont'd) Farming culture Declined due to extended drought and arrival of Athapascan migrants
Farmers of the Eastern Woodlands Farming culture in eastern North America was dated from the first appearance of pottery about 3,000 years ago. Woodland culture combined hunting and gathering with farming Sunflowers, small grains, tobacco Developed a complex social structure
Farmers of the Eastern Woodlands (cont'd) Adena culture occupied Ohio Valley Established custom of large burial mounds for leaders
Mississippian Society Introduction of bow and arrow, development of Northern Flint maize, and switch from digging sticks to hoes were basis of Mississippian culture. Developed sophisticated maize farming Centered around permanent villages on Mississippi River floodplain, with Cahokia as urban center Sites from Oklahoma to Arkansas to Alabama to Georgia have been excavated.
The Great Serpent Mound in southern Ohio
The Politics of Warfare and Violence River systems—trading partners and rivals Warfare predated the colonial era Hunters led small raids on farming communities. Farming communities fought to gain land for cultivation. Highly organized tribal armies -Bow and arrow—deadly weapon -Scalping—warring tribes.
The Politics of Warfare and Violence (cont'd) Warfare predated the colonial era Eventually, many cities collapsed and people scattered, forming small decentralized communities.
Bottle in the shape of a nursing mother (dated about 1300 BCE)
Cultural Regions of North America on the Eve of Colonization
An Early European Image of Native Americans
MAP 1.3 Population Density of Indian Societies in the Fifteenth
The Population of Indian America 1600s—Western Hemisphere population 50 million or more Cultural regions Largest populations were centered in Southwest, South, and Northeast—culture areas where first encounters with Europeans occurred.
”The New Queen Being Taken to the King,” an engraving copied from a drawing by Jacques LeMoyne
MAP 1.4 Indian Groups in the Areas of First Contact
The Southwest Aridity—though a number of rivers flow out of mountain plateaus Dry farming or irrigated agriculture, living in villages. Separate dispersed settlements Pueblos and communal village life Yuman, Pimas, Pueblos, and, Athapascans who developed into Navajo and Apaches.
The Southwest (cont'd) Pueblos inhabit the oldest continuously occupied sites in the United States, persisting through Spanish occupation in the seventeenth century.
The South Mild climate with short winters and long summers proved ideal for farming. Large populations lived in villages and towns, often ruled by chiefs. Region home to Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creeks, and Cherokees. Many groups decimated by disease following the arrival of Europeans resulted in poor documentation of history.
The South (cont'd) Mild moist climate for farming Natchez in floodplains of the lower Mississippi Delta Ranked society—powerful elites Unstable chiefdoms—smaller decentralized communities
The South (cont'd) Post-Mississippians (Choctaws, Chickasaws and Creeks): centralized and stratified societies Shared traditions (agricultural festivals, stick and ball game)
Hiawatha wampum belt of the Haudenosaunee or Iroquois Five Nation Confederacy
The Northeast Colder with coastal plains, mountains, rivers, lakes, valleys The Iroquois: Present-day Ontario, upstate New York Corn, beans, squash, sunflowers Matrilineal (longhouses) Formed confederacy to eliminate warfare
The Northeast (cont'd) The Algonquians: 50 distinct, patrilineal cultures Bands with loose ethnic affiliation in north Farmed and lived in villages in south
Worlds Old and New Columbus did not discover a New World; he brought together two old worlds. Europeans too often misunderstood or ignored the complexities of Native American cultures they encountered.