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THE WHY AND HOW OF CREATING DATA DISPLAYS. 2 PURPOSES OF TRAINING Discuss why data displays are useful in responding to Indicator 14 of the SPP/APR Provide.

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Presentation on theme: "THE WHY AND HOW OF CREATING DATA DISPLAYS. 2 PURPOSES OF TRAINING Discuss why data displays are useful in responding to Indicator 14 of the SPP/APR Provide."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE WHY AND HOW OF CREATING DATA DISPLAYS

2 2 PURPOSES OF TRAINING Discuss why data displays are useful in responding to Indicator 14 of the SPP/APR Provide examples of making effective and useful data displays for Indicator 14 Provide a tool for data managers to use with transition specialists for: Understanding how to create clear & accurate data displays Developing data displays for other audiences Encouraging a deeper understanding of PSO data for program improvement by various audiences

3 3 WHY USE DATA DISPLAYS? To convey data and information clearly and accurately Many individuals learn better through pictures than words To motivate an audience to access data To provide both descriptive data & analyses of data

4 4 WHY USE DATA DISPLAYS? (cont’d) To show patterns in data To facilitate accurate & efficient interpretations of data while minimizing the likelihood of misrepresenting the data

5 5 HOW IS THE RIGHT DATA DISPLAY CHOSEN? What is the question(s)? Work with your transition program specialist to identify the question(s) to be answered and the message to convey Know how your display will answer the question(s) and inform the reader Consider the amount of data needed to answer the question Decide which question(s) need to be answered for APR/SPP Indicator 14 & program improvement

6 6 WHAT IS BEING COMPARED? Data displays must answer the question: Compared to what? What are the most meaningful types of measures to use in data displays? Conclusions depend on the comparisons made among your data Using data over time for policy making Using district and school data to drill down

7 7 WHAT IS BEING COMPARED? (cont’d) What is being compared in data displays used for SPP/APR Indicator 14? What measures should be used to make the data collected for SPP/APR Indicator 14 meaningful? What types of conclusions for future policy making can be drawn from the comparisons presented to respond to SPP/APR Indicator 14?

8 8 WHAT IS BEING COMPARED? (cont’d) Notes: a These percentages are based on the 2,500 respondents to the Postsecondary Experiences of Students with Disabilities Survey. b Competitive employment is defined by Sections 7(11) and 12(c) of the Rehabilitation Act 29 U.S.C. 705(11) and 709(cc). c Postsecondary schools included 4-year universities and colleges; community colleges; and business, trade, and technical training.

9 9 WHAT IS BEING COMPARED? (cont’d)

10 10 WHAT IS BEING COMPARED? (cont’d) Notes: a These percentages are based on the number of students competitively employed, enrolled in postsecondary school, or both divided by the total number of respondents to the (State) Postsecondary Survey on Engagement One Year After Leaving Secondary School. The number of respondents was 525 in 2006 and 602 in b Competitive employment is defined by Sections 7(11) and 12(c) of the Rehabilitation Act 29 U.S.C. 705(11) and 709(cc). c Postsecondary schools included 4-year universities and colleges; community colleges; and business, trade, and technical training.

11 11 WHO IS THE AUDIENCE? Policymakers Other audiences –Parents –Advocates –Service providers and administrators –Media Implications of the audience for the use of different types of data displays for SPP/APR Indicator 14 data

12 12 WHAT DATA ARE AVAILABLE? Data needed to respond to SPP/APR Indicator 14 Cross tabulations of data Data over time Data on regions, districts, etc. Counts, proportions, per capita counts

13 13 WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON TYPES OF DATA DISPLAYS? Pie Charts Bar Charts Trend Lines

14 14 WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON TYPES OF DATA DISPLAYS? (cont’d) Notes: a These percentages are based on the 1,000 minority respondents to the Postsecondary Experiences of Students with Disabilities Survey. b Competitve employment is defined by Sections 7(11) and 12(c) of the Rehabilitation Act 29 U.S.C. 705(11) and 709(cc). c Postsecondary schools included 4-year universities and colleges; community colleges; and business, trade, and technical training.

15 15 WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON TYPES OF DATA DISPLAYS? (cont’d) Notes: a These percentages are based on the 2,500 respondents to the Postsecondary Experiences of Students with Disabilities Survey. b Postsecondary schools include 4-year universities and colleges; community colleges; and business, trade, and technical training.

16 16 WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON TYPES OF DATA DISPLAYS? (CONT’D) Notes: a These percentages are based on the 500 respondents to the (State) Postsecondary Experiences of Students with Disabilities Survey in 2006 and 678 respondents in b These percentages are based on the 2,500 respondents to the 2006 Postsecondary Experiences of Students with Disabilities Survey, and 2,657 respondents in 2007.

17 17 WHAT ARE THE PROs AND CONs OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF DATA DISPLAYS? Pie Chart Bar Chart Trend Line

18 18 WHEN DO YOU USE DIFFERENT TYPES OF DATA DISPLAYS? (cont’d) Use the data displays most suited to the question(s) that are to be answered Use pie charts when … Use bar charts when … Use trend lines when …

19 19 WHAT MAKES A GOOD DATA DISPLAY? Self explanatory Clearly represents data Provides accurate data Defines acronyms & technical terms Uses descriptive titles Uses clear & appropriate labels

20 20 WHAT MAKES A GOOD DATA DISPLAY? (cont’d) Ensures readability Uses notes to explain calculations Uses color sparingly Complies with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act Avoids using a three-dimensional display with one-dimensional data Are checked by someone knowledgeable about the principles of good data displays

21 21 WHAT MAKES A GOOD DATA DISPLAY? (cont’d) Notes: a These percentages are based on the 376 respondents to the Postsecondary Experiences of Students with Disabilities Survey. b Competitive employment is defined by Sections 7(11) and 12(c) of the Rehabilitation Act 29 U.S.C. 705(11) and 709(cc). c Postsecondary schools included 4-year universities and colleges; community colleges; and business, trade, and technical training.

22 22 WHAT MAKES A GOOD DATA DISPLAY? (cont’d) Notes: a Percentages are based on the 2,500 respondents to the Postsecondary Experiences of Students with Disabilities Survey. b Competitive employment is defined by Sections 7(11) and 12(c) of the Rehabilitation Act 29 U.S.C. 705(11) and 709(cc). c Postsecondary schools included 4-year universities and colleges; community colleges; and business, trade, and technical training.

23 Quotes from State Administrators “I’m just not accustomed to reading graphs horizontally.” “…I don’t relate too well to horizontal ones, so when I look at it, I have to turn it to the side, 90 degrees, so I can see it up and down….I find it difficult to just quickly pick up on the data…it is just not comfortable for me visually.” 23

24 24 WHAT MAKES A GOOD DATA DISPLAY? (cont’d) Notes: a Percentages are based on the following number of respondents to the Postsecondary Experience of Students with Disabilities Survey by year: 2003, 475; 2004, 529; 2005, 630; 2006, 589; 2007, 645. b Competitive employment is defined by Sections 7(11) and 12(c) of the Rehabilitation Act 29 U.S.C. 705(11) and 709(cc). c Postsecondary schools include 4-year universities and colleges; community colleges; and business, trade, and technical training.

25 25 APPENDIX A. CHECKLIST FOR SEA PERSONNEL ON THE CREATION OF DATA DISPLAYS 1.Remember when creating data displays you want to facilitate accurate & efficient interpretation of data while minimizing misinterpretation of data. 2.Specifying the question you want to answer is key to developing an effective data display. 3.Make sure you have identified the message you want to convey. 4.Identify the data you will need to answer your question. 5.Remember that data displays must compare data.

26 26 APPENDIX A. CHECKLIST FOR SEA PERSONNEL ON THE CREATION OF DATA DISPLAYS (cont’d) 6.Specify your audience(s) & consider how best to display data for each audience or multiple audiences. 7.Pick the type of data display you will used based on the question you want to answer, the message you want to convey, the audience(s) you are trying to reach, and the pros and cons of different types of data displays. 8.Answer the following questions to assess whether you have created a data display that meets checklist item #1:

27 27 APPENDIX A. CHECKLIST FOR SEA PERSONNEL ON THE CREATION OF DATA DISPLAYS (cont’d) Is the display self explanatory? Does it clearly represent the data? Does it provide accurate data? Does it define acronyms, technical terms, and any calculations used? Are the titles descriptive of the data presented? Are the labels clear and descriptive of the data used? Does the display ensure readability?

28 28 APPENDIX A. CHECKLIST FOR SEA PERSONNEL ON THE CREATION OF DATA DISPLAYS (cont’d) Does it comply with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act? Does it avoid using 3-dimensional displays? Was the display checked by someone who knows the principles of good data display?

29 29 APPENDIX B. REFERENCES Henry, G.T. (1993). Using graphical displays for evaluation data. Evaluation Review, 17(60), Henry, G.T. (1995). Graphing data: Techniques for display and analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Henry, G.T. (Ed.). (1997). Creating effective graphs: Solutions for a variety of evaluation data (Vol. 73). San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass Publishers. Schmid, C.F. (1983). Statistical graphics: Design principles and practices. New York, NY: John Wiley & Son, Inc. Tufte, E.R. (2001). Visual display of quantitative information (2nd ed.). Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press. Wainer, H. (1984). How to display data badly. The American Statistician, 38(2), Wainer, H. (1997c). Visual revelations: Graphical tales of fate and deception from Napoleon Bonaparte to Ross Perot. New York: Copernicus.

30 Contact Information Marsha L. Brauen, Ph.D. Vice President, Westat Charlotte Y. Alverson, Ph.D. NPSO Center


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